Timber Tower Research Project by SOM

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This presentation by Skidmore Owings & Merrill shows how a high-rise timber building can be designed to satisfy the intent of building codes. They demonstrate how the structure can be designed to support multi-story gravity and lateral loads while having minimal impact on the architectural, interior or building service designs. In addition, they highlight that the structural material quantities required for high-rise timber structures can be comparable to reinforced concrete structures with the proposed system, suggesting that high-rise timber buildings could be competitive with conventional high-rise construction.

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Timber Tower Research Project by SOM

  1. 1. TIMBER TOWER RESEARCH PROJECT BY SOM Greenbuild 2013 WoodWorks Education Lab Benton Johnson, PE SE Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP benton.johnson@som.com © SOM 2013
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. Understand how a high-rise timber building can be designed to satisfy the intent of the code. 2. Recognize that the structure can be designed to support multi-story gravity and lateral loads while having minimal impact on the architectural, interior or building service designs. 3. Realize that the structural material quantities required for high-rise timber structures can be comparable to reinforced concrete structures with the proposed system, suggesting that high-rise timber buildings could be competitive with conventional high-rise construction. 4. Appreciate that use of the SOM-developed Concrete Jointed Timber Frame system allows engineers to apply tall building engineering fundamentals to the creation of a more efficient structure with a significantly reduced carbon footprint.
  3. 3. Session Agenda 1. Sustainability and Tall Buildings 2. Research Project Overview 3. Design of Gravity Load Resisting System 4. Design of Lateral Load Resisting System 5. Non-Structural Systems 6. Carbon Footprint Comparison
  4. 4. Research Project Deliverables: -11x17 Sketches: 33 pages -8.5x11 Report: 68 pages -3D PDF of Structure © SOM 2013
  5. 5. Basis of the Research 2013: 7.0 billion Total -- 3.5 billion in Cities 2050: 11.0 billion Total -- 7.0 billion in Cities
  6. 6. Basis of the Research Source: David Dodman, Blaming Cities for Climate Change? An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, 2009
  7. 7. Basis of the Research Houston Paris New York Tokyo Melbourne Hong Kong
  8. 8. Basis of the Research © SOM 2013
  9. 9. Basis of the Research
  10. 10. Basis of the Research © SOM 2013
  11. 11. Technology www.structurlam.com
  12. 12. Research Project Overview © SOM | Hedrich Blessing
  13. 13. Research Project Overview +417ft © SOM 2013
  14. 14. Research Project Overview © SOM 2013
  15. 15. Design Process What makes a ‘successful’ building design? -Marketable -Serviceable -Economical -Sustainable © SOM 2013
  16. 16. Successful Design Marketable Serviceable Economical Sustainable © SOM 2013
  17. 17. Proposed System © SOM 2013
  18. 18. 27-29 ft 24ft Average Marketable 27-29 ft © SOM 2013
  19. 19. Marketable © SOM 2013
  20. 20. Marketable © SOM 2013
  21. 21. System Marketability 26’-3” 12.2” 24’-2” Need ~13.5” th. panel Too much material, not economical © SOM 2013
  22. 22. Floor Structure We must reduce amount of materials used in the floors, what choices do we have? -Reduce the span? -Add interior columns / walls? -Use beams? -Boundary conditions? © SOM 2013
  23. 23. Floor Structure © SOM 2013
  24. 24. Floor Structure © SOM 2013
  25. 25. Floor Structure © SOM 2013
  26. 26. Floor Structure © SOM 2013
  27. 27. Floor Structure We must reduce amount of materials used in the floors, what choices do we have? -Reduce the span? -Add interior columns / walls? -Use beams? -Boundary conditions © SOM 2013
  28. 28. Floor Connections Typical Floor Section Tension Rebar Typical Framing Plan Column to Slab Connection © SOM 2013
  29. 29. Floor Connections © SOM 2013
  30. 30. Floor Analysis © SOM 2013
  31. 31. Floor Connections Nov - 2012 Jan - 2013 Feb - 2013 © SOM 2013
  32. 32. Floor Connections © SOM 2013
  33. 33. Floor Connections © SOM 2013
  34. 34. Floor Connections © SOM 2013
  35. 35. Timber /Concrete Material Properties = Side Face 140710psi 135p si C=1,400psi = Cut Face = Cut Face C= 425psi T = 0psi C = 2,500psi – 3,400psi T=700psi Select Structural SPF T = 500psi – 2,150 psi 5,000 psi Concrete © SOM 2013
  36. 36. Torsional Behavior © SOM 2013
  37. 37. Trump Tower Concrete Grades Trump Tower Material Schedule © SOM 2013
  38. 38. Trump Tower Construction 12,000 psi 5,000 psi 5,000 psi 12,000 psi © SOM 2013
  39. 39. Concrete Column/Floor Joints 12,000 psi 5,000 psi 5,000 psi 12,000 psi 12,000 psi Column is 2.2x stronger than typical floor Trump Tower Material Schedule © SOM 2013
  40. 40. Timber Column/Floor Joints 425 psi Allowable 1400 psi Allowable Column is 3.3x stronger than typical floor © SOM 2013
  41. 41. Timber Column/Floor Joints Source: NY Times http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/06/05/science/0605-timber.html
  42. 42. Timber Column/Floor Joints Beam applies tension perpendicular to column grain 425 psi Allowable 1400 psi Allowable © SOM 2013
  43. 43. Timber Column / Concrete Floor Joint 1,400 psi Timber Column 2,500 psi Concrete Joint C= 1,400p si C= 2,500 psi (MIN) 1,400 psi Timber Column The floor is 1.8x stronger than the column! © SOM 2013
  44. 44. Proposed System © SOM 2013
  45. 45. Proposed System © SOM 2013
  46. 46. Proposed System Total Lumber: = 12,000 yd3 = 3.9 million board-ft = 1,700 miles of 2x4 © SOM 2013
  47. 47. Design Process What makes a ‘successful’ building design? ->Marketable -Serviceable -Tall Buildings -Timber Buildings ->Economical -Sustainable © SOM 2013
  48. 48. Serviceability in Tall Buildings © SOM 2013
  49. 49. Serviceability in Tall Buildings raam-bling.blogspot.com
  50. 50. Proposed System © SOM 2013
  51. 51. Serviceability in Tall Buildings raam-bling.blogspot.com © SOM 2013
  52. 52. Serviceability in Tall Buildings Link Beam Deformation © SOM 2013
  53. 53. Serviceability in Tall Buildings Link Beam Deformation eastsidetreeworks.com © SOM 2013
  54. 54. Serviceability in Tall Buildings © SOM 2013
  55. 55. Tension Compression Serviceability in Tall Buildings eastsidetreeworks.com © SOM 2013
  56. 56. Serviceability in Tall Buildings © SOM 2013
  57. 57. Serviceability in Tall Buildings treesaregood.org
  58. 58. Proposed System By Volume: 80% Timber, 20% Concrete By Weight: 45% Timber, 55% Concrete © SOM 2013
  59. 59. Serviceability in Tall Buildings Expected Differential = 2 to 3” © SOM 2013
  60. 60. Design Process What makes a ‘successful’ building design? ->Marketable -Serviceable -Tall Buildings -Timber Buildings ->Economical -Sustainable © SOM 2013
  61. 61. Serviceability - Fire Resistance
  62. 62. Serviceability - Fire Resistance
  63. 63. Serviceability - Fire Resistance
  64. 64. Serviceability - Fire Resistance
  65. 65. Serviceability - Fire Resistance
  66. 66. Serviceability - Fire Resistance © SOM 2013
  67. 67. Serviceability – System Integration © SOM 2013
  68. 68. Serviceability – Acoustics © SOM 2013
  69. 69. Serviceability – Moisture / Durability © SOM 2013
  70. 70. Serviceability – Lower Levels Grade © SOM 2013
  71. 71. Design Process What makes a ‘successful’ building design? ->Marketable ->Serviceable ->Economical -Sustainable © SOM 2013
  72. 72. Sustainability © SOM | Hedrich Blessing
  73. 73. Sustainability © SOM 2013
  74. 74. Sustainability Steel: Melting Iron Concrete: Cement Production Wood: Kiln Drying
  75. 75. Sustainability © SOM 2013
  76. 76. Sustainability © SOM 2013
  77. 77. Sustainability Carbon Neutral Energy Sources © SOM 2013
  78. 78. Sustainability – Carbon Sequestration Million Metric Tons Carbon 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 Source: USEPA (2010). Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2008, p. 7-14.
  79. 79. Sustainability – Carbon Sequestration Million Metric Tons Carbon 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 Source: USEPA (2010). Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2008, p. 7-14.
  80. 80. Effective Use of Timber Total Mat’l = 1.12 cuft/sf C02 Footprint = 75lb/sf Total Mat’l = 1.14 cuft/sf C02 Footprint = 30lb/sf Total Mat’l = 1.30 cuft/sf C02 Footprint = 20lb/sf © SOM 2013
  81. 81. Effective Use of Timber Mountain Pine Beetle – 200+ billion board-ft since 1997 in BC (source: BC Forest Service) How can this material be used most effectively? © SOM 2013
  82. 82. Effective Use of Timber Using SOM proposed composite system, 200b bd-ft = 20.8 b SF of high-rise Using SOM proposed all-timber system, 200b bd-ft = 13.7 b SF of high-rise © SOM 2013
  83. 83. Effective Use of Timber Using SOM proposed composite system, 200b bd-ft = 20.8 b SF of high-rise Using SOM all-timber & concrete systems, 200b bd-ft = 20.8 b SF of high-rise © SOM 2013
  84. 84. Effective Use of Timber Using SOM proposed composite system, 200b bd-ft = 20.8 b SF of high-rise Average Material Usage = 1.12 cuft/sft Average Carbon Footprint = 30lb/sf Using SOM all-timber & concrete systems, 200b bd-ft = 20.8 b SF of high-rise Average Material Usage = 1.25 cuft/sft Average Carbon Footprint = 40lb/sf © SOM 2013
  85. 85. Design Process What makes a ‘successful’ building design? ->Marketable ->Serviceable ->Economical ->Sustainable © SOM 2013
  86. 86. Concrete Jointed Timber Frame © SOM 2013
  87. 87. Conclusions © SOM 2013
  88. 88. TIMBER TOWER RESEARCH PROJECT BY SOM © SOM 2013
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