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Applying LCA in Building Design is Easier than You Think – Part II

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This presentation reviews how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used in building design. It includes information on BEES Online (Building for Environmental and Economic Stability) which helps to make …

This presentation reviews how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used in building design. It includes information on BEES Online (Building for Environmental and Economic Stability) which helps to make informed decisions based on LCA. In addition, the presentation highlights user-friendly LCA tools to perform a whole building LCA, as well as pre-rate building assemblies.

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  • 1. Applying LCA in Building Design – Easier Than You Think! – Part II
  • 2.  How LCA can be used in building design.  LCA calculators and how they work.  Summary Applying LCA in Building Design – Easier Than You Think! – Part II
  • 3. How LCA Can Be Used in Building Design
  • 4. Using LCA in Building Design  Inform decisions based on LCA.  Pre-rate building assemblies based on LCA.  Perform a whole building LCA. There are today a number of user-friendly tools, available free or at low cost, that facilitate use of LCA in building design and materials selection. These tools can be used to:
  • 5. LCA Calculators and How They Work
  • 6. Using LCA in Building Design  Inform decisions based on LCA  Pre-rate building assemblies based on LCA.  Perform whole building LCA
  • 7. http://www.nist.gov/el/economics/BEESSoftware.cfm BEES Online Building for Environmental and Economic Stability
  • 8. The BEES Model An LCA-based level 1 product comparison tool for use at the specification/procurement stage.  Provides detailed results for a wide range of impact indicators.  Uses weighting factors to generate environmental and economic scores.  Based on consensus standards.  Life cycle costing (ASTM E917)  Building element classification (ASTM E1557)  Environmental life cycle assessment (ISO 4040)  Multiattribute Decision Analysis (ASTM E1765)  Available on-line free of charge.
  • 9. Product Scoring Under the BEES System The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department.
  • 10. http://www.nist.gov/el/economics/BEESSoftware.cfm BEES contains information about a large number of building products, ranging from framing and sheathing to floor coverings, quantifying environmental impacts for a wide range of impact measures.
  • 11. NIST Time NIST Home About NIST Contact Us A-Z Site Index About EL Publications Topic/Subject Areas Products/Services News/Multi-media Programs/Projects Events NIST > Home > EL > Economics > Software > Bees BEES Description/Summary: The BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) software brings to your fingertips a powerful technique for selecting cost-effective, environmentally-preferable building products. Developed by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Engineering Laboratory the tool is based on consensus standards and designed to be practical, flexible, and transparent. BEES Online, aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers, includes actual environmental and economic performance data for 230 building products. BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using the life-cycle assessment approach specified in the ISO 14040 series of standards. All stages in the life of a product are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and recycling and waste management. Economic performance is measured using the ASTM standard life-cycle cost method, which covers the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. Environmental and economic performance are combined into an overall performance measure using the ASTM standard for Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. For the entire BEES analysis, building products are defined and classified according to the ASTM standard classification for building elements known as UNIFORMAT II.BEES has been supported in part by the U.S. EPA Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program. The EPP program is charged with carrying out Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management," which encourages Executive agencies to reduce the environmental burdens associated with the more than $230 billion in products and services they buy each year, including building products. Details Version: BEES Online Last Updated: 2010 Type of software: Web application Authors: Barbara Lippiatt Anne Landfield Greig Priya Lavappa System/Platform: Firefox or Internet Explorer 7.0 are recommended browsers. Download information: Click to visit BEES Online
  • 12. BEES Online implements a powerful technique for selecting cost-effective, environmentally-preferable building products. Developed by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Engineering Laboratory's Office of Applied Economics, the tool is based on consensus standards and designed to be practical, flexible, and transparent. The BEES Online web application, aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers, includes actual environmental and economic performance data for 230 building products. BEES Online measures the environmental performance of building products by using the life-cycle assessment approach specified in the ISO 14040 series of standards. All stages in the life of a product are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and recycling and waste management. Economic performance is measured using the ASTM standard life-cycle cost method, which covers the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. Environmental and economic performance are combined into an overall performance measure using the ASTM standard for Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. For the entire BEES Online analysis, building products are defined and classified according to the ASTM standard classification for building elements known as UNIFORMAT II.
  • 13. Impact Weight Global Warming 29 Acidification 3 Eutrophication 6 Fossil Fuel Depletion 10 Indoor Air Quality 3 Habitat Alteration 6 Water Intake 8 Criteria Air Pollutants 9 Smog 4 Ecotoxicity 7 Ozone Depletion 2 Human Health 13 Sum: 100 Environmental Impact Category Weights BEES Stakeholder Panel EPA Science Advisory Board Based Equal Weights User Defined Performance Weights Environmental Performance (%): 50 Economic Performance (%): 50 Discount Rate(%)(Excluding Inflation): 2.7 50 Building Element for Comparison Major Group Element Group Element Individual Element View Product List Building shell Exterior Enclosure Framing
  • 14. Impact Weight Global Warming 29 Acidification 3 Eutrophication 6 Fossil Fuel Depletion 10 Indoor Air Quality 3 Habitat Alteration 6 Water Intake 8 Criteria Air Pollutants 9 Smog 4 Ecotoxicity 7 Ozone Depletion 2 Human Health 13 Sum: 100 Environmental Impact Category Weights BEES Stakeholder Panel EPA Science Advisory Board Based Equal Weights User Defined Performance Weights Environmental Performance (%): 50 Economic Performance (%): 50 Discount Rate(%)(Excluding Inflation): 2.7 Building Element for Comparison Major Group Element Group Element Individual Element View Product List Building shell Exterior Enclosure Framing Bldg maintenance Bldg repair & remodeling Bldg sitework Equip. & Furnishings Interiors Services Shell Substructure
  • 15. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), BEES (2010). Products Included Within the BEES System
  • 16. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), BEES (2010). Products Included Within the BEES System
  • 17. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), BEES (2010). Products Included Within the BEES System
  • 18. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), BEES (2010). Products Included Within the BEES System
  • 19. http://www.nist.gov/el/economics/BEESSoftware.cfm The next few slides (slides 20-28) show how BEES works, using as an example an LCA-based comparison of wood and steel framing. You will see, step-by-step, how to proceed through the BEES site, selecting what you wish to compare. Subsequent slides illustrate output from the model.
  • 20. Impact Weight Global Warming 29 Acidification 3 Eutrophication 6 Fossil Fuel Depletion 10 Indoor Air Quality 3 Habitat Alteration 6 Water Intake 8 Criteria Air Pollutants 9 Smog 4 Ecotoxicity 7 Ozone Depletion 2 Human Health 13 Sum: 100 Environmental Impact Category Weights BEES Stakeholder Panel EPA Science Advisory Board Based Equal Weights User Defined Performance Weights Environmental Performance (%): Economic Performance (%): 50 Discount Rate(%)(Excluding Inflation): 2.7 50 Building Element for Comparison Major Group Element Group Element Individual Element View Product List Building shell Exterior Enclosure Framing
  • 21. Select Product Alternatives Update Product Details View Product Data Generic Wood Framing – Untreated Transportation distance from manufacturer to use: miles kilometers500 804 Update Generic Steel Framing Generic Wood Framing – Treated Generic Wood Framing – Untreated Select Alternative Product Distance (miles) Generic Steel Framing 500
  • 22. Select Product Alternatives Update Product Details View Product Data Generic Wood Framing – Untreated Transportation distance from manufacturer to use: miles kilometers500 804 Update Generic Steel Framing Generic Wood Framing – Treated Generic Wood Framing – Untreated Select Alternative Product Distance (miles) Generic Steel Framing 500 Generic Wood Framing - Untreated 500 Compute
  • 23. Using LCA in Building Design  Inform decisions based on LCA  Pre-rate building assemblies based on LCA.  Perform whole building LCA
  • 24. The Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies This LCA tool, designed for use in the U.S. and Canada, is also user-friendly and available free of charge. The user can “build” a structure, choosing from among hundreds of generic building assemblies, and obtain a full life cycle assessment of the completed building.
  • 25. Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies http://www.athenasmi.org/tools/ecoCal culator/downloadEcoCalculator.php Commercial Residential
  • 26. Geographic Zones Covered by the Athena EcoCalculator, v 3.6 Canada  Calgary  Halifax  Montreal  Ottawa  Quebec City  Toronto  Vancouver  Winnipeg US  Atlanta  Los Angeles  Minneapolis  New York City  Orlando  Pittsburgh  Seattle  ASHRAE Regions 3 & 6
  • 27. The Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies The next four slides illustrate the data input screen for the Athena EcoCalculator. Users enter information only in the yellow-shaded column.
  • 28. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 29. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 30. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 31. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 32. The Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies There are a great number of building assembly options in every category as illustrated in the following slides.
  • 33. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for assemblies – Columns and Beams Concrete columns and beams Hollow structural steel columns Glulam columns and beams LVL columns and beams Wide-flange steel columns and beams Softwood columns Pre-engineered systems – short and long span 19 combinations – load bearing; 19 combinations – non-load bearing
  • 34. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for assemblies – Exterior Walls 8” concrete block 12 options 6” cast-in-place concrete 12 options 8” concrete tilt-up 12 options Insulated concrete form 6 options 2x4 steel stud wall 14 options 2x4 wood stud wall 12 options 3.5” structural insulated panel (SIP) 5 options Curtainwall 2 options Pre-engineered systems 1 option
  • 35. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for Assemblies – Intermediate Floors 28 options Aluminum Vinyl-clad wood Vinyl Wood Curtain wall, viewable glazing ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for Assemblies – Windows
  • 36. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for assemblies – Interior Walls 2x4 wood stud 16” o.c., 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 2x4 wood stud 24” o.c., 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 2x4 wood stud 24” o.c., 2x 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 1 5/8 x 3 5/8 steel stud, 16” o.c., 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 1 5/8 x 3 5/8 steel stud, 24” o.c., 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 1 5/8 x 3 5/8 steel stud, 16” o.c., 2x 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 6” concrete block, 5/8” gypsum, latex paint 6” concrete block, latex paint Clay brick (4’), unpainted
  • 37. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for assemblies – Roofs Precast hollow-core concrete 5 options Precast double-T concrete 5 options Suspended concrete slab 5 options Open web steel joist 10 options Glulam joist with plank decking 5 options Wood I-joist with WSP decking 5 options Solid wood joist with WSP decking 5 options
  • 38. ATHENA ECO-CALCULATOR for assemblies – Roofs (continued) Wood chord/steel web truss with WSP decking 5 options Wood truss (flat) with WSP decking 5 options Wood truss (4:12 pitch) with WSP decking 4 options Pre-engineered building system 1 option
  • 39. The Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies Output measures are highlighted in the following slides. In the green portion of the table, the lower the value, the lower the environmental impact.
  • 40. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Coumns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 41. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 42. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 0 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof Spreadsheet based. Users fill in values using only yellow column.
  • 43. The Athena EcoCalculator for Assemblies In the slides that follow, a warehouse building will be evaluated using the EcoCalculator. First, the building will be “built” of steel construction on concrete footings. Next, the same structure will be built of concrete and of wood, with LCA results then compared. As you proceed through the example, note that as the user fills in the yellow column, LCA results instantly appear in the boxes at the top of the screen.
  • 44. Designing a simple structure using the Athena EcoCalculator for Commercial Assemblies Two story 200’ x 100’ x 20’ ht 20,000 ft.2 footprint total ft.2 = 40,000
  • 45. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicat ion Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC-11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL FOUNDATIONS & FOOTINGS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL A. FOUNDATIONS & FOOTINGS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) GWP per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophicat ion Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) FOUNDATION WALL 1 Cast-n-place concrete XPS 0 63.72 51.51 6.70 2.69 15.31 2592 0.01 46.13 2 Cast-n-place concrete EPS 0 59.98 51.43 6.50 2.60 15.05 2550 0.01 42.36 3 Concrete block R-7.5 XPS 0 291.76 46.72 21.42 5.78 31.21 10095 0.02 73.19 4 Concrete block R-7.5 EPS 0 288.02 46.64 21.22 5.69 30.96 10053 0.02 69.41 TOTAL FOUNDATION WALL SQUARE FOOTAGE 0 FOUNDATION SLAB 4” Poured Concrete Slab 0 0 22.65 25.40 2.95 1.16 7.01 850 0.00 16.90 TOTAL FOUNDATION SLAB SQUARE FOOTAGE 0 FOOTING Poured Concrete Footing 0 0 2223.39 2033.39 241.60 95.10 586.81 119128 0.38 1259.83 FOOTING TOT. VOL. (CUBIC YARDS OF CONCRETE) 0 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 46. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicat ion Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC-11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL FOUNDATIONS & FOOTINGS 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 A. FOUNDATIONS & FOOTINGS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) GWP per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophicat ion Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) FOUNDATION WALL 1 Cast-n-place concrete XPS 0 63.72 51.51 6.70 2.69 15.31 2592 0.01 46.13 2 Cast-n-place concrete EPS 0 59.98 51.43 6.50 2.60 15.05 2550 0.01 42.36 3 Concrete block R-7.5 XPS 0 291.76 46.72 21.42 5.78 31.21 10095 0.02 73.19 4 Concrete block R-7.5 EPS 0 288.02 46.64 21.22 5.69 30.96 10053 0.02 69.41 TOTAL FOUNDATION WALL SQUARE FOOTAGE 0 FOUNDATION SLAB 4” Poured Concrete Slab 20000 100% 22.65 25.40 2.95 1.16 7.01 850 0.00 16.90 TOTAL FOUNDATION SLAB SQUARE FOOTAGE 0 FOOTING Poured Concrete Footing 36 100% 2223.39 2033.39 241.60 95.10 586.81 119128 0.38 1259.83 FOOTING TOT. VOL. (CUBIC YARDS OF CONCRETE) 36 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 47. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL 1,933,668 704 124 51,011 275 121,252 110 528 B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 40000 100% 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 0 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 48. nnn TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWO (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophica tion Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL INTERMEDIATE FLOORS 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL 3,362,615 1,293 225 86,824 541 173,552 180 863 C. INTERMEDIATE FLOORS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING Floor structure /Interior ceiling finish Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ)) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophica tion Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 15 Glulam/* 0 27.20 13.16 1.41 0.60 6.28 480 0.00 6.25 16 Precast Hollowcore/* 0 51.10 39.79 5.18 2.65 16.61 2494 0.01 44.18 17 Wood I-Joist/* 0 26.24 9.26 1.19 0.53 6.03 520 0.00 5.23 18 Open-web Steel Joist/* 0 56.40 7.83 3.07 1.03 8.19 1973 0.00 6.11 19 Open-web Steel Joist w/ concrete topping/* 20000 100% 71.45 29.48 5.07 1.79 13.31 2565 0.00 16.78 20 Precast Double-T/* 0 41.39 29.29 4.21 1.72 13.33 1361 0.01 26.45 21 Precast Double-T w/ Concrete Topping/* 0 54.07 42.53 5.87 2.36 17.37 1885 0.01 35.06 22 Steel Joist/* 0 56.08 7.26 3.62 0.95 7.47 2172 0.00 5.97 23 Steel Joist w/ plywood decking/* 0 58.60 9.11 3.76 1.01 7.74 2265 0.00 6.85 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 49. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWO (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophica tion Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (k g NOx eq) TOTAL EXTERIOR WALLS 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL 4,354,948 1,468 288 107,839 732 195,217 206 1,165 D. EXTERIOR WALLS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING Assembly Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. r ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophica tion Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) 2 x 4 STEEL STUD WALL 44 Steel cladding (26 ga.) R-3.8 rigid insulation sheathing 2 x 4 steel stud 16” o.c. R-13 Batt insulatiion + PET membrane Gypsum board+ latex paint O 182.41 18.67 12.95 5.50 34.38 6602 0.07 47.41 45 Stucco cladding (26 ga.) R-3.8 rigid insulation sheathing 2 x 4 steel stud 16” o.c. R-13 Batt insulatiion + PET membrane Gypsum board+ latex paint 12000 100% 82.69 14.57 5.22 1.75 15.93 1889 0.00 25.15 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 50. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWO (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophica tion Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL ROOFS 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 G. ROOFS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING Assembly Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. r ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophica tion Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) OPEN-WEB STEEL JOIST 17 PVC membrane R-20 Rigid insulation + PET membrane Open-web steel joist w/ steel decking Gypsum board+ latex paint 0 262.03 12.74 10.69 7.12 24.63 2949 0.00 57.22 18 Modified bitumen membrane R-20 Rigid insulation + PET membrane Open-web steel joist w/ steel decking Gypsum board+ latex paint 20000 100% 220.26 11.23 5.84 2.92 16.74 2107 0.00 45.69 Foundations and Footings` Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 51. Version 3.6 Location: Vancouver ASHRAE climate zone 5 Low-rise structures (Up to 4 stories) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – STEEL CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 Exterior Walls 12000 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 TOTALS 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 Columns high strength steel, beams wide flange steel; Intermediate floors open-web steel joists w/concrete topping; Exterior walls 2x4 steel studs 16” o.c., R-3.8 rigid insulation sheathing, stucco cladding, R-13 Batt insulation + PET membrane, gypsum board + latex paint; Roof open-web steel joists w/steel decking, R-20 rigid insulation + PET membrane, modified bitumen membrane, gypsum board + latex paint.
  • 52. No need to design using a single material.
  • 53. TOTAL IMPACTS BY BUILDING COMPONENT Fossil Fuel Consumption (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource Use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (mol es of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) TOTAL COLUMNS & BEAMS WHOLE BUILDING TOTAL B. COLUMNS & BEAMS (Other assembly tabs at bottom of spreadsheet) IN THE YELLOW CELLS BELOW, ENTER THE AMOUNT OF SQUARE FOOTAGE THAT EACH ASSEMBLY IS USED IN YOUR BUILDING ASSEMBLY TYPE (Column/Beam) Square footage % of Total Fossil Fuel Consumpt. per ft2 (MJ) Weighted Resource use per ft2 (kg) Global Warming Potential per ft2 (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential per ft2 (moles of H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophication Potential (mg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential per ft2 (mg CFC-11 eq) Smog potential per ft2 (g NOx eq) Avg. across all column and beam systems: 24.68 7.06 1.28 0.52 2.67 1404 0.00 3.72 METHOD 2 (Assumes LOAD-BEARING exterior wall) 25 Glulam column/ LVL beam 0 13.95 6.13 0.69 0.26 1.35 286 0.00 1.25 26 Glulam column/ WF beam 0 32.93 2.80 1.31 0.57 2.62 2433 0.00 3.43 27 HSS column/ Glulam beam 0 9.59 3.50 0.51 0.20 1.02 209 0.00 0.82 28 HSS column/LVL beam 0 16.03 6.40 0.78 0.30 1.57 351 0.00 1.42 29 HSS column/WF beam 20,000 50% 35.02 3.06 1.41 0.61 2.84 2499 0.00 3.61 30 LVL column/ Glulam beam 0 7.65 3.30 0.42 0.16 0.82 146 0.00 0.67 31 LVL column/LVL beam 20,000 50% 14.09 6.20 0.69 0.26 1.36 289 0.00 1.27 Foundations and Footings Columns and Beams Intermediate Floors Exterior Walls Windows Interior Walls Roof
  • 54. Comparing EcoCalculator results.
  • 55. Steel Design Columns hollow structural section steel, beams wide flange steel; Intermediate floors open-web steel joists w/concrete topping; Exterior walls 2x4 steel studs 16” o.c., R-3.8 rigid insulation sheathing, stucco cladding, R-13 Batt insulation + PET membrane, gypsum board + latex paint; Roof open-web steel joists w/steel decking, R-20 rigid insulation + PET membrane, modified bitumen membrane, gypsum board + latex paint. Concrete Design Concrete columns, concrete beams; Intermediate floors pre-cast double-T truss with concrete topping; Exterior walls concrete block w continuous insulation and polyethylene membrane, stucco cladding; Roof pre-cast double-T concrete, R- 20 continuous insulation + PET membrane, modified bitumen membrane, latex paint. Wood Design Columns LVL, beams LVL; Intermediate floors wood I-joists with plywood decking; Exterior walls 2x6 wood studs 16” o.c., R-19 cavity insulation + PET membrane, wood structural panel sheathing, stucco cladding, gypsum board + latex paint; Roof glulam joists w/ plank decking, R-20 continuous insulation + PET membrane, modified bitumen membrane, gypsum board + latex paint.
  • 56. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –WOOD CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 563,758 248 28 10,535 55 11,569 0 51 Intermediate Floors 20000 470,627 264 24 10,864 120 11,721 4 148 Exterior Walls 12000 718,674 225 44 17,331 198 12,630 26 193 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 3,954,455 333 89 52,331 308 20,874 5 925 TOTALS 6,240,512 1,651 251 117,585 842 78,082 144 1,701 WOODVS.CONCRETE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 2,273,849 1,053 167 67,127 388 162,579 198 735 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,081,422 851 117 47,221 347 37,693 183 701 Exterior Walls 12000 3,758,182 662 280 76,860 436 113,229 223 1,051 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,099,144 599 129 66,871 404 32,761 117 1,166 TOTALS 11,745,595 3,746 761 284,604 1,737 367,551 832 4,037
  • 57. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –WOOD CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 563,758 248 28 10,535 55 11,569 0 51 Intermediate Floors 20000 470,627 264 24 10,864 120 11,721 4 148 Exterior Walls 12000 718,674 225 44 17,331 198 12,630 26 193 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 3,954,455 333 89 52,331 308 20,874 5 925 TOTALS 6,240,512 1,651 251 117,585 842 78,082 144 1,701 1.9X WOODVS.CONCRETE 2.3X 3.0X 2.4X 2.1X 4.7X 2.4X5.8X ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 2,273,849 1,053 167 67,127 388 162,579 198 735 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,081,422 851 117 47,221 347 37,693 183 701 Exterior Walls 12000 3,758,182 662 280 76,860 436 113,229 223 1,051 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,099,144 599 129 66,871 404 32,761 117 1,166 TOTALS 11,745,595 3,746 761 284,604 1,737 367,551 832 4,037
  • 58. Wood vs Concrete Construction This comparison shows the wood design to have lower impact in every category examined. The greatest differences are in ozone depletion, eutrophication, and global warming potential.
  • 59. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – STEEL CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 Exterior Walls 12000 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 TOTALS 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –WOOD CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 563,758 248 28 10,535 55 11,569 0 51 Intermediate Floors 20000 470,627 264 24 10,864 120 11,721 4 148 Exterior Walls 12000 718,674 225 44 17,331 198 12,630 26 193 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 3,954,455 333 89 52,331 308 20,874 5 925 TOTALS 6,240,512 1,651 251 117,585 842 78,082 144 1,701 WOODVS.STEEL
  • 60. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – STEEL CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 Exterior Walls 12000 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 TOTALS 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –WOOD CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 563,758 248 28 10,535 55 11,569 0 51 Intermediate Floors 20000 470,627 264 24 10,864 120 11,721 4 148 Exterior Walls 12000 718,674 225 44 17,331 198 12,630 26 193 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 3,954,455 333 89 52,331 308 20,874 5 925 TOTALS 6,240,512 1,651 251 117,585 842 78,082 144 1,701 WOODVS.STEEL 1.5X1.4X 1.02X 1.6X 1.4X 1.27X 3.0X 1.2X
  • 61. Wood vs Steel Construction This comparison again shows the wood design to have lower impact in every category examined, although differences are generally smaller than in the comparison with the concrete design. The greatest differences are in ozone depletion potential, weighted resource use, and smog and global warming potential.
  • 62. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 2,273,849 1,053 167 67,127 388 162,579 198 735 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,081,422 851 117 47,221 347 37,693 183 701 Exterior Walls 12000 3,758,182 662 280 76,860 436 113,229 223 1,051 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,099,144 599 129 66,871 404 32,761 117 1,166 TOTALS 11,745,595 3,746 761 284,604 1,737 367,551 832 4,037 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – STEEL CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 Exterior Walls 12000 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 TOTALS 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 CONCRETEVS.STEEL
  • 63. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY –CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 2,273,849 1,053 167 67,127 388 162,579 198 735 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,081,422 851 117 47,221 347 37,693 183 701 Exterior Walls 12000 3,758,182 662 280 76,860 436 113,229 223 1,051 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,099,144 599 129 66,871 404 32,761 117 1,166 TOTALS 11,745,595 3,746 761 284,604 1,737 367,551 832 4,037 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUMMARY – STEEL CONSTRUCTION Assembly Total area Fossil Fuel Consumpt. (MJ) TOTAL Weighted Resource use (tonnes) TOTAL GWP (tonnes CO2 eq) TOTAL Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) TOTAL HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) TOTAL Eutrophicati on Potential (g N eq) TOTAL Ozone Depletion Potential (mg CFC- 11 eq) TOTAL Smog potential (g NOx eq) TOTAL Foundations & Footings 20000 532,998 581 68 26,524 161 21,288 109 383 Columns and Beams 40000 1,400,670 123 56 24,486 114 99,964 0 144 Intermediate Floors 20000 1,428,947 590 101 35,813 266 51,300 71 336 Exterior Walls 12000 992,333 175 63 21,015 191 22,665 25 302 Windows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Interior Walls 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Roof 20000 4,405,157 225 117 58,468 335 42,132 5 914 TOTALS 8,760,105 1,693 405 166,307 1,067 237,349 211 2,079 CONCRETEVS.STEEL 1.3X 2.2X 1.9X 1.7X 1.5X 3.9X 1.9X%1.6X
  • 64. Wood vs Steel Construction This comparison shows the steel design to have lower impact in every category examined. The greatest differences are in ozone depletion potential, weighted resource use, and smog and global warming potential.
  • 65. Using LCA in Building Design  Inform decisions based on LCA  Pre-rate building assemblies based on LCA.  Perform whole building LCA
  • 66. Athena Impact Estimator www.athenasmi.ca/tools/impactEstimator/ index.html
  • 67. The Athena Impact Estimator This LCA tool allows evaluation of specific structures and assemblies (i.e. the analysis is not based on generic assemblies). Effective use of this tool, which is intended for use by design teams, requires some training. There is a cost for obtaining the Impact Estimator – about $750 - $1,000. Users can evaluate structures, determining environmental impacts of various configurations and building material choices.
  • 68. Summary
  • 69.  Use of LCA is the only way to accurately assess environmental attributes of materials.  User-friendly LCA tools are readily available, and low cost or free.  Informing materials selection, design choices using LCA is not difficult. Summary
  • 70. Questions? Further information about Life Cycle Assessment and other green building topics can be obtained from Dovetail Partners, Inc. www.dovetailinc.org