As part of the Responsible Cape Town pilot project, a workshop on World Tourism Day 2012 saw several leading Responsible Tourism businesses sharing their practices and recent actions on the theme of Sustainable Energy.
Powering Sustainable Development World Tourism DaySheryl Ozinsky 28 September 2012
Recognizing theimportance of energy forsustainable development,the UN has designated2012 as the InternationalYear of Sustainable Energyfor All
One and a half billion people in developing countriesare without electricity and even when energyservices are available, as in South Africa, millions ofpoor people are unable to pay for them.Thus, there is an inextricable link between energyand sustainable development and modern, cleanerand more efficient energy is relevant in theeradication of poverty.
“Tourism and Sustainable Energy: PoweringSustainable Development” is the theme ofthis year’s World Tourism Day, selected toadvance the goals of the 2012 InternationalYear of Sustainable Energy for All.Sustainable energy will allow tourism tocontinue to expand while mitigating its impacton the environment.Many in the tourism industry have alreadyshown leadership in developing anddeploying clean energy solutions, cuttingenergy consumption and carbon emissions in Message by the UN Secretary-some regions by up to 40 per cent through General, Ban Ki-Mooninitiatives such as the Hotel Energy Solutionstoolkit developed by the UN World TourismOrganization and the UN EnvironmentProgramme.”
Energy Smart Cape Town More resilient Improved and more quality of life competitive for residents city
Why be concerned about Tourism andClimate Change? • Tourism is a vector of climate change accounts for approx 5% of global carbon dioxide emissions. • The transport sector, including air, car and rail, generates the largest proportion, with 75% of all emissions. Air travel is considered the main tourism contributor to global warming. • The accommodation sector accounts for approximately 20% of emissions from tourism. This involves heating, air- conditioning and the maintenance of bars, restaurants, pools, etc. • Activities such as museums, attractions, events or shopping also contribute to 3.5% emissions.
Why be concerned about Tourism andClimate Change? • Tourists will quickly switch their choice of destination when the results of climate change impact on their enjoyment. • The tourism sector depends heavily on a natural and cultural heritage. • Careful management of climate related impacts would be essential in order to safeguard positive destination image in the long term.
Tourism is at the forefront of some of the world’smost innovative clean energy solutions• Aviation industry is implementing cutting-edge technologies to make aircraft lighter than ever before; commercial flights are beginning to use biofuels in their fuel mix;• Key card systems and energy saving light bulbs are increasingly being implemented in hotel and guest house rooms worldwide• Tour operators are asking for energy efficiency throughout their supply chains.
South Africa ranks in the top 20 for greenhouse gas emissions,contributing 8% to global emissions, and is responsible for 42% of emissions on the African continent
In Cape Town we face a triple challenge: A high carbon footprint – per capita carbon emissions on par with London, New York and Beijing. Poor energy security – highly dependent on electricity from coal power stations nearly 2000 km away. Vulnerability to the impacts of climate change – a sprawling city dependent on private vehicles where the poor generally live far from opportunities.
Cape Town Carbon Emissions in a Global Context (per capita)8 7.1 6.97 6.4 6.18 São Paulo (2003)6 Delhi (2000) Rio de Janeiro (1998)5 4.8 Barcelona (1996) 4 Mexico City (2000)4 3.6 Stokholm (2005) 3.4 Tokyo (1998)3 London (2006) Cape Town (metro,2 2004) Beijing (1998) New York City (2005)10 1 Cape Town Source: Urban Areas Carbon and Climate Governance Patricia Romero Lankao
Electricity Consumption by Sector Cape Town, 2007 Government Transport 2% 2% Industrial 13% Residential 43% Commercial 40%
Energy and Climate Action Plan (ECAP May 2010) 4 Criteria 10 Key Goal Objectives Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Low Carbon City Public Transport Compact City Energy City that Fosters Economic Local Energy Business Development Security in CT Development Job Creation Improved Health/Quality of Life Poverty Alleviation Better Access to Urban Goods Lower RiskEnergy and Climate Resilient CityAction Plan (ECAP) Localisation (May 2010)
Energy & Climate Action Plan: Objectives City-Wide 10% Reduction in Electricity Consumption on Unconstrained Growth byObjective 1 2012 (3.3%/annum 2010-2012) 10% Renewable and Cleaner Energy Supply by 2020; all growth in electricityObjective 2 demand to be met by cleaner/renewable supply Council Operations: 10% Reduction in Energy Consumption on UnconstrainedObjective 3 Growth by 2012 (3.3%/Annum 2010-2012); all growth in demand to be met by cleaner / renewable supplyObjective 4 Compact resource efficient city development; reduce urban sprawlObjective 5 Sustainable transport systemObjective 6 Adapting to and building resilience to climate change impacts (city wide)Objective 7 More resilient low income/vulnerable communitiesObjective 8 Development of carbon sales potential of all projectsObjective 9 Local economic development in energy sectorObjective 10 Awareness: E&CC communications and education programmesOverall Energy and Climate Change resources, research, development and monitoring
Greenhouse Gas Emissions into theFuture: Business as Usual Greenhouse gas emissions associated with the ‘Business as Usual’ energy growth is untenable given the national and international pressures to reduce carbon emissions.
What do we do? 1 Electricity efficiencyBusiness as usual 2 Transport efficiency 3 Renewable electricity supply Optimum Energy Future Optimum Energy Future interventions do not compromise energy service delivery.
EFFICIENCY: ALMOST ALL ELECTRICITY EFFICIENCY INTERVENTIONS ARE FINANCIALLY SENSIBLE LEADING TO A MORE EFFICIENT ECONOMY Cumulative net saving from electricity efficiency interventions up to 2025R 1 400 000 000 Mid-hi income residential The bars represent cumulative net savings (i.e. considering capitalR 1 200 000 000 costs and electricity Commercial savings) of electricityR 1 000 000 000 efficiency interventions. R 800 000 000 R 600 000 000 R 400 000 000 Low-income residential Govt R 200 000 000 R0 LI lighting LI fridge HI lighting HI fridge HI water COM COM COM LG lighting LG HVAC LG street LG traffic HVAC water lighting lights signals
Why should we be concerned aboutclimate change in Cape Town?Within the next 25 years there is a85% probability of 60,9 km2(2% of metro area) being covered bysea for a short period.Sea-level rise could induce tourismlosses of R20 billion over 25 years.“The sovereign risk of sea-level rise for the City ofCape Town is significant and will increase in thenext 25 years regardless of reductions ingreenhouse gas”. City sea-level rise risk study 2008
The tourism sector is highlyclimate sensitive as climate definesthe length and quality of tourismseasons, affects tourism operations,and influences environmentalconditions that both attract and detervisitors.Africa is one of the tourism regionsthought to be most at risk.Climate change adaptation willensure that individuals, communitiesand nations continue to receive thebenefits of tourism.A CHANGING CLIMATE WILL HAVECONSIDERABLE IMPACTS ON TOURISM
City’s 2008 adaptation study - potential storm event damageand infrastructure at risk for 2.5, 4.5 and 6 meter rise in sea levels
The Davos Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism An International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism was held in Davos, Switzerland in 2007.The Davos Declaration included firm recommendationsa clear commitment for action.Four key areas were agreed upon: Mitigate transport and accommodation emissions Adapt tourism businesses and destinations Apply existing and new efficient technologies Secure financial resources to assist poorer regions and countries.
Tourism identified in Climate Change Response White Paper South Africa has developed a White Paper on Climate Change Response. The Paper identifies tourism as a sector that contributes to and will be affected by Climate Change. Recommends that tourism develop an Action Plan to address the adaptation and mitigation issues raised in the Paper. A Tourism & Climate Change Task Team comprising of government, business, NGOs and academia was established in December 2010 to assist with the development of a National Tourism and Climate Change Action Plan.
Those who react astutely and nimbly to the imperatives of the low-carbon transition will prosper, while those who seek to hold back thetides, or pretend that the tides aren’t even there, will look back in sorrow.Countries and cities that sink their treasure now into a dirty coal infrastructure, high-carbon production methods and development which isnot energy efficient are not only jeopardizing the health of the planet, they are jeopardizing their own economic future.Adapted from Tod Stern US Climate Action Symposium March 2009.
Energy EfficiencyRenewable EnergyBehaviour Change
Energy EfficiencyEnergy consumption monitoringEnergy audit of the hotelWindow insulation; Building InsulationInstallation of sun protectorsKey card systems to switch off electricity in guest roomsLighting controlsEnergy saving light bulbsEnergy efficiency rating of electrical appliancesMotors with variable frequency controls in HVACRegulation of space heating and coolingThermal insulation of water systems, domestic hot water tanks and pipesEfficient ventilation systems
Renewal EnergySolar Domestic Hot Water systemsHeat PumpsSolar photovoltaic electricity systemsSolar heated swimming poolsSmall wind energy systemsMicro-hydropower energy systems
Envelope: extended eaves, pergolas, screens andcovered outside decks provide cool respite fromthe hot African sun.
Screen: shading from hot sun and shelter fromprevailing winds.
Natural light and ventilation: all spaces havenatural light and cross-ventilation.
Heating and cooking: closed combustion fireplace and braai high efficiency and low emissions
Skin: planted roofs insulate and weather skinkeeps cool in summer and warm in winter.
City Sightseeing operate a fleet of super-lowemission buses that comply with all Eurostandards for environmental impact.Reduce noise pollution as well as energy andwater consumption.Commissioned Global Carbon Exchange(GCX), to conduct a carbon audit to calculate “We urgently have totheir carbon footprint under the guidelines set reconsider and rethink the way we are conductingout in the GHG Protocol. business in order to stop,City Sightseeing subsequently selected or ideally even reverse, environmental damage andReliance - a commercial producer of high degradation. Cityquality composted products. Reliance has Sightseeing is passionateadopted a composting methodology that about Cape Town andreduces the amount of methane released into preserving this environment for our futurethe atmosphere when compared to other generations. We willcomposting methods – thereby affording the continue to strive towardscompany carbon credits to sell. greater sustainability and responsible tourism.” Claus Tworeck
ENERGY EFFICIENCY FORUM for Commercial Buildings4 meetings in the yearMarketplace in December for energy efficient goods/services