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Mesopotamia lesson


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  • 2. MESOPOTAMIA Derived from the Greek words “meso” which means “between” and “potamos” or “river”. “Land between two rivers” “The Fertile Crescent” “The Cradle of History”
  • 3. SUMERIANS (3000-2340 B.C.E) “The first builders of civilization”ACTIVITIES OF THE SUMERIANS; Hunting Planting Making dams, dikes, and canals Domistication of animalsCUNEIFORM System of writing Came from the Latin words “cuneus” meaning “wedge-shaped” and “forma”, “form”
  • 4. SUMER “The southern part of Mesopotamia” Composed of 12 city-states and headed by “Lugal” or “priest-king”Some well-known city-states in sumer; - Eridu - Kish - Lagash - Uruk - Ur - Nippur.
  • 5. ZIGGURATS Temple-like structures;home and temple of the Gods
  • 6. LEGACY OF SUMERIANS Cuneiform Plow and wheel Built first cities, school, and temples (Ziggurats) Cartography, astronomy, and mathematics Nippur (the oldest map in the world, the map of Nippur) Mixed copper and tin and made bronze Different weapons in war made from bronze Water Clock
  • 7. AKKADIAN EMPIRE (2340-2100 B.C.E) “World’s first empire”AKKAD- city-state in a region north of Sumer- Founded by Sargon I Next rulers of Akkadian Empire;- Naram-Sin- Ur-Nammu- Ibbi-Su
  • 8. BABYLONIANS (1792-1595 B.C.E) SUMUABUM- invaded mesopotamia and established the kingdom of Babylonia BABYLON- capital of Babylonian Empire HAMMURABI- descendant of Sumuabum,and great leader of Babylon- “Lawgiver of Babylonia”
  • 9. SOCIAL CLASSES; The Nobles (king, aristocrat, priest and rich landlords) The Freemen (farmers, merchants, soldiers, and artisans) The Slaves FARMING- chief industry of ancient Babylonians Has 65,000 Gods and did not believe in heaven,hell and purgatory
  • 10. LEGACY OF BABYLONIANS Hammurabi Code (285 laws) Ziggurat Epic of Gilgamesh Sexagesimal system of calculation by sixties Divided the circle into 360 degrees or 60s Divided the hour into 60 minutes and each minutes into 60 seconds 12 Zodiac signs
  • 11. ASSYRIANS (1813-605 B.C.E) ASHUR- capital of Assyria Shamshi-Adad I- established the capital Tiglath-Pileser I- founder of Assyrian Empire OTHER GREAT LEADERS; Ashurnasirpal II (important leader that time) Tiglath-Pileser III (greatest Assyrian emperor) Sennacherib Esarhaddon Ashurbanipal
  • 12. CHALDEANS (612-539 B.C.E) “New or second Babylonian Empire” Nabopolassar-established the new empire of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar- son of Nabopolassar-Great leader of Chaldean Empire LEGACY; Hanging Garden of Babylon ( Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) Tower of Babel
  • 13. PERSIANS (539-330 B.C.E) CYRUS THE GREAT AND DARIUS THE GREAT- Great leaders of PersiaSATRAPIES- division of provinces in the Persian Empire and headed by a governor (satrap)ZOROASTRIANISM- Religion of perians- Founded by Zoroaster or Zarathushtra- “Believe that life is a constant struggle between good and evil.AHURA MAZDA- God representing good sideAHRIMAN- the evil one
  • 14. MEDITERRANEANS LEGACY; Hittites- used iron in making weapons Lydians- used coin in trading Phoenicians- developed a modern system of writing “phoenetic alphabet” Hebrew- embraced Judaism and began to practice “monotheism”