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The case against carbon trading

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  • Uberleitung: Many reasons why carbon stored I trees can be released: next slides
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    • 1. Forests and carbon trading Bad deal for forests, forest peoples and the climate Jutta Kill FERN Climate Campaign The campaigning NGO for greater environmental and social justice, with a focus on forests and forest peoples rights in the policies and practices of the EU Climate Camp for Action prep workshop March 2009
    • 2. 1 – Theory behind selling carbon offset credits from tree planting or forest projects 2 – Realities of forest carbon offset projects The campaigning NGO for greater environmental and social justice, with a focus on forests and forest peoples rights in the policies and practices of the EU
    • 3. Tackling a common misconception about carbon offsets: …… no carbon offset deal reduces emissions! Even in the best case (which hardly ever happens), the net benefit to the climate of even the best carbon offset project is . . . 0
    • 4. Active Carbon Cycle: Carbon is always moving between the forests, atmosphere and oceans. The overall amount in all three carbon stores together does not increase Many reasons why carbon stored in trees is released…
      • What makes forest carbon different from other offsets?
        • carbon storage in trees is temporary but the carbon release from fossil
        • fuel burning is permanent!
    • 5. Trees are not a safe way to store fossil carbon out of harm’s way!
    • 6. Trees are not a safe way to store fossil carbon out of harm’s way!
    • 7. Trees are not a safe way to store fossil carbon out of harm’s way!
    • 8. Trees are not a safe way to store fossil carbon out of harm’s way! In many areas where tree planting or forest offset projects are established, conflicts over land rights, title and access are a reality Tupinikim and Guarani demarcate their traditional territory which has been occupied for decades by Aracruz Cellulose’s eucalyptus plantations.
    • 9. Active Carbon Cycle: Carbon is always moving between the forests, atmosphere and oceans. The overall amount in all three carbon stores together does not increase What makes forest carbon offsets different from other offsets? Deforestation and forest loss have upset the balance within the active carbon pool by releasing large amounts of carbon from the forests into the atmosphere
    • 10. What makes forest carbon offsets different from other offsets? Fossil Carbon Pool : Fossil carbon is locked away in the geological reservoir and does naturally not come in contact with the atmosphere. It is stored permanently UNLESS humans mine coal, extract oil & gas. Once released, fossil carbon will not move back into the geological reservoir for millennia
    • 11. Fallacy of the Kyoto Protocol and carbon ‘offset’ schemes: What are the consequences of this false assumption?
      • 1 tonne of active carbon = 1 tonne of fossil carbon
      • Planting or protecting more trees justifies burning more fossil fuel
        • Which in turn exacerbates speed of climate change and its impacts on forests
      =
    • 12. More Climate Change
      • Forest offsets are used to justify ….
              • more oil extraction
              • more coal mining
              • more fossil fuel burning
      • The positive image of ‘planting a tree’ or ‘saving the forest’ are used while the problems of forest protection when sold as a carbon offset are withheld => misleading
    • 13. "To offset air-travel-related emissions of tourism on a global scale for the year 2000 alone (about 172.8 Mt C-equiv.), it would be necessary to afforest an area of about 28,800 km 2 ." Land area Vermont: 24,000 km² “ What we see looking forward is large investments in the oil sector ” IFC Director of oil, mining and gas, Rashad Kaldany in 2000
    • 14. …‘ carbon neutral’ conference…
    • 15. …‘ carbon neutral’ motorsports...
    • 16. CDM Project in Brasil – CDM registration despite company’s private security guards murdering local peasant: ‘ UTE Barreiro S.A. Renewable Electricity Generation Project’ in Minas Gerais, Brasil. CDM Project 0143 by Vallourec & Mannesmann do Brasil “ [T]he FSC certificate has been terminated following the killing of a local farmer by armed guards working for V&M and continued harassment of local residents ever since the incident [in February 2007]. The FSC certificate is the only reference cited in both PDD and validation report to substantiate the claim that the plantations are managed sustainably and that thus the project can claim to produce ‘renewable’ energy.” FERN letter 13. June 2007 to CDM Executive Board IFC originally brokered the project but severed ties when controversies did not stop
    • 17. In 1993 the Ugandan government declared Mount Elgon a national park and forcibly evicted indigenous peoples. In 2002, rangers evicted another 300 families. The Benet people won a court case confirming their ‘claim’ to the land inside the park. The FACE Foundation’s Mt Elgon offset project in Uganda “ We just have to admit that we know nothing about the trade in CO2 trade, neither how it will function nor how much the foreign investor will profit from it.” Uganda forest department official in 2000
    • 18. The FACE Foundation’s Mt Elgon offset project in Uganda Villagers amid corn planted on what the government says is national park, but which they claim has belonged to them for generations and for which many of them hold title documents. To plant the corn, the villagers chopped down 500.000 trees planted by the Dutch FACE Foundation as part of a carbon offset project. Ezera Wandeka, 72, was one of the richest farmers in one village on the border of Mt Elgon National Park until his fields were declared to be illegally inside the park, and he was evicted. Wandeka kept the title to his land after rangers set fire to his home and evicted him and other farmers.
    • 19. … the importance to learn from past policy failures before embarking on yet another initiative doomed to fail… The campaigning NGO for greater environmental and social justice, with a focus on forests and forest peoples rights in the policies and practices of the EU What is crucial now … Wrong financing = more Climate Change
    • 20. Chicago Climate Exchange Membership in the Forest Products Sector: Abitibi-Consolidated Aracruz Celulose S.A. Arcelor Mittal Florestas Ltda Cenibra Nipo Brasiliera S.A. International Paper Klabin S.A. Masisa S.A. MeadWestvaco Corp. Neenah Paper Incorporated Stora Enso North America Suzano Papel E Celulose SA Tembec Industries Inc. Temple-Inland Inc
    • 21. … the importance to learn from past policy failures before embarking on yet another initiative doomed to fail… No consideration of gender dimension = more Climate Change http://forestguild.org/newsletter_0708.html PEDRO MOURA COSTA, co-founder of EcoSecurities, 44, made 4.8 million GBP (US$10 million) when he sold some shares in the firm which helps convert emission cuts into tradable carbon credits. His remaining shares are worth about 37 million pounds (US$73 million).
    • 22. The importance to ensure policy coherence…
      • Deforestation biodiesel
        • Peat drainage: CO 2 release 2-8x higher than direct fossil fuel burning
    • 23.
      • 1C Fosseway Business Centre • Stratford Road
      • Moreton-in-Marsh • GL56 9NQ • UK
            • t +44 (0)1608 651 864
            • e jutta@fern.org
      www.sinkswatch.org www.fern.org The campaigning NGO for greater environmental and social justice, with a focus on forests and forest peoples rights in the policies and practices of the EU

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