ICT and Cooperative Learning-Reinventing the Classroom
Renante P. Manlunas University of the Philippines Cebu College Professional Education Division High School Program ICT AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING: REINVENTING THE CLASSROOM
<ul><li>This paper presents a case study on the impact of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a tool, and cooperative learning (CL) as a pedagogical approach to the delivery of curricular content. </li></ul>Introduction <ul><li>The main objective of this study was to show that the use of ICT in the classroom should be coupled with sound pedagogical approaches in order to maximize the positive effects of technology integration in the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>The effective use of technology in education requires thought, experimentation, and a willingness to spend time needed to develop and refine strategies until they are proven to be effective.” Thus, a successful integration of technology in education requires a rethinking of the ways in which learning is being facilitated together with the readiness and patience to explore new ways of teaching. The education process must be based on a model that is appropriate for an information–driven society. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Traditional teaching is a method of learning that views the classroom environment as one where the role of the teacher is to simply give information to students. The goals are predominantly individualistic </li></ul>Traditional Teaching Vs. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Cooperative learning (CL) is the instructional use of small groups through which students work together to maximize their own and each others learning. In this type of classroom environment, the students interact with their groups and perform task–oriented activities designed by the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional learning is teacher–centered, a cooperative classroom is student–centered </li></ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of cooperative learning lies in the core concepts being promoted: positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal opportunities for success and improvement of social skills. The role of the teacher is that of a facilitator and ensures that learning activities are carried out by each of the cooperative learning groups. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In this study, the experimental group (CLM) used the Teams–Games–Tournaments cooperative learning method. TGT, originally developed by David DeVries and Keith Edwards, was the first and oldest of the Johns Hopkins University cooperative learning methods. </li></ul>Cooperative Learning w/ TGT <ul><li>TGT provides an added dimension of fun and excitement through the utilization of academic games and tournaments. </li></ul><ul><li>In TGT, students are assigned to three or four–member teams that are mixed in performance and gender. The teacher presents the lesson and then students work with their teams to ensure that all the members have mastered the lesson. The students then play academic games and tournaments either weekly or at the end of the unit. </li></ul>
Classroom Organization <ul><li>The study was composed of 2 groups – the Non-Cooperative Learning Method (NCLM) group, with 34 students and the Cooperative Learning Method (CLM) group, with 33 students. </li></ul><ul><li>Both groups used ICT in the Geometry class. </li></ul><ul><li>The CLM group also used the TGT cooperative learning method. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group had ten subgroups used to facilitate group–based classroom activities. The criteria for group creation was based on the previous academic performance of the students. A three or four–member SG represents a cross–section of the class in terms of their academic abilities. </li></ul>
ICT Integration in the Learning Methods 1. Setting up of UP High School in Cebu Virtual Learning Environment (UPHS-VLE) – http://www.cebu.upv.edu.ph/uphs/vle/ <ul><li>UPHS-VLE used the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) – an opensource program for creating online learning management systems. UPHS-VLE also used the Apache Web Server, MySQL Database and PHP. </li></ul><ul><li>The available features of UPHS–VLE are: (1) Forums, (2) Journals, (3) Quizzes, (4) Resources, (5) Choices, (6) Surveys, (7) Assignments, (8) Chats, and (9) Workshops </li></ul>
ICT Integration in the Learning Methods 2. Webquest A WebQuest," according to Bernie Dodge, the originator of the WebQuest concept, "is an inquiry–oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners' time well, to focus on using information rather than on looking for it, and to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation."
ICT Integration in the Learning Methods 3. Use of MS Powerpoint Presentations in Games and Tournaments Implementation of TGT was modified through the use of computers and a presentation program called Microsoft Powerpoint. Instead of creating 400 cards for a 10–table and 20–item game, a presentation was created using the built-in features of the software. After the file was created, the presentation was copied in each of the 10 computers.
ICT Integration in the Learning Methods 4. Other ICT integration initiatives Online Puzzles Graphing Calculator Software Yahoo Group and e-mail Internet Research
Survey Results <ul><li>A pre–test and a post–test were administered before and after the study to determine the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement. The two groups in the study were (1)NCLM – students using ICT only and </li></ul><ul><li>(2)CLM – students using both ICT and TGT cooperative learning method </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment instrument consisted of 35 standardized multiple choice </li></ul><ul><li>items in Geometry. </li></ul>Comparison of Mean Scores Obtained by NCLM and CLM Groups in the Pre–Test <ul><li>Performance of the NCLM and CLM groups in the pre-test are comparable </li></ul>* - not significant 18.09 33 CLM 1.96 1.10 * 1.15 16.94 34 NCLM Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Difference Between Means Mean N Groups
Comparison of Mean Scores Obtained by NCLM and CLM Groups in the Post–Test <ul><li>Performance of the CLM group is significantly better than the NCLM group in the post-test. </li></ul>Mean Gains in the Pre–Test and Post–Test Obtained by NCLM and CLM <ul><li>Performance of the NCLM and CLM groups improved significantly after going through the two learning methods. </li></ul>Survey Results ** - significant ** - significant 28.55 33 CLM 1.96 2.90** 2.99 25.56 34 NCLM Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Difference Between Means Mean N Groups 1.96 12.10** 4.96 10.45 28.55 18.09 33 CLM 1.96 10.67** 4.71 8.62 25.56 16.94 34 NCLM Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Std. Deviation Mean Gain Post–Test Means Pre–Test Means N Groups
Comparison of Mean Gains Obtained by NCLM and CLM <ul><li>The mean gains of the CLM group is higher than the NCLM group. This shows that the level of improvement of students using ICT and TGT is better than students who were using ICT only. </li></ul>Survey Results * - not significant 10.45 33 CLM 1.96 1.55* 1.84 8.62 34 NCLM Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Difference Between Means Mean Gains N Groups
Comparison of NCLM Pre–Test and Post–Test Mean Scores Against the Passing Score Comparison of CLM Pre–Test and Post–Test Mean Scores Against the Passing Score Survey Results The performance of the students in both learning environments improved significantly. ** - significant 1.96 9.46** 7.56 18 25.56 34 Post–Test 1.96 1.35 1.06 18 16.94 34 Pre–Test Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Mean Difference Passing Score Pre–Test Means N Groups 1.96 16.26** 10.55 18 28.55 33 Post–Test 1.96 0.13 0.09 18 18.09 33 Pre–Test Critical t–value at p=0.05 Computed t–value Mean Difference Passing Score Pre–Test Means N Groups
Conclusion <ul><li>The study showed a significant improvement in the performance of the students upon completion of the learning activities. In both of these cooperative and non–cooperative environments, ICT has been integrated into the activities of the students. Group–based learning activities were designed to address the prevailing scarcity of computing resources and create an environment that fosters collaboration among the students. ICT–enhanced learning challenges the teachers to develop innovative teaching strategies that can improve student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be emphasized that reinvention of the classroom and ultimately the school does not end with the provision of ICT resources. Computers alone will not significantly improve learning outcomes. The application of technology in the classroom should be within the framework of applying effective pedagogical approaches. This study has shown that the combination of ICT and cooperative learning methods proved to be more successful in terms of student achievement. </li></ul>