Promoting respectful relationships
Sexual violence
 For children abused outside family, most common
perpetrator is a boyfriend (Cawson et al, 2000)
 9.7% o...
Sexual violence
Mori Poll, 2006
 31% UK women had sex to which they felt they had
not fully consented
Main factors influe...
Sexual violence
ICMpoll (2006)
 524 16-18 year olds in UK
 40% know girls whose boyfriends have coerced/
pressured
them ...
Sexual attitudes and sexual
violence
Malamuth et al, 1991; 1993a,b
‘Hostile masculinity’
 Hostility toward women
 Domina...
Rape myth acceptance
Rape myths as ‘releasers’ or‘neutralizers’
(Burt, 1980)
Frese et al, 2004
 Victim blame highest in a...
Rape myth acceptance
Frese et al, 2004 (cont)
 Situational factors: alcohol/ provocative dress
 Situational factors rele...
Rape myth acceptance
Amnesty International, 2005
 34% UK respondents believe women have partial or
total
responsibility f...
Genderand rape attribution
 No gender difference found in several studies -
RMA rather than gender (Check & Malamuth, 198...
 Sexual attitude survey of 13/ 14 year old school
children in South Wales
 Sample size 131-202
(Moultrie, 2006)
Questionnaires
 Items mainly drawn from existing tests
 Themes: rape attitudes, boys as not in control of
sexual
feeling...
Responses to initial
questionnaire
n=131-202
 Boys get such strong sexual feelings that they can’t
always control themsel...
 Sometimes a boy has to force a girl to have sex if
she won’t agree
very true/ mostly true
20% of boys
40% of girls
 Gir...
 Girls who party and get drunkjust have to accept
what happens
very true/ mostly true
48% of boys
66% of girls
 Some gir...
 The reason that some girls get raped is that they
lead boys on too much
very true/ mostly true
54% of boys
49% of girls
...
Thoughts so farfor
educational programmes
 Universal programme
 Target ‘ambiguous’ situations
 Challenge RMA/ hostile a...
‘Offside!’
Appropriate teenage
relationships
 DVD and workbook resource (7 session outlines)
 Suitable for boys and girl...
‘Offside!’
Tells the story of a group of teenagers, their attempts to
date and a sexual assault that occurs in the context...
Workbook
 Relationships - reciprocity, perspective taking and
forming
relationships
 Power differences in relationships
...
‘Offside!’
Benefits
 Dynamic and credible resource
 For universal or targeted use
 Indirect method of exploring behaviour - less
t...
Process of evaluation
Quantitative
 ‘Offside!’ programme run with 202 students
 No significant gender differences in res...
Feedbackfromyoung
people
Focus groups and feedbackforms
 Liked the info on romantic and sexual relationships
(rather
than...
Thankyou
taith.service@barnardos.org.uk
01656 – 749235
www.barnardos.org.uk/taith
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Denise Moultrie - Barnardos Workshop

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Slides from the Promoting Respectful Relationships conference in Cardiff 12th November 2010 - See http://www.respectwales.org.uk

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Denise Moultrie - Barnardos Workshop

  1. 1. Promoting respectful relationships
  2. 2. Sexual violence  For children abused outside family, most common perpetrator is a boyfriend (Cawson et al, 2000)  9.7% of UK women report sexual victimisation aged 16+, 4.9% raped (Home Office, 2002: Findings 159)  Age biggest risk factor (16-24 years)
  3. 3. Sexual violence Mori Poll, 2006  31% UK women had sex to which they felt they had not fully consented Main factors influencing sense of consent  Under influence of drink/ drugs  Physical coercion  Wish/ fear not to upset partner  Peer group pressure
  4. 4. Sexual violence ICMpoll (2006)  524 16-18 year olds in UK  40% know girls whose boyfriends have coerced/ pressured them into sex ‘Sugar’ magazine/NSPCC (2005)  2000 UK girls, mean age 15 years, online survey  6% had experienced forced sex with boyfriend  33% forgave and stayed in relationship
  5. 5. Sexual attitudes and sexual violence Malamuth et al, 1991; 1993a,b ‘Hostile masculinity’  Hostility toward women  Dominance in sexual relations  Attitudes accepting of violence toward women
  6. 6. Rape myth acceptance Rape myths as ‘releasers’ or‘neutralizers’ (Burt, 1980) Frese et al, 2004  Victim blame highest in acquaintance rape  Responsibility attribution for perpetrator lowest in acquaintance rape  Lower estimated trauma for acquaintance rape
  7. 7. Rape myth acceptance Frese et al, 2004 (cont)  Situational factors: alcohol/ provocative dress  Situational factors relevant for individuals with low RMA also (victim blame/ estimation of trauma/ recommendation to report)  Implies focus for prevention programmes on ‘ambiguous’ situations  Target specific misconceptions
  8. 8. Rape myth acceptance Amnesty International, 2005  34% UK respondents believe women have partial or total responsibility for being raped if they had behaved ‘flirtatiously’  26% believed women had some responsibility if wearing ‘revealing clothing’  30% believed women had some responsibility if they were drunk
  9. 9. Genderand rape attribution  No gender difference found in several studies - RMA rather than gender (Check & Malamuth, 1983; Freese et al, 2004)  Hostility toward women much more significant to RMA score for men (Lonsway & Fitzgerald, 1995)  Differential function of RMA across gender  Men: justify male sexual dominance  Women: mitigate fear and sense of vulnerability  [‘Just world’ (Lerner and Miller, 1978)]
  10. 10.  Sexual attitude survey of 13/ 14 year old school children in South Wales  Sample size 131-202 (Moultrie, 2006)
  11. 11. Questionnaires  Items mainly drawn from existing tests  Themes: rape attitudes, boys as not in control of sexual feelings, girls as ‘overly’ sexually available/ interested, consent, girls as untrustworthy  5 point scoring scale  Anonymous and with parental consent  Interval between tests - 12 weeks
  12. 12. Responses to initial questionnaire n=131-202  Boys get such strong sexual feelings that they can’t always control themselves very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls  You can’t always blame a boy forgoing too far very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls
  13. 13.  Sometimes a boy has to force a girl to have sex if she won’t agree very true/ mostly true 20% of boys 40% of girls  Girls who flirt a lot will probably have sex with anyone very true/ mostly true 47% of boys 32% of girls
  14. 14.  Girls who party and get drunkjust have to accept what happens very true/ mostly true 48% of boys 66% of girls  Some girls agree to sex but then say afterwards they were raped very true/ mostly true 56% of boys 28% of girls
  15. 15.  The reason that some girls get raped is that they lead boys on too much very true/ mostly true 54% of boys 49% of girls  The best way fora boy to find out if a girl wants sex is to keep going until she pushes him off very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls
  16. 16. Thoughts so farfor educational programmes  Universal programme  Target ‘ambiguous’ situations  Challenge RMA/ hostile attitudes
  17. 17. ‘Offside!’ Appropriate teenage relationships  DVD and workbook resource (7 session outlines)  Suitable for boys and girls, aged 12+  Can be used with individuals or groups
  18. 18. ‘Offside!’ Tells the story of a group of teenagers, their attempts to date and a sexual assault that occurs in the context of a party. We look at the impact on the boy and girl involved.  Enhance dating knowledge  Challenge rape myths  Enhance victim empathy/ understanding  Identify negative outcomes
  19. 19. Workbook  Relationships - reciprocity, perspective taking and forming relationships  Power differences in relationships  Discrimination and sexuality - challenging of oppressive attitudes  Consent  Victim empathy  Consequences of sexually harmful behaviour
  20. 20. ‘Offside!’
  21. 21. Benefits  Dynamic and credible resource  For universal or targeted use  Indirect method of exploring behaviour - less threatening and good for ‘deniers’  Ease and consistency of delivery
  22. 22. Process of evaluation Quantitative  ‘Offside!’ programme run with 202 students  No significant gender differences in responses  Significant reduction in total score pre/ post the ‘Offside!’ programme (but also reduction in control group)
  23. 23. Feedbackfromyoung people Focus groups and feedbackforms  Liked the info on romantic and sexual relationships (rather than biological info)  Recalled key themes of consent, age differences in relationships, how to ask girls out, rejection, victim impact (minority)  Assault scene stimulated discussion as to responsibility Recalled more by girls as most significant
  24. 24. Thankyou taith.service@barnardos.org.uk 01656 – 749235 www.barnardos.org.uk/taith
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