~ 1 ~
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is Tense ?
Tense (noun) : a form of verb used to indicate the time and sometimes the...
~ 2 ~
1.2 16 Tenses
2.1 Present Tense
The present tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a sit...
~ 3 ~
2.1.2 Present Continuous Tense
It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses an ...
~ 4 ~
2.1.3 Present Perfect Tense
The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and the perfectasp...
~ 5 ~
Questions
Have Subject Past
Participle
Rest of the Sentence
Have I been chosen for the team?
Have you bought a new c...
~ 6 ~
Negative Sentence
• Subject + “Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time refe...
~ 7 ~
2.2 Past Tense
In English, the past tense (or preterite) is one of the inflected forms of a verb. The past tense
of ...
~ 8 ~
Forming the Simple Past Tense
Here is an infographic explaining the simple past tense:
The Simple Past Tense with Ti...
~ 9 ~
Examples of "how long an activity took":
Last week, the council inspected the drains.
("Last week" tells you when it...
~ 10 ~
It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action which occurred in past
and completed...
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The Conclussion :
2.2.3 Past Perfect Tense
It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a l...
~ 12 ~
For example :
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and
...
~ 13 ~
The Conclussion :
2.2.4 Past Perfect Continuous Tense
It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that star...
~ 14 ~
time in past. Such time reference or sense of reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense
because...
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The Conclussion :
2.3Future Tense
In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event describe...
~ 16 ~
The "future" expressed by the future tense usually means the future relative to the moment of
speaking, although in...
~ 17 ~
Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
• Subj...
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Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
• Subject...
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future. For example, “He will have been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he will
start stu...
~ 20 ~
FORM Would
[would + VERB]
Examples:
I knew you would help him.
I knew you would not help him.
FORM Was/Were Going T...
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A sentence is written in active voice when the subject of the sentence performs the action in the sentence.
A sente...
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Active Passive
You have been studying English for an
hour
English has been being studied by you for an hour
She has...
~ 23 ~
Active Passive
The teacher had taught the student The student had been taught by the teacher
You had sat on my chai...
~ 24 ~
Active Passive
We will be missing our old friends Our old friend will be being missed by us
We will be missing our ...
~ 25 ~
Active Passive
She would visit me yesterday, but
unfortunately she fell sick
I would be visited by her, but unfortu...
~ 26 ~
Active Passive
She would be visiting me at this
morning
I would be being visited by her at this morning
They would ...
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Active and passive sentences X IPA 4

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Active and passive sentences X IPA 4

  1. 1. ~ 1 ~ CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is Tense ? Tense (noun) : a form of verb used to indicate the time and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an action in relation to the time of speaking. (From Latin tempus = time). The tense can be shown in the verb. For example, am, is, and are are always present tense, and was and were are always past tense. Or the tense can be shown by adding words to the verb. In English, the words that we add to the verb are "helping verbs" or "auxiliaries", like be, have, shall, will, and so on. So we get the continuous present with is taking, the future with will take, and so on. Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time - past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods.Chinese and Indonesian verbs do not show tense. Instead they use other words in the sentence to show when the verb happens. In English as a second language (ESL) classes, 'tense' usually means any verb form that indicates a time. For example, many people say that will go is the future tense and that He is loved by many is the present passive tense. But linguists (people who study language and grammar) say this is not technically correct. Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses : Mood Indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact, which can be positive (affirmative) or negative I like coffee. I do not like coffee. Interrogative mood expresses a question Why do you like coffee? Imperative mood expresses a command Sit down! Subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible The President ordered that he attend the meeting. Voice Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action (mice are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help us change the focus of attention. Aspect Aspect expresses a feature of the action related to time, such as completion or duration. Present simple and past simple tenses have no aspect, but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that: The action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant), for example: I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report) (This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.) The action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is, uncompleted), for example: We are eating. (This is called progressive aspect, using progressive [continuous] tenses.)
  2. 2. ~ 2 ~ 1.2 16 Tenses 2.1 Present Tense The present tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.The term "present tense" is usually used in descriptions of specific languages to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the Englishsentence My train leaves tomorrow morning, the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past. 2.1.1 Simple Present Tense The simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. We use the present tense: 1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period. I take the train to the office. The train to Berlin leaves every hour. John sleeps eight hours every night during the week. 2. For facts. The President of The USA lives in The White House. A dog has four legs. We come from Switzerland. 3. For habits. I get up early every day. Carol brushes her teeth twice a day. They travel to their country house every weekend. 4. For things that are always / generally true. It rains a lot in winter. The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace. They speak English at work. Positive Sentence Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence I / you / we / they speak / learn English at home he / she / it speaks / learns English at home Negative Sentence Subject don't/doesn't Verb The Rest of the sentence I / you / we / they don't have / buy eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast he / she / it doesn't
  3. 3. ~ 3 ~ 2.1.2 Present Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses an action which is in progress at the time of speaking. For example, a person says, “I am writing a letter”. It means that he is in the process of writing a letter right now. Such actions which are happening at time of speaking are expressed by present continuous tense. Present Continuous tense is also called Present progressive tense. Rules. Auxiliary verb “am or is or are” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object If the subject is “I” then auxiliary verb “am” is used after subject in sentence. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “is” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “are” is used after subject in sentence. The participle “ing” is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going (go) writing (write). Examples : - I am playing cricket - He is driving a car - They are reading their lessons Negative Sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + object Rules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject in negative sentences are same as mentioned above. Examples : - I am not playing cricket - He is not driving a car - They are not reading their lessons Interrogative Sentences • Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is “I” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “am”. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “is”. If subject is “You, They or plural” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “are”. Examples : - Am I playing cricket? - Is he driving a car? - Are they reading their lessons?
  4. 4. ~ 4 ~ 2.1.3 Present Perfect Tense The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and the perfectaspect, used to express a past event that has present consequences. The term is used particularly in the context of Englishgrammar, where it refers to forms such as "I have left" and "Sue has died". These forms are present because they use the present tense of theauxiliary verb have, and perfect because they use that auxiliary in combination with the past participle of the main verb. Affirmative Sentences Subject Have Past Participle Rest of the Sentence I have studied for the exam. You have bought a new computer. He has eaten my chocolate. She has written an e-mail. It has Been cold this month. We have Won the championship. You have Tried to learn a lot. They have forgotten my birthday. Contractions The contracted form of the perfect tense is quite common: Have Contraction Examples I have I've I've spent all my money. You have You've You've worn that dress before. He has He's He's slept all morning. She has She's She's lost her purse. It has It's It's fallen off the wall. We have We've We've chosen you for the job. You have You've You've begun to annoy me. They have They've They've drunk too much. We use contractions a lot when we are speaking. Negative Sentences The contraction of the perfect tense in negative form is: Have not = Haven't Has not = Hasn't Subject Have Past Participle Rest of the Sentence I haven't studied for the exam. You haven't bought a new computer. He hasn't eaten my chocolate. She hasn't written an e-mail. It hasn't been cold this month. We haven't won the championship. You haven't tried to learn a lot. They haven't forgotten my birthday.
  5. 5. ~ 5 ~ Questions Have Subject Past Participle Rest of the Sentence Have I been chosen for the team? Have you bought a new car? Has he eaten my sandwich? Has she written the letter? Has it started on time? Have we won a trophy? Have you kept my secret? Have they driven there? 2.1.4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now. There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action has been started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which gives an idea that action has been continued from some time in past till now. Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a particular time in past. For example, “He has been reading in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he has started his education in this school in 2005 and he is studying in this school till now. Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not Present perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it started in past and it seems just an ongoing action at present time which resembles “present Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present continuous tense. Rules: An auxiliary verb “has been or have been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then “since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has been” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence. Examples : - He has been watering the plants for two hours. - I have been studying since 3 O’clock.
  6. 6. ~ 6 ~ Negative Sentence • Subject + “Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference To make negative sentence, the word “not” is written between the auxiliary verbs, so it becomes like “has not been or have not been”. The rule for using auxiliary verb “has been or have been” in negative sentences is as same as mentioned above Examples : - He has not been watering the plants for two hour - I have not been studying since 3 O’clock. Interrogative Sentence. • Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after subject If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have” and “been” is used after subject Examples : - Has he been watering the plants for two hours? - Have I been studying since 3 O’clock? More examples : Positive sentences - It has been raining for three days. - I have been living in America since 2003. - He has been playing cricket for two hours. - They have been watching television since 6 O’clock. - She has been working in this office since 2007. Negative sentences - It has not been raining for three days. - I have not been living in America since 2003. - He has not been playing cricket for two hours. - They have not been watching television since 6 O’clock. - She has not been working in this office since 2007. Interrogative sentences - Has it been raining for three days? - Have I been living in America since 2003? - Has he been playing cricket for two hours. - Have they been watching television since 6 O’clock? - Has she been working in this office since 2007?
  7. 7. ~ 7 ~ 2.2 Past Tense In English, the past tense (or preterite) is one of the inflected forms of a verb. The past tense of regular verbs is made by adding -d or -ed to the base form of the verb, while those of irregular verbs are formed in various different ways (such assee→saw, go→went, be→was/were). With regular and some irregular verbs, the past tense form also serves as a past participle. Past events are often referred to using the present perfect construction, as in I have finished (also known as present in past). However this is not regarded as an instance of the past tense; instead it is viewed as a combination of present tensewith perfect aspect, specifying a present state that results from past action.(It can be made into a past tense form by replacing the auxiliary have with had; see below.) Various multi-word constructions exist for combining past tense with progressive (continuous) aspect, which denotes ongoing action; with perfect aspect; and with progressive and perfect aspects together. These and other common past tense constructions are listed below. The simple past consists of just the past tense (preterite) form of the verb (he walked, they flew, etc.), although when it is negated, emphasized or inverted it is sometimes necessary to unfuse the verb, using a periphrastic construction withdid (as in did he walk? etc.) – see do-support. The simple past is used for describing single occurrences or habitual occurrences in the past, and sometimes for states existing in the past. The past progressive (past continuous) is formed using the simple past of be (was or were) with the main verb's present participle: He was going. This form indicates that an action was ongoing at the past time under consideration. The past perfect combines had (the simple past of have) with the past participle of the main verb: We had shouted. This denotes that an action occurred before a specified time in the past, and therefore has similar function to the pluperfectfound in some languages. The past perfect progressive combines had (the simple past of have) with been (the past participle of be) and the present participle of the main verb: You had been waiting. The expression used to (with the infinitive of the main verb) denotes a past habitual situation (I used to play football when I was young), although with a stative verb it can just indicate that a state was continuously in effect (I used to belong to that club). It is often used to emphasize that something is no longer the case. Another way of referring to past habitual action is to use would, as in As a child I would play the piano every day, although this auxiliary has other uses as well. 2.2.1 Simple Past Tense The simple past tense is used to describe a completed activity that happened in the past. In other words, it started in the past and ended in the past. Here are some examples of the simple past tense (shaded): The Martians landed near the aqueduct. The burglar considered using the fire escape. Of course, you can also have the negative version, which is formed "did not" + "[verb in base form]": The Martians did not land near the aqueduct. (We could have used didn't instead of did not.) The burglar did not consider using the fire escape. And, the question versions: Did the Martians land near the aqueduct? Why didn't the burglar consider using the fire escape?
  8. 8. ~ 8 ~ Forming the Simple Past Tense Here is an infographic explaining the simple past tense: The Simple Past Tense with Time Expressions The simple past tense is often seen with a time expression explaining when the activity took place or how long it lasted. Examples of "when an activity took place": On Tuesday last week, the Martians landed near the aqueduct. ("On Tuesday last week" tells you when it happened. It's called an adverbial phrase of time. Other examples are: "Yesterday," "Last year," "Before breakfast,". They are really common. When any adverb appears at the front of a sentence, it is usual to follow it with a comma. A comma is not usually used when the adverbial phrase appears at the back of a sentence. NB: This is not a strict rule. Use a comma if it helps your reader.) The Martians landed near the aqueduct on Tuesday last week. (Note: No comma) Just before he was caught, the burglar considered using the fire escape. ("Just before he was caught" tells you when the activity took place.)
  9. 9. ~ 9 ~ Examples of "how long an activity took": Last week, the council inspected the drains. ("Last week" tells you when it happened and for how long.) Her daughter hid under the bed for three hours. (Using "for" is a common way of describing how long an activity lasted.) More Examples : The Conclussion : 2.2.2 Past Continuous Tense
  10. 10. ~ 10 ~ It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action which occurred in past and completed at some point in past. It expresses an ongoing nature of an action in past. For example, “he was laughing.” This sentence shows ongoing action (laughing) of a person which occurred in past. Past continuous tense is also called past progressive. Rules: Auxiliary verb “was or were” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Forming the Past Continuous Tense Positive Sentence : If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then auxiliary verb “was” is used. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then auxiliary verb “were” is used. Examples : - She was crying yesterday. - They were climbing on a hill. Negative sentences : Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same as mentioned above. Examples : - She was not crying yesterday. - They were not climbing on a hill. Interrogative sentences The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “was”. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “were”. Examples : - Was she crying yesterday? - Were they climbing on a hill? More Examples :
  11. 11. ~ 11 ~ The Conclussion : 2.2.3 Past Perfect Tense It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.
  12. 12. ~ 12 ~ For example : I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago) The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part of sentence “The student has gone” is sentence of past perfect tense, it says about an action which occurred before another action in past which is “the teacher came”. The second part “the teacher came” is sentence of past simple tense. So such a sentence which express an action in past before another action in past comprises two parts where the first part of sentence is past perfect tense) Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples : - He had taken the exam last year. - A thief had stolen my watch. Negative sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + object •Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object “Not” is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence. Examples. - He had not taken the exam last year. - A thief had not stolen my watch. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) + object • Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had” Examples : - Had he taken the exam last year ? - Had a thief stolen my watch? More Examples :
  13. 13. ~ 13 ~ The Conclussion : 2.2.4 Past Perfect Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and continued until sometime in past. (Remember, an ongoing action in past which continued till some time in past) There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action had started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which shows that action had started in past and continued till some
  14. 14. ~ 14 ~ time in past. Such time reference or sense of reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a particular time in past or for some time period. For example, “He had been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he had started his education in this school in 2005 and he studied in this school till sometime in past. Rules: An auxiliary verb “had been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then “since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference Examples : - I had been waiting for him for one hour. - She had been playing chess since 7 O’clock. Negative Sentence • Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + had not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “had not been” Examples : - I had not been waiting for him for one hour. - She had not been playing chess since 7 O’clock. Interrogative Sentence • Auxiliary verb+ Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Had + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after subject in sentence Examples : - Had I been waiting for him for one hour? - Had she been playing chess 7 O’clock? More Examples :
  15. 15. ~ 15 ~ The Conclussion : 2.3Future Tense In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future. An example of a future tense form is the French aimera, meaning "will love", derived from the verb aimer ("love"). English does not have a future tense formed by verb inflection in this way, although it has a number of ways of expressing futurity, particularly the construction with the auxiliary verb will orshall, and grammarians differ in whether they describe such constructions as representing a future tense in English, one and all.
  16. 16. ~ 16 ~ The "future" expressed by the future tense usually means the future relative to the moment of speaking, although in contexts where relative tense is used it may mean the future relative to some other point in time under consideration. 2.3.1 Simple Future Tense It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet and will occur after saying or in future. For example, “I will go to zoo tomorrow”, in this sentence the person intend for tomorrow’s visit to zoo. In short, these sentences express actions which will be done in future. Rules : Auxiliary verb “will” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base form is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object •Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object Examples : - I will buy a computer tomorrow. - They will come here. Negative sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb+ not + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will +not + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object To make negative sentence “not” is written after auxiliary verb in sentence Examples : - I will not buy a computer tomorrow. - They will not come here. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (present participle) + object • Will + subject + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” Examples : - Will I buy a computer tomorrow? - Will they come here? 2.3.2 Future Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future. For example, “I will be waiting for you tomorrow”, it conveys ongoing nature of an action (waiting) which will occur in future. Rules. Auxiliary verb “will be” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
  17. 17. ~ 17 ~ Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object Examples : - I will be waiting for you. - You will be feeling well tomorrow. Negative sentence • Subject + not between auxiliary verbs+ not + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object To make negative sentence “not” is written between auxiliary verbs “will and be” in sentence. Examples : - I will not be waiting for you. - You will not be feeling well tomorrow. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object • Will + subject + be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “be” comes after subject in interrogative sentence Examples : - Will I be waiting for you? - Will you be feeling well tomorrow? More Examples Positive sentences - We will be shifting to a new home next year. - He will be flying a kite. - It will be raining tomorrow. Negative sentences - We will not be shifting to a new home next year. - He will not be flying a kite. - It will not be raining tomorrow. Interrogative sentence - Will we be shifting to a new home next year? - Will he be flying a kite? - Will it be raining tomorrow? 2.3.3 Future Perfect Tense It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought to be completed in future. It expresses a sense of completion of an action which will occur in future. For example, “John will have gone tomorrow”. It shows a sense of completion of an action (go) which will occur in future (tomorrow). Rules. Auxiliary verb “will have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb or past participle form of verb is used as main verb in sentence.
  18. 18. ~ 18 ~ Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples : - She will have finished the work by Wednesday. - I will have left for home by the time he gets up. - You will have started a job. Negative sentence • Subject + Not between auxiliary verbs + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples : - She will have finished the work by Wednesday. - I will have left for home by the time he gets up. - You will not have started a job. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Will + Subject +have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples : - Will she have finished the work by Wednesday? - Will I have left for home by the time he gets up? - Will you have started a job? More Examples Positive sentences : - He will have finished his work. - You will have made a new chair. - She will have decorated her home. - I will have bought a computer. Negative sentences : - He will not have finished his work. - You will not have made a new chair. - She will not have decorated her home. - I will not have bought a computer. Interrogative sentences : - Will he have finished his work? - Will you have made a new chair? - Will she have decorated her home? - Will I have bought a computer? 2.3.4 Future Perfect Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be continued till sometime in future. (Remember, an ongoing action in future which will continue till some time in future). There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours” from which the action will start in future and will continue. A sense of time reference is found which gives an idea that action will start at some time in future and will continue for some time. Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Future perfect continuous tense because it tells that action will start at a particular time in
  19. 19. ~ 19 ~ future. For example, “He will have been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he will start studying in this school in 2005 and will study in this school till sometime in future. Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not future perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it will start in future and it seems just an ongoing action in future which resembles “future Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates between Future perfect continuous tense between future continuous tense. Rules: An auxiliary verb “will have been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then “since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly know time. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference •Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference Examples : - I will have been waiting for him for one hour. - She will have been playing football since 2015. Negative Sentence • Subject +”Not” inside Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + will not have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + Time reference To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “will not have been”. Examples : - I will not have been waiting for him for one hour. - She will not have been playing football since 2015. Interrogative Sentence • Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Will + Subject + have been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence. Examples : - Will I have been waiting for him for one hour? - Will she have been playing football since 2015? 2.4 Past Future Tense (Future in the Past) Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English: "would" and "was going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two different meanings.
  20. 20. ~ 20 ~ FORM Would [would + VERB] Examples: I knew you would help him. I knew you would not help him. FORM Was/Were Going To [was/were + going to + VERB] Examples: I knew you were going to go to the party. I knew you were not going to go to the party. USE 1 Future in Past Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future. Examples: I told you he was going to come to the party. PLAN I knew Julie would make dinner. VOLUNTARY ACTION Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. PLAN I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. PREDICTION He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. PROMISE REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past. Examples: I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct CHAPTER 2 MAIN IDEA (Active and Passive Sentences)
  21. 21. ~ 21 ~ A sentence is written in active voice when the subject of the sentence performs the action in the sentence. A sentence is written in passive voice when the subject of the sentence has an action done to it by someone or something else. Active and Passive Sentences : 1. Simple Present Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive My father reads the magazine every morning The magazines are read by my father every morning Our family visit grandparent every year Grandparent are visited by our family every year I learn integrated English every Friday Integrated English is learned by me every Friday The lecturer teach the students everyday The students are taught by the lecturer everyday 2. Present Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive My father is reading the newspapers The newspapers are being read by my father You are sitting on my chair My chair is being sat by you She is cooking rice now Rice is being cooked by her now A teacher is teaching math in the classroom Math is being taught by a teacher in the classroom 3. Present Perfect Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive He has seen that picture at the cinema That picture has been seen by him at the cinema They have given me lessons for a year The lessons have been given to me by them for a year I have written this word on the blackboard This word have been written by me on the blackboard 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive S + V1 + (C + O) S + is/am/are + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + is/am/are + V ing + (C + O) S + is/am/are + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + has/have + V3 + (C + O) S + has/have + been + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + has/have + been + V ing + (C + O) S + has/have + been + being + V3 (by S)
  22. 22. ~ 22 ~ Active Passive You have been studying English for an hour English has been being studied by you for an hour She has been visiting him every Saturday He has been being visited by her every Saturday He has been watching the TV every night for a long time The TV has been being watched by him every night for a long time I have been learning English in my course for a year English has been being learned by me in my course for a year 5. Simple Past Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive I began the lesson just now The lessons was begun by me just now My little brother did a home work last night A home work done by my little brother last night The girl found love for 30 days ago Love was found by the girl for 30 days ago Earthquake destroyed Bengkulu a moment ago Bengkulu was destroyed by earthquake a moment ago 6. Past Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive She was singing a song at this time last Sunday A song being sung by her at this time last Sunday All audiences were enjoying the party at the last celebration The party was being enjoyed by all audiences at the last celebration They were finishing the discussion yesterday The discussion was being finished by them yesterday Mother was roasting beef now a day Beef was being roasted by mother now a day 7. Past Perfect Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive S + V2 + (C + O) S + was/were + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + was/were + V ing + (C + O) S + was/were+ being + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + had+ V3 + (C + O) S + had + been + V3 (by S)
  23. 23. ~ 23 ~ Active Passive The teacher had taught the student The student had been taught by the teacher You had sat on my chair My chair had sat by you I had studied English before left Indonesia English had been studied by me before I left Indonesia The umpire had started the football match before I come The football match had been started by the umpire before I came 8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive Teacher had been teaching the students The students had been being taught by teacher When Musa came, Andi had been paling computer for 20 minutes When Musa came, computer had been being played by Andi for 20 minutes Before she entered the examinations, she had been studying the material very hard for a month Before she entered the examinations, the material had been being studied by her very hard for a month 9. Simple Future Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive My boyfriend will marry me next two years I will be married by my boyfriend next two years I will write a sentence as good as possible A sentences will be written by me as good as possible We will spend a long vacation in the end of the year A long vacation will be spent by us in the end of the year He will received her invitation tomorrow Her invitation will be received by him tomorrow 10. Future Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive S + had + been + V ing + (C + O) S + had + been + being + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + shall/will + V1 + (C + O) S + shall/will + be + V3 (by S) Active Passive S + shall/will + be + V ing + (C + O) S + shall/will + be + being + V3 (by S)
  24. 24. ~ 24 ~ Active Passive We will be missing our old friends Our old friend will be being missed by us We will be missing our old friends I will be being visited by Harun soon Mahmud will be watching TV at eight tonight TV will be being watched by Mahmud at eight tonight She will be joining debating contest next week Debating contest will be being joined by her next week 11. Future Perfect Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive Jack will have met my loyal friend by next week My loyal friend will have been met by Jack by next week Sholeh will have written all the letters by the end of next month All the letters will have been written by Sholeh by the end of next month My mother will have cooked the dinner when my friend comes tonight The dinner will have been cooked by my mother when my father comes tonight 12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive By next January, I will have been teaching English for 2 years By next tomorrow, English will have been being taught by me for 2 years Tomorrow my uncle will have been building a garage for 2 days Tomorrow, a garage will have been being built by my uncle for 2 days By the time you come tomorrow, we will have been repairing our house By the time you come tomorrow, our house will have been being repaired by us 13. Future Past Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive S + shall/will +have + V3 + (C + O) S + shall/will + have + been + V 3 + (by S) Active Passive S + shall/will + have + been + V ing + (C + O) S + shall/will + have + been + being + V 3 + (by S) Active Passive S + should/would + V1 + (C + O) S + should/would + be + V3 + (by S)
  25. 25. ~ 25 ~ Active Passive She would visit me yesterday, but unfortunately she fell sick I would be visited by her, but unfortunately she fell sick I should go movie last night, but the electricity was off Movie should be gone by me last night, but the electricity was off They would sell their product the 2 weeks before Their product would be sold the 2 weeks before 14. Future Past Perfect Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive She would has visited me yesterday I would have been visited by her yesterday We would have launched the book last month The book would has been launched by us last month They would have sold their product last week Their product would have been sold by them last week 15. Future Past Perfect Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive I should have been building my house for a year My house have been being built by me a year A teacher should have been teaching English for 2 years English should have been being taught by a teacher for 2 years I should have been studying English for 3 months, last month English should have been being studied by me for 3 months, last month 16. Future Past Continuous Tense The Formula : Examples : Active Passive S + Should/Would + Have + V3 + (C + O) S + should/would + have + been + V3 + (by S) Active Passive S + should/would + have + been + V ing + (C + O) S + should/would + have + been + being + V3 + (by S) Active Passive S + should/would + be + V ing + (C + O) S + should/would + be + being + V3 + (by S)
  26. 26. ~ 26 ~ Active Passive She would be visiting me at this morning I would be being visited by her at this morning They would be selling their product at this week their product would be being sold at this week We would be launching the book at this month The book would be being launched by us at this month Bibliography http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_sys-what.htm http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tense_(grammar) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_tense http://www.grammar.cl/Present/Simple.htm http://www.studyandexam.com/present-continuous-tense.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_perfect http://www.grammar.cl/Present/Perfect_Tense.htm http://www.studyandexam.com/present-perfect-continuous-tense.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_tense http://www.grammar-monster.com/glossary/simple_past_tense.htm http://www.studyandexam.com/past-perfect-tense.html http://www.studyandexam.com/past-continuous-tense.html http://learningenglishwithmichelle.blogspot.com/p/grammar.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_tense http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/futureinpast.html

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