The theory of development and the ego
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The theory of development and the ego The theory of development and the ego Presentation Transcript

  • The Theory of Development and the Ego
    By Erik Erikson
  • Erikson’s Psychological Theory
    • The developmental changes throughout the human life span.
    • Eight stages of human development.
    • Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis, which is a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential that must be resolved.
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Erikson’s first psychological stage
    • experienced in the first year
    • a sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and a minimal amount of fear and apprehension about the future.
    • Trust in infancy sets the stage of a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live.
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Trust vs. Mistrust cont.
    © Rick Gomez/CORBIS
    © H. Armstrong/GETTY IMAGES
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Erikson’s second psychological stage
    • occurs in late infancy and toddlerhood (1 to 3 years)
    • infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own.
    • start to assert their sense of independences, or autonomy.
    • realizing their will.
    • If infants are restrained too much or punished too harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt.
  • Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt cont.
    © Eric Hogan/GETTY IMAGES
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Erikson’s third stage of development
    • Preschool years
    • As preschool children encounter a widening social world, they are challenged more than they were infants.
    • Children are asked to assume responsibility for their bodies, behaviors, toys, and pets.
    • Developing a sense of responsibility increases initiative.
    • Uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise if the child is irresponsible
    • Erikson believes that most guilt is quickly compensated for by a sense of accomplishment.
  • Initiative vs. Guilt cont.
    © CSIU
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Erikson’s fourth developmental stage
    • Occurs approximately in the elementary years
    • Children’s initiative brings them in contact with a wealth of new experiences.
    • As they move into middle and late childhood, they direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills.
    • Children then become more enthusiastic about learning than at the end of early childhood’s period of expansive imagination.
    • Children can also develop a sense of inferiority, which they would feel incompetent and unproductive.
  • Industry vs. Inferiority cont.
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Identity vs. Identity confusion
    Erikson’s fifth developmental stage
    Individual experience during the adolescent years.
    Faced with finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.
    confronted with many new roles and adult statuses – vocational and romantic, for example.
    Parents need to allow adolescents to explore many different roles and different paths within a particular role.
    • If the adolescent explores such roles in a healthy manner and arrives at a positive path to follow in life, then a positive identity will be achieved.
    • If an identity is pushed on the adolescent by parents, if the adolescent does not adequately explore many roles, and if a positive future path is not defined, then identity confusion reign.
  • Identity vs. Identity Confusion cont.
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Erikson’s sixth developmental stage
    • Individuals experience during the early adulthood years
    • Face the developmental task of forming intimate relationship with others
    • Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another
    • For example, if the young adult forms healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another individual, intimate will be achieved; if not, isolation will result.
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation cont.
    © Geepie/ PHOTOBUCKET
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation
    Erikson’s seventh developmental stage
    Individuals experience during middle adulthood
    A chief concern is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives – this is what Erikson means by generativity.
    The feeling of done nothing to the next generation is stagnation.
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation cont.
    © Annie Lennox / HIV FOUNDATION
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Integrity vs. Despair
    • Erikson’s eighth and final developmental stage
    • Individuals experience in late adulthood
    • During this stage, a person reflects on the past and either pieces together a positive review or concludes that life has not been spent well.
    • For example, the older person may have developed a positive outlook in most or all of the previous stages of development. If so, the retrospective glances will reveal a picture of a life well spent, and the person will feel a sense of satisfaction – integrity will be achieved.If the older adult resolved many of the earlier stages negatively, the retrospective glances likely will yield doubt or gloom – the despair Erikson described.
  • Integrity vs. Despair cont.
    © GETTY IMAGES
    © GETTY IMAGES
  • Bibliography
    Santrock, John W.. "Images of Life-Span Development". Life-Span Development. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.
    "Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory". Businessballs. 02 December 2009 <http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm>.
    "Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart". About. 04 December 2009 <http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm>.