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  • HOSPITALITY HIERARCHY General Manager Food & Beverage Manager Rooms Division Manager Executive Chef Restaurant Manager Bar Manager Sous Chef Chef de Partie Demi Chef de Partie Commis de Cuisine Apprentice Chef Kitchen hand / Steward Maitre d’hotel Chef de Rang / Sommelier Runner / Bus Boy Supervisor Bar Attendant Bar Back Glassy Executive Housekeeper Front Office Manager Supervisor Attendants
    • Room Attendant
    • Public Areas Attendant
    • House person
    • Turn Down Attendant
    • Butler
    • Dry Cleaner / Seamstress
    Supervisor Attendants
    • Valet
    • Porter
    • Concierge
    • Receptionist
    • Telephonist
    • Reservations
    Banquet / Conference Manager Supervisor Attendants Other Areas to Consider: Sales & Marketing, Maintenance & Engineering, Room Service & Mini Bar, Entertainment, and Crèche Services
  • FOOD & BEVERAGE STAFF JOB DESCRIPTORS
    • Maitre d’hotel
    • Sommelier
    • Chef de rang
    • Demi-chef de rang
    • Commis de rang
    Head Waiter In charge of whole restaurant Take bookings, allocates tables, welcomes customers, handles complaints Wine waiter In depth knowledge of wine descriptions Matches food with wine Knowledge of other alcoholic beverages Station / Food Waiter Extensive knowledge of menu Exceptional service skills Assistant Waiter Runner Helps carry food to tables
    • Chef de Cuisine
    • Sous Chef
    • Chef de partie
    FOOD & BEVERAGE STAFF JOB DESCRIPTORS Head Chef / Executive Chef In charge of whole kitchen operation Writes menu, orders food, writes rosters, plans functions, hires staff Second Chef In charge of kitchen in absence of Chef de Cuisine Training of staff, running of services Section Chef / Supervisor Acquires considerable knowledge In charge of partie / section of kitchen
    • Demi-chef de partie
    • Commis de cuisine
    • Apprenti
    FOOD & BEVERAGE STAFF JOB DESCRIPTORS Second section chef Trains Commis & Apprenti Chefs Operates partie / section Assistant Chef Recently qualified chef Still acquiring knowledge and skills Apprentice Chef New entrant into trade Learning required skills and knowledge of all sections
  • STAFF ATTRIBUTES
    • Good Communication
    • A strong customer focus – make them feel they belong
    • Smart presentation and grooming
    • Organisational and Time Management Skills
    • Speak clearly and keep eye contact
    • Use active listening skills
    • Make their stay enjoyable
    • The customer pays your wages!
    • Treat them the way you want to be treated
    • Make their stay enjoyable
    • Look clean and professional
    • Take care of personal hygiene
    • Maintain your uniform
    • Work logically and hygienically
    • Communicate with fellow workers
    • Use job lists & ask questions
    • Ability to work in a team
    • Ability to work well under pressure
    • Good technical skills and knowledge
    STAFF ATTRIBUTES
    • Everyone has strengths and weaknesses
    • A shared job is easier to complete
    • Working together is fun
    • Stay calm, concentrate on the tasks at hand
    • Think logically, work quickly but correctly
    • Be aware of others
    • Do it once and do it right!
    • Know your basics, then refine your skills
    • Skills without knowledge are not enough
  • EXPECTATIONS OF CUSTOMERS AND THE INDUSTRY
    • Friendly greeting
    • Clean premises
    • Quick and efficient service
    • Appropriate serving temperature of drinks
    • Appealing table arrangement
    • Correctly cooked food
    • Clean cutlery and crockery
    • The bill is correct and represents good value for money
    • The farewell to be friendly with appreciation for your custom
  • WHY DO PEOPLE USE FOOD
    • Study the pictures below and justify each persons need for food. The four needs are Physical, Emotional, Psychological , and Social . Beside each need, list two characteristics of that need.
    Physical Psychological Social Emotional
  • ACTIVITY
    • For each of the following situations, give an example of a food you would eat and determine what human need you would be satisfying.
  • SOCIAL NEEDS think/pair/share
    • The Human Social Need for using food involves the interaction of people. People meet and greet with each other to provide companionship & camaraderie; support, love and affection; status; and to share similar interests.
    • Divide the following page into four quarters.
    • Label each quadrant with the following headings:
    • Spend five minutes alone brainstorming events or occasions that you think would fit under each of the four headings.
    • Turn to the person beside you and spend five minutes taking turns to discuss with them the events that you have written down.
    • Turn back to the front of the class and spend 10 minutes sharing with the rest of the class your events under each heading. Have one student act as a scribe on the board to write down each class members ideas.
    • Remember to write any new events or occasions that may be said and that you do not have down on your page as well.
    • Companionship & Camaraderie
    • Support, Love and Affection
    • Status
    • Similar Interests
  • FOOD FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS
  • CLASSIFICATIONS OF FUNCTIONS
    • Communities celebrate special occasions in different ways, however they do have one characteristic in common, they like to celebrate with a group of people who share similar interests .
    • Occasions that are special to one culture or civilisation may not be recognised by another culture.
    • Special occasions that can be celebrated are the result of Historical, Religious, Social or Family events.
  • HISTORICAL
    • Certain occasions are celebrated according to their historical context.
    • Such occasions as Anzac Day and Mothers Day were founded many years ago and are still celebrated today.
    • The significance and meaning behind some Historical Occasions is lost from generation to generation, however the importance of these days are still celebrated.
    • The 25 April is marked as a national holiday in Australia and New Zealand. This day commemorates the landing of the ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) forces at Gallipoli in 1915. ANZAC Day is a day to remember those soldiers who displayed courage, discipline and who gave their lives fighting in conflicts throughout the first World War. The phrase ‘LEST WE FORGET’ is a phrase that will be remembered for years to come. The wives and mothers of soldiers fighting on foreign lands used to bake biscuits and cakes to send over to their loved ones. One popular recipe that has become famous is the ANZAC biscuit.
    ANZAC DAY
  • ACTIVITY
    • Can you list five (5) more Historical Events that call for special occasions and list one type of food associated with that occasion?
  • RELIGIOUS
    • Throughout the world there are a myriad of religions.
    • Each culture worships or follows some form of religion or another.
    • In most religions, there are special occasions that are celebrated.
    • Some religious activities are celebrated by people regardless of the religious context, while the true meaning of some religious occasions have been lost through corporate marketing.
    • Australia is known as a multicultural society with various religions being practiced, therefore the opportunity to witness and experience a variety of festivities is available.
  • CHRISTMAS
    • The Christian festival known as Christmas is celebrated on 25 December each year.
    • This holiday is celebrated to commemorate the birth of Jesus Christ.
    • Christmas is seen by many as a time to spend with family and loved ones.
    • The sharing of cards and gifts has become a tradition on Christmas morning.
    • Foods, such as Christmas Cakes and Puddings, Roast Turkey, Egg Nog, Fruit Mince Tarts and Ham have become associated as traditional Christmas feasts.
    • Special customs such as a Christmas Tree or Roasting Pine Cones vary among families, however the same meaning is shared.
  • ACTIVITY
    • Can you list three (3) more Religious Events that call for special occasions and list one type of food associated with that occasion?
  • SOCIAL
    • Social occasions can be known as either formal or informal.
    • A social occasion is the coming together of a group of people with similar interests to share an event.
    • Informal social occasions can include a family meal or friends having a Morning Tea coffee together.
    • A formal social occasion may include a dinner party or ball.
    • Social occasions can also incorporate community events that may be held on an annual basis, such as a Spring Dance or a festival.
  • ACTIVITY
    • Can you list six (6) Social Events that call for special occasions and list one type of food associated with that occasion?
  • FAMILY
    • The coming together of family members is an important aspect of family life.
    • Whether it be around the dinner table for meals or a birthday party with family and friends, special occasions can be celebrated.
    • Family occasions can be either formal or informal.
    • Informal functions can include a BBQ picnic with relatives.
    • Formal functions can include a Wedding or Anniversary.
    • Family functions can be either simple or quite complex.
  • WEDDINGS AND ANNIVERSARIES
    • Some special occasions incorporate various function categories.
    • Weddings for example, incorporates Social, Religious and Family functions into one special occasion.
    • Even though the structure or festivities of a wedding may differ between couples and cultures, the coming together of people to celebrate a common interest remains the same.
    • Weddings are usually a formal occasion with specific foods being offered.
    • The presence of a Wedding Cake is just one example of a traditional food item that is served at a wedding.
  • ACTIVITY
    • Can you list six (6) more Family Events that call for special occasions and list one type of food associated with that occasion?
  • HOMEWORK ACTIVITY
    • Complete the following columns on Wedding Anniversaries.
    • Each years anniversary gift is marked by a theme, some years have been given to assist you on your quest.
    • There are two columns, the traditional gifts and the modern gifts, you must complete both columns.
    • The words can be found in the box at the top, some words are used twice, all words must be used to complete the columns.
    • Good luck.
  • TYPES OF FUNCTIONS
  • TYPES OF FUNCTIONS
    • The characteristics of functions vary from one style to the next.
    • From decorations and invitations to the array of foods and beverages offered, each style of function will vary.
    • The way in which food is presented and served at functions will vary according to:
    • the number of people attending
    • the space available
    • the type of food
    • the type of function
    • dietary requirements
    • budget
    • the theme
    • Different food service ideas at functions can include Informal or Casual, Buffets, Cocktail / Finger Food , as well as an array of Formal Table Settings .
  • CASUAL / INFORMAL
    • Casual or Informal settings are often reserved for:
    • Casual table settings require very little organisation and are usually very laid back and relaxing occasions with no stress.
    • Food served is usually very simple foods with little to no preparation with guests often having input into the preparation or cooking of the meals.
    • morning or afternoon teas
    • family meals around the dinner table
    • casual dinner parties with friends
    • as well as BBQ’s or picnics.
  • BUFFETS
    • Buffets, also known as Smorgasbords.
    • Designed for guests to help themselves.
    • Variety of hot and cold food choices.
    • Used for either formal or informal functions
    • Sit down dinners or stand up finger food.
    • Popular for feeding large numbers.
    • Food is arranged so that guests can choose what they eat rather than being served set meals.
    • Types of Dishes suitable for Buffets:
    • Simple and attractive
    • Can be prepared beforehand
    • Stored without losing any quality.
    • Minimum last minute preparation or plate up.
    • Easy for guests to serve from.
    • Simple garnishes that enhance the food
    • Garnishes that continue to look good after food has been taken.
    BUFFETS
    • Buffets should be designed so that:
    • Hot dishes are:
        • Served separate from cold dishes.
        • Displayed in a heating box or Chafing Dish.
        • Usually served first on a buffet
    • Cold dishes are served second.
    • Bread rolls and condiments to finish.
    • One serving utensil for each item.
    • To allow free flow around the buffet.
    BUFFETS
  • FINGER FOOD / COCKTAIL
    • Finger food, also known as Cocktail food
    • Ideal when full meal is not required.
    • Usually an informal gathering of people standing around drinking and chatting.
    • Finger food is ideal to serve:
        • to guests on arrival as appetisers
        • before or after a show as supper
        • between a wedding ceremony and the reception
        • or when spacing prohibits guests sitting down
    • Food that is suitable are small, bite size varieties.
    • Due to the fact that guests are standing, the use of a knife and fork is limited.
    • Canapés or Hors d’oeuvres are ideal for finger food.
    • Certain characteristics need to be followed when designing a menu for finger food / cocktail parties.
    FINGER FOOD / COCKTAIL
    • Taste & texture — Should be a variety of flavours and textures.
    • Portion size — Easy to pick up, do not want the food to be too large, bite size is more suitable.
    • Presentation — Should be eye catching, artistic, appropriately garnished with attention to detail.
    • Colour — Variety of contrasting and complimenting colours, an excellent blend not just the one colour.
    • Temperature — There should be a variety of hot and cold food choices.
    FINGER FOOD / COCKTAIL
    • Designed for guests to be seated.
    • Cutlery required determined on number of courses offered, however cutlery is always used from the outside in.
    • Certain specifications need to be taken into consideration when planning formal table setting functions which include:
    FORMAL TABLE SETTINGS
    • Space — Space available determines the size and layout of tables or floor plan.
    • Equipment — The number and specifications of courses will determine layout of table settings and equipment required.
    • Practicality — Ease of movement around room to service all tables will also determine layout or floor plan.
    FORMAL TABLE SETTINGS
    • Can cater for a variety of menu choices along with a number of courses.
    • These menu choices and courses can include:
    • Courses:
    FORMAL TABLE SETTINGS
    • Alternate Drop
    • Set Menu
    • Silver Service
    • Choice Menu — A-la-carte
    • Soup
    • Appetiser
    • Entrée
    • Cleanser (Sorbet)
    • Main
    • Dessert
    • Cheese
    • Table settings require a variety of equipment from:
    • An array of table decorations are also important when designing formal table setting functions.
    FORMAL TABLE SETTINGS
        • Cutlery
        • Crockery
        • Glassware
        • Linen
        • Napkins
    • Each of the following items are found on a formal table setting, can you name them all? Have a go on your own for five minutes then share with the fellow members of the class? As a class group, try and name all 16 items.
    TABLE SETTING EQUIPMENT
  • TABLE SETTING EQUIPMENT
  • TABLE SETTING EQUIPMENT
  • FORMAL TABLE SET
    • Label each of the courses cutlery on the following diagram. The courses consist of Soup, Appetiser, Entrée, Main and Dessert.
    • Label the glassware present on the diagram.
    • Name the remaining items on the diagram.
  • FOOD DISPLAY
  • SENSES AND PALATE
    • When enjoying the pleasures of eating food, all senses play a large role.
    • SENSE OF SIGHT is the initial organ that is used.
    • ( If the food looks good, then generally it will taste good.)
    • SENSE OF SMELL is the second sensory gland that is utilised.
    • ( Just by an item of food smelling good stimulates the saliva glands creating the feeling of hunger.)
    • SENSE OF HEARING plays a large roll in eating food.
    • (The sound of steak sizzling on the BBQ or the crunch of fresh apples stimulates the thought process generating the feeling of hunger.)
    • SENSE OF TASTE is the biggest sensory gland that stimulates the appetite and generates the fulfilment and pleasure through eating.
    SENSES AND PALATE
  • THE PALATE
    • The TONGUE , also known as the PALATE , is divided up into four sensory zones: 
  • FOOD PRESENTATION
    • When presenting food, there are many aesthetic characteristics that need to be taken into consideration:
            • COLOUR
            • TEXTURE
            • VARIETY
            • ARRANGEMENT .
    • If the food has eye appeal and looks good, then generally it will taste good.
  • COLOUR
    • Is a very big characteristic of food presentation.
    • Diners know what colour certain foods should be, therefore expect these foods to be served this colour.
    • More contrasting colours create more eye appealing food.
    • If food is all the one colour, then diners will find the food unattractive and therefore will not enjoy their meal.
    • Getting to know the elements of the colour wheel, i.e. what colours are classified as primary and secondary will assist in presenting an attractive display of food.
    • You should also become familiar with the complimentary, adjacent and monochromatic colour schemes.
    COLOUR
  • COLOUR WHEEL
    • Primary colours include RED , YELLOW and BLUE .
    • Secondary colours include VIOLET , ORANGE and GREEN
    • (combination of two primary colours).
    • Complimentary schemes e.g. Red and Green
    • (opposite on the colour wheel),
    • Adjacent schemes e.g.. Green and Yellow
    • (side by side on the colour wheel).
    • Monochromatic schemes e.g. Tint — Pink ( Red and White )
    • Shade — Maroon ( Red and Black)
    • (tints have white added to one primary colour while shades have black added to one primary colour).
  • COLOUR WHEEL Orange Yellow Green Aqua Blue Mauve Purple Red
  • TEXTURE
    • If the food a customer is being served is not up to their expectations then they will not be satisfied.
    • If the customer is expecting their food to be crispy or smooth, then their food should live up to the these expectations, i.e.
    • (if the pastry of a tart is meant to be crunchy then it should be crunchy if a custard should be smooth then it should not have any lumps in it.)
    • The texture also plays a large role in the clientele that you are serving.
    • (If dietary requirements require food to be served soft due to old age, then you will not serve hard and crunchy food items.)
    • Texture also has significance to the freshness of the food you are displaying and serving.
    • (If you serve celery stalks that are wilted and soft, it will indicate to the customer that your food is not fresh and therefore not appetising.)
    TEXTURE
  • VARIETY
    • The more selections that the customers have to choose from, the more appetising the food will look.
    • On a canapé platter, four or five options will be more appealing and colourful as apposed to only one or two choices.
    • Garnishing is a big part of providing a variety to your presentation. Having individual garnishes for different dishes distinguishes each dishes characteristics.
    “ Variety is the spice of life”
    • There are a number of options that can be adapted to provide variety to presentation, these options can include the use of:
        • An array of different foods.
        • Different shapes and cuts.
        • Different textures and colours.
        • Different displays, e.g. cheese boards, chocolate fountains or fondues.
        • Different flavours and temperatures.
    VARIETY
  • ARRANGEMENT
    • There are certain characteristics or rules that need to be followed when arranging food.
    • These characteristics include:
    •  
            • Height of the dish.
            • Technicalities of the dish.
            • Textures and colours.
            • Food choices or options.
            • Type of dish i.e. soup or steak.
            • Cutlery and crockery being used.
            • The garnish that will be used.
    • When arranging food to be presented, it should:
        • Be arranged neatly and attractively.
        • Have height and air present throughout the food.
        • Not be served in a pile in the middle of the plate.
        • Not be any spillages or finger prints around the rim of the plate.
    ARRANGEMENT
    • When arranging food, think of it as a piece of art and the plate or platter your canvas.
    • The rim of the plate is known as the border and therefore all of food should be presented within the border.
    • When arranging platters of canapés, look for different shapes, colours and textures.
    • Platters should be presented in neat rows with different food items present on each platter.
    ARRANGEMENT
  • PLANNING  
  •  
    • Along with organising your courses, menus and costing, the next major aspect of planning a function is to establish a venue. When looking at a venue, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account. These considerations involve the facilities that are available to you at each venue, these facilities include:
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    • In determining the facilities available, you can then investigate into what is needed to be hired or organised from an outside source. This process of planning a function can be one of the most time consuming and tedious tasks, however is one aspect that needs particular organisation.
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    VENUES / FACILITIES