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Denise Moultrie - Barnardos Workshop

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Slides from the Promoting Respectful Relationships conference in Cardiff 12th November 2010 - See http://www.respectwales.org.uk

Slides from the Promoting Respectful Relationships conference in Cardiff 12th November 2010 - See http://www.respectwales.org.uk

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Transcript

  • 1.
    • Promoting respectful relationships
  • 2. Sexual violence
    • For children abused outside family, most common
    • perpetrator is a boyfriend (Cawson et al, 2000)
    • 9.7% of UK women report sexual victimisation
    • aged 16+, 4.9% raped (Home Office, 2002: Findings 159)
    • Age biggest risk factor (16-24 years)
  • 3. Sexual violence
    • Mori Poll, 2006
    • 31% UK women had sex to which they felt they had
    • not fully consented
    • Main factors influencing sense of consent
    • Under influence of drink/ drugs
    • Physical coercion
    • Wish/ fear not to upset partner
    • Peer group pressure
  • 4. Sexual violence
    • ICM poll (2006)
    • 524 16-18 year olds in UK
    • 40% know girls whose boyfriends have coerced/ pressured
    • them into sex
    • ‘ Sugar’ magazine/ NSPCC (2005)
    • 2000 UK girls, mean age 15 years, online survey
    • 6% had experienced forced sex with boyfriend
    • 33% forgave and stayed in relationship
  • 5. Sexual attitudes and sexual violence
    • Malamuth et al, 1991; 1993a,b
    • ‘ Hostile masculinity’
    • Hostility toward women
    • Dominance in sexual relations
    • Attitudes accepting of violence toward women
  • 6. Rape myth acceptance
    • Rape myths as ‘releasers’ or ‘neutralizers’
    • (Burt, 1980)
    • Frese et al, 2004
    • Victim blame highest in acquaintance rape
    • Responsibility attribution for perpetrator lowest in
    • acquaintance rape
    • Lower estimated trauma for acquaintance rape
  • 7. Rape myth acceptance
    • Frese et al, 2004 (cont)
    • Situational factors: alcohol/ provocative dress
    • Situational factors relevant for individuals with low RMA
    • also (victim blame/ estimation of trauma/ recommendation
    • to report)
    • Implies focus for prevention programmes on ‘ambiguous’
    • situations
    • Target specific misconceptions
  • 8. Rape myth acceptance
    • Amnesty International, 2005
    • 34% UK respondents believe women have partial or total
    • responsibility for being raped if they had behaved
    • ‘ flirtatiously’
    • 26% believed women had some responsibility if wearing
    • ‘ revealing clothing’
    • 30% believed women had some responsibility if they were
    • drunk
  • 9. Gender and rape attribution
    • No gender difference found in several studies -
    • RMA rather than gender (Check & Malamuth, 1983;
    • Freese et al, 2004)
    • Hostility toward women much more significant to
    • RMA score for men (Lonsway & Fitzgerald, 1995)
    • Differential function of RMA across gender
    • Men: justify male sexual dominance
    • Women: mitigate fear and sense of vulnerability
    • [‘Just world’ (Lerner and Miller, 1978)]
  • 10.
    • Sexual attitude survey of 13/ 14 year old school
    • children in South Wales
    • Sample size 131-202
    • (Moultrie, 2006)
  • 11. Questionnaires
    • Items mainly drawn from existing tests
    • Themes: rape attitudes, boys as not in control of sexual
    • feelings, girls as ‘overly’ sexually available/ interested,
    • consent, girls as untrustworthy
    • 5 point scoring scale
    • Anonymous and with parental consent
    • Interval between tests - 12 weeks
  • 12. Responses to initial questionnaire
    • n=131-202
    • Boys get such strong sexual feelings that they can’t
    • always control themselves very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls
    • You can’t always blame a boy for going too far very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls
  • 13.
    • Sometimes a boy has to force a girl to have sex if
    • she won’t agree very true/ mostly true 20% of boys 40% of girls
    • Girls who flirt a lot will probably have sex with
    • anyone very true/ mostly true 47% of boys 32% of girls
  • 14.
    • Girls who party and get drunk just have to accept
    • what happens very true/ mostly true 48% of boys 66% of girls
    • Some girls agree to sex but then say afterwards
    • they were raped very true/ mostly true 56% of boys 28% of girls
  • 15.
    • The reason that some girls get raped is that they
    • lead boys on too much very true/ mostly true 54% of boys 49% of girls
    • The best way for a boy to find out if a girl wants
    • sex is to keep going until she pushes him off very true/ mostly true 60% of boys 70% of girls
  • 16. Thoughts so far for educational programmes
    • Universal programme
    • Target ‘ambiguous’ situations
    • Challenge RMA/ hostile attitudes
  • 17. ‘ Offside!’ Appropriate teenage relationships
    • DVD and workbook resource (7 session outlines)
    • Suitable for boys and girls, aged 12+
    • Can be used with individuals or groups
  • 18. ‘ Offside!’
    • Tells the story of a group of teenagers, their attempts to date and a sexual assault that occurs in the context of a party. We look at the impact on the boy and girl involved.
    • Enhance dating knowledge
    • Challenge rape myths
    • Enhance victim empathy/ understanding
    • Identify negative outcomes
  • 19. Workbook
    • Relationships - reciprocity, perspective taking and forming
    • relationships
    • Power differences in relationships
    • Discrimination and sexuality - challenging of oppressive
    • attitudes
    • Consent
    • Victim empathy
    • Consequences of sexually harmful behaviour
  • 20.
    • ‘ Offside!’
  • 21. Benefits
    • Dynamic and credible resource
    • For universal or targeted use
    • Indirect method of exploring behaviour - less threatening
    • and good for ‘deniers’
    • Ease and consistency of delivery
  • 22. Process of evaluation
    • Quantitative
    • ‘ Offside!’ programme run with 202 students
    • No significant gender differences in responses
    • Significant reduction in total score pre/ post the ‘Offside!’
    • programme (but also reduction in control group)
  • 23. Feedback from young people
    • Focus groups and feedback forms
    • Liked the info on romantic and sexual relationships (rather
    • than biological info)
    • Recalled key themes of consent, age differences in
    • relationships, how to ask girls out, rejection, victim impact
    • (minority)
    • Assault scene stimulated discussion as to responsibility
    • Recalled more by girls as most significant
  • 24. Thank you
    • [email_address]
    • 01656 – 749235
    • www.barnardos.org.uk/taith