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Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
Apostila ingles ens medio 000
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  • 1. 2 2
  • 2. 3 ÍNDICE PARTE I – INTERPRETAÇÃO DE TEXTO........................................................ 5 PARTE II – GRAMÁTICA ......................................................………………….. 21 1. Verb to be – Present Tense ......................................................………………... 22 2. Proomes Pessoais ......................................................………………………….. 23 3. Possessive and adjectives pronouns ......................................................……….. 24 4. Verb there to be – Present Tense ......................................................………….. 26 5. Present Continuous Tense ......................................................………………… 26 6. Simple Presente Tense ......................................................…………………….. 28 7. Verb to be – Past Tense ......................................................…………………… 30 8. Verb there to be – Past Tense ......................................................……………... 30 9. Pronomes Interrogativos ......................................................…………………... 31 10. The Past Continuous Tense ......................................................………………. 32 11. Simple Past Tense............................................................................................. 33 12. The Simple Future Tense (will + verbo) ......................................................…. 36 13. Future with “going to” ......................................................…………………… 37 14. Adjectives ......................................................................................................... 38 BIBLIOGRAFIA ………………………………………………………………… 41 3
  • 3. 4 4
  • 4. 5 PART I Reading Comprehension 5
  • 5. 6 ACTIVITY 1 Você sabia que a alimentação mais popular em todo o mundo, em se tratando de “fast food” é o hamburguer? Sua história começou em 1904.Vamos conhecê-la, lendo o texto. HAMBURGER The Hamburger, introduced by Germans at World's Fair in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904, is named for the port Hamburg in Germany. The name "hamburger" comes from “beef in a bun” - there isn't any ham in it. Today, the hamburger is the most popular fast food in the world and twelve thousand people order one ia tile United States every minute! You can have lots of different styles of hamburgers or you can order other things in a bun. Next time, try a fishburger, a chickeburger or even a veggieburger. Vocabulary Germans: alemães To order: pedir Fair: feira Things: coisas Bun: bolo Next time: próxima vez Hans: presunto Even: ainda Town: cidade To try: tentar, experimentar Exercises 1- Quando e onde surgiu o hamburger? _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2- Quais os ingredientes de um hamburger? ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3- Quais variações do hamburger tradicional que o texto sugere? ___________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4- Assinale a correta: 6
  • 6. 7 No texto o pronome it refere-se a: ( ) beef ( ) ham ( ) bum ( ) hamburger ACTIVITY 2 WILD FRUIT CREAM The Marula tree, indigenous to the southern latitudes of subequatorial Africa, and know by the local inhabitants as the elephant for its fruit. The wild tree, never cultivated by man, bears small yellow fruit in great profusion, providing a nourishing harvest of food and an occasion for the animal kingdom. The fruit, unique in taste and extremely riçh in vitamin C, has for many centuries been used by man as source of both food and drink. Exercises 1. Assinale as alternativas corretas de acordo com o texto: ( ) A amarula é feita a partir de uma fruta siIvestre. ( ) A árvore da amarula nunca foi cultivada pe1o homem. ( ) A fruta da amarula é rica em vitamina C. ( ) Por muitos séculos a fruta da amarula vem sendo utilizada na produção de bebidas alcoólicas. ( ) A amarula é conhecida como árvore do elefante, pois é a única fonte de alimento deste animal. 7
  • 7. 8 ACTIVITY 3 Você gosta dos Beatles? O que você sabe sobre este grupo que fez muito sucesso na década de 60? Leia texto e descubra. THE BEATLES The Beatles were the most famous pop group in history. It was formed by four Englishmen: George Harrison (1943 - ), John Lennon (1949 - 1980), Paul MacCartney (1942- ),and Ringo Star(1940- ). Ringo Star played the drums, and the others played the guitar. They all sang. Lennon and MacCartney wrote most of songs, but Harrison and Star wrote songs too. All the four of them were born in Liverpool, England. In 1960 they formed “The Beatles". During the 60's, The Beatles revolutionized pop music and today their songs are rock'n roll classics. The group parted in the beginning of the 1970's, for persona1 and commercial reasons. Nowadays, Paul, Ringo and Geroge have their ownbands and solo carerers. (From: Book Five – Fisk) Exercises 1. Fill in this file card based on the text: Group: __________________________________________________________________________ Nationality: ______________________________________________________________________ Place of birthday: _________________________________________________________________ Group formation: _________________________________________________________________ Group separation: ________________________________________________________________ Jonh Lennon´s death: ______________________________________________________________ Age: George´s: ___________________________________________________________________ 8
  • 8. 9 Paul´s ______________________________________________________________________ Ringo's _____________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4 BRAZIL INDUSTRY Rapid industrialization, beginning with Word War I, has characterized the most recent phase of Brazilian's economic development. The cities of Sao Paulo, SP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Recife, PE, and, later, Belo Horizonte, MG, Porto Alegre, RS and Salvador, BA, have become important industrial centers. The steel plant Volta Redonda, RJ, built in 1946 with technical and financial assistance from the United States, is among the largest industrial projects in Latin America, and steel production is rapidly increasing. Brazil also produces a great variety of manufactured goods, of which textiles are the most important. Other products include all types of machinery, automobiles, tires and other rubber commodities, aluminum articles, eletric appliances, and shoes. The value of industrial production is only slightly less than of agricultural production. To serve these growing industries, electric production has been greatly increased. It is estimated that Brazil, with its many vast rivers, has potential of 14,500,000 KW, although only a fraction of this has yet been developed. The most import hydroelectric power project is at Paulo Afonso on the São Francisco River. Fonte: Revista Manchete – Edicão Especial Exercises 1. Responda de acordo com o texto: a) Quais cidades brasileiras são importantes centros industriais? ________________________________________________________________________________ b) Cite alguns produtos produzidos pelas indústrias brasileiras. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Assinale a alternativa correta: - O que não se produz no Brasil, segundo o texto? a. Calçados d. Produtos têxteis b. Produtos eletrônicos e) Pneus c. Aço - Segundo o texto, o potencial hidrelétrico no Brasil: a. Não é totalmente aproveitado. 9
  • 9. 10 b. É utilizado, inclusive, na produção agrícola do país. c. É aproveitado, parcialmente, na fabricação de automóveis e máquinas de grande porte. d. É o maior da América Latina. e. É um dos maiores do mundo. ACTIVITY 5 ADVERTIS1NG TRAINEES Are you young, bright, and eager to have a career in Advertising a Comnunications? We need new people to plan a create advertising campaigns. We will train you. No experience is necessary, but you must have resumé, and 100 words Englishi, hand-written, explaining you abilities and why should choose YOU, to “Training for jobs”, Caixa Postal 66208 (Fonte: O Estado de São Paulo) Assinale a alternativa correta: 1. A frase: "No experience is necessary, but you must have a perfect knowledge of English", pode ser traduzida como: a) Não é necessário ter experiência para ter um bom conhecimento de Inglês. b) É necessário não ter experiência, mas você deve ter um conhecimento perfeitode Inglês. c) Não é necessário ter experiência, mas você deve ter um conhecimento perfeito de Inglês. d) Não é necessário ter experiência e nem mesmo ter um conhecimento perfeito de Inglês. 2. O anúncio procura um profissional: a) Para a área de Propaganda. b) Para a área de Planejamento e Criatividade. c) Que não precisa ser treinado. d) Que tenha um domínio razoável de inglês. e) Que saiba falar, pelo menos, 100 palavras em inglês. 3. O curriculum que o candidato deverá mandar precisa ser: a) Datilografado b) Escrito à mão 10
  • 10. 11 c) Extenso d) Criativo e) Bem escrito e em português ACTIVITY 6 INTERNET You will have learned to browse in the Internet before you start your professional life. All information you need will be available at a data base that you can access via Internet. You’ll have an e-mail address, an image telephone, and you will do your shopping through electronic commerce. You will take part in electronic forums, where each participant can give his opinion via computer. Films will beprogrammed: you will tell your Internet service which film you want to see and at what time. You will listen to music without buying CD’s. This will be the word of Internet. We will have learned a lot of computer skills in order to survive in the information Age. The Internet will be the necessary basis for our everyday life. How did the Internet start? Well, it really started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means that a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. This project was called ARPANET. Durnig the 70’s and 80’s, computer technology developed very fast. Networks were developed, like the ARPANET. Later on, modens allowed a persons to connect the computer to a telephone line and “talk” to another computer in the same manner. A network could “talk” to other networks. Today, millions of individuals are accessing the Internet daily. The number doubles every 18 months. Vocabulary Age: era Learn: aprender Allow: permitir Link: ligar Avaliable: disponível Mean: significar Browse: navegar na Internet Modem: dispositivo de comunicação Data base: banco de dados Network: rede Double: dobra Skill: habilidade E-mail: correio eletrônico Survive: sobreviver File: arquivo Through: através de 11
  • 11. 12 Exercises 1. Responda de acordo com o texto: a) O que nós precisamos para viver na era da informação? ____________________________________________________________ b) Qual foi a primeira rede de computadores? _____________________________________________________________ c) O que era a ARPANET? _____________________________________________________________ d) Como um computador consegue “conversar” com outro que está distante? _____________________________________________________________ e) Qual é o ritmo de crescimento dos usuários da internet? ___________________________________________________________ 2. Check the correct alternative according to the text. The Internet: a) Will be military reality in the future. b) Will be important for everyone. c) Is made of 21 computers d) Can be used to develop technology very fast. e) Teaches computer skills. Something that you can’t do via Internet: a) Shopping. b) Send messages. c) Participate in debates. d) Dance. 12
  • 12. 13 e) Study. ACTIVITY 7 MARINGÁ PARANÁ – BRASIL Maringá ... Maringá ... It has half a century since the pionners arrived and cultivated the land holding their sieves as a heart beating the rhythm of the song “ Maringá ... Maringá...” Today the wave of coffee has receded, but the fields have been covered by soybeans, wheat, cotton, pasture... and the song became a city, beating strong to the rhythm of progress. But Maringá is not just labor, the city is always prompt to be disclosed through its modern urbanization of wide and treed avenues which provide colored shades of flamboyants, date palms, silk oaks, “ipês”- yellow and purple, through daring architectural monuments, or even through the diversity of its population, a kaleidoscope of the ethnic groups which gave to its people. There are many roads to Maringá and it is easy to reach the city but it is easier to simply stay there. With excelent facilities Maringá is highly receptive. It has different class hotels and a gastronomic choise of : Arabic, Italian, Chinese, Japanese and Portuguese cuisine, in addition to barbecue restaurants which serve delicious beef to meet anyone 5 taste. Its tourists attractions are much related to its culture, arquitecture and the preservation of nature, in a beautiful demonstrate of respect for man´s natural habitat. The Beauty of Maringá is irresistible. Vocabulary Arrived: chegou Shade: sombra Beating: batendo Sieves: peneira Century: século Silk oaks: carvalhos sedosos Daring: ousadia Taste: gosto, paladar Date palms: palmeiras antigas Through: através Gave: passado do verbo “to give” To arrive: chegar Half: meio To disclose: descobrir Heart: coração To give: dar Hold: ocupou To help: ajudar Holding: ocupando To recede: recuar 13
  • 13. 14 It has seen: tem sido Treed: arborizada Provide: prover, abastecer Wheat: trigo Reach: chegar, alcançar Wide: larga Exercises Complete, em português, baseando-se na leitura do texto. 1. No primeiro parágrafo, o autor compara o ritmo do coração batendo, com o tino de uma canção. Cite o nome desta canção e retire do texto a frase que comprova a sua resposta. ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Hoje, em Maringá, o café já não é mais a maior cultura agrícola. Cite os diversos tipos de culturas atuais. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Ao descrever as avenidas de Maringá, o autor cita alguns tipos de árvores. Quais são? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Maringá não é só trabalho. Temos várias opções de lazer, turismo e tipos de comidas típicas. O que o texto fala sobre o assunto? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 14
  • 14. 15 ACTIVITY 8 MICROELETRONICS: HOW DOES IT AFFECT OUR LIVES? No doubt, microeletronics has affected nowadays culture. It has specially affected our lives in the field of small personal consumer goods. Digital watches, pocket calculators, personal stereos are now universally available in great variety. Microeletronics is also applied in our home. Cookers, washing machines, dishwashers, microwave ovens, video cassete recorders are now being fitted with their own microeletronic programmes. A microcomputer, for example, enables us to programme all services we use in the house: to switch lights on and off, record selected programmes, switch the TV on and off, take telephone messages, etc. Can you imagine an office without microeletronic nowadays? Big business compaies without computers? Typists, and all those standard letters, without word processors? Machines do not replace people. On the other hand, some people do not replace certains machines! Vocabulary Available: disponível Home: lar, casa Boring: maçante, chato On the other hand: por outro lado Field: campo To switch off: ligar Goods: mercadorias, bens To witch on: ligar 15
  • 15. 16 Exercises 1. Write true ( T ) or false ( F ) according to the text: a) There are many of offices without microeletronics. ( ) b) With a microeletronic it is possible to switch the TV on switch the TV on and off. ( ) c) The field of small personal goods shows great variety. ( ) d) Boring typists type standard letters. ( ) e) Machines do not replace certain people. ( ) f) Our lives are no doubt affected by microeletronics. ( ) g) When there are good computers in big business companies, there is no need for secretaries. ( ) h) There are dishwashers, washing machines, microwave ovens fitted with microeletronic programmes. ( ) i) Microeletronic is more important in the field of small personal consumer goods. ( ) j) It is boring to programme all services in the house. ( ) 2. Complete the notes according to the text: a) Microeletronics_____________________________________________________ b) A microcomputer,___________________________________________________ 16
  • 16. 17 ACTIVITY 9 HARD ROCK CAFÉ People need an international language to do business, to travel, to study sciences, technology, etc. This language is English. People also need na international language for the heart. This language is Music. Young people need a sanctuary. They like to meet, eat decent food, have ice-creams, express their feelings and ideas, listen to good pop/rock. One of these places is the Hard Rock Café. A restaurant? A meeting place for the rockers? The Hard Rock Café is all that... and more. It is a place where you can eat a “decent” hamburger, have lovely ice- creams, meet girls and boys, buy fashion T-shirts, watches, badges, jackets, magazines, etc. It is a place for famous rockers too. The HRC´s decoration consists of an enormous collection of items like: musical instruments, photos, posters, motorbikes, clothes, etc. These clothes belonged to famous rockers like Maddona, Jimi Hendrix, Elvis, Peter Gabriel, Michael Jackson, Beatles, Prince and others. It is common to hear this question in the HRC: “ How much is that guitar in the window?” The Hard Rock Café has a slogan: “Love All Serve All”. And they say it isn ´t just a slogan: It´s their way of life. Eric Clapton is famous and he goes to the HRC to eat his favorite “Pig” sandwich. He is very well served. But you are not a rock star... It doesn´t matter! Suppose you are visiting the HRC for the first time: you are also very well treated, and they say you are a member of Hard Rock Family. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for their success. Vocabulary Badge: emblema To do business: fazer negócios To listen: (to): ouvir 17
  • 17. 18 Exercises 1. Responda: a) Como é a decoração do HRC? ________________________________________________________________________________ b) Que pergunta é comum ouvir no HRC? ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Answer: a) What is the international language for the heart? ________________________________________________________________________________ b) What´s the secret of the Hard Rock Cafe's sucess? ___________________________________________________________________ c) Which items decorate the Hard Rock Café? ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write true (T) or false (F), according to the text. a) Eric Clapton is famous for his “Pig” sandwich only. ( ) b) English is the language of business, sciences and tecnology. ( ) c) Only members of the Hard Rock Family are well treated. ( ) d) The Hard Rock Café belongs to famous rockers like Madonna, Michael Jackson, Prince and others. ( ) e) Young people like to meet friends, eat good hamburgers, express their feelings in places like the Hard Rock Café. ( ) f) The Hard Rock Cafe is not a meeting place. It´s just a restaurant and shop. ( ) g) “Love Ali Serve All” is not only a slogan, but also a way of life. ( ) h) They also treat well people who visit the HRC for the first time. ( ) i) The guitar in the window belonged to Elvis Presley. ( ) 4. Responda: a) Qual a língua internacional da ciência, dos negócios, das viagens? ________________________________________________________________________________ b) Qual a linguagem internacional do coração? ________________________________________________________________________________ 18
  • 18. 19 c) Você já ouviu falar de um dos mais famosos “santuários” dos jovens de todo mundo? ________________________________________________________________________________ d) O Hard Rock Café é uma espécie de restaurante ou lanchonete? ________________________________________________________________________________ e) É um ponto de encontro de jovens e roqueiros? ________________________________________________________________________________ f) É somente uma loja? ________________________________________________________________________________ g) Qual é o slogan do HRC? ________________________________________________________________________________ h) Só gente famosa é bem recebida no HRC? ________________________________________________________________________________ i) O que você passa a ser considerado depois de ir ao HRC pela primeira vez? ________________________________________________________________________________ 19
  • 19. 20 20
  • 20. 21 PART II Grammar 21
  • 21. 22 1 – VERB TO BE – PRESENT TENSE O verbo to be é um dos verbos mais estudados na língua inglesa. O quadro abaixo apresenta- o nas formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa do presente e também os pronomes pessoais. Observe com atenção: FORMA AFIRMATIVA FORMA CONTRACTA I am I’m You are You’re He is He’s She is She’s It is It’s We are We’re You are You’re They are They’re FORMA NEGATIVA FORMAS CONTRACTAS I am not - I’m not You are not You aren’t You’re not He is not He isn’t He’s not She is not She isn’t She’s not It is not It isn’t It’s not We are not We aren’t We’re not You are not You aren’t You’re not They are not They aren’t They’re not SUJEITO + VERBO + NOT FORMA INTERROGATIVA Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is It? Are we? Are you? Are they? VERBO VEM ANTES DO SUJEITO Exercises 1. Complete com as formas corretas do verbo To be: a) That girl__________French. b) You and your brother_________________welcome. c) She_____________in the kitchen. d) _______________you doctors? 22
  • 22. 23 e) He_______________sick. f) My house _____________brown. g) The horses ____________in the field. h) My sister and I__________late. 2. Complete os diálogos: a) A:__________you from the United States? B: Yes, I_____________ . ______________from chicago. b) A:___________she from Brazil. B: No, she____________ . ______________from Uruguay. 3. Complete os diálogos, seguindo o exemplo: Peter is English. (Susan) Is Susan English, too? No, she isn’t. a) He is at school. (they) ____________ too? No, ___________ . b) Philip and Scheila are late. (I) _____________ too? Yes, ___________. c) That man is French. (you and your sister) ____________ too? No, ____________. d) This cat is black. (dog) _____________ too? Yes, ______________. e) The doctor is young. (pilot) _____________too? Yes, ___________. f) The airport is far. (theater) _______________too? No, ___________. 2 – PRONOMES PESSOAIS – SUJEITO Singular Plural I We Os pronomes pessoais sujeito são You You empregados como sujeito do verbo. He, She, It They Exercises 1. Substitua os sujeitos por pronomes pessoais: a) Mr. Todd is s doctor ________ is a doctor. b) That girl is french. ________ is french. 23
  • 23. 24 c) The boys are in the cinema. ________ are in the cinema. d) My sister and I are late. ________ are late. e) Little Tom is sick. ________ is sick. f) You and your brother are welcome. ________ are welcome. g) The horses are in the field. ________ are in the field. h) The cat in the kitchen. ________ is in the kitchen. i) My house is brown ________ is brown. j) The girls are studying now. ________ are studying. 3 – POSSESSIVE AND ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE/ POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS My Mine Your Yours This is my book. (adjective) His His Her Hers That book is yours. (pronoun) Its Its Our Ours Your Yours (your book) Their Theirs Uso: − Os adjetivos possessivos vêm antes do substantivo. − Os pronomes possessivos são usados no lugar do substantivo. − Tanto os adjetivos quanto os pronomes concordam com o possuidor e não com a coisa possuída. I bring my book, you can bring yours. Obs. :  Quando o possuidor for um pronome indefinido, o possessivo será masculino e singular. Everyone must bring his book.  A estrutura of + pronome possessivo significa “um dos”, “uma das”. She is a friend of mine. (She is one of my friends). 24
  • 24. 25 Exercises 1. Complete com o pronome possessivo correto: a) Mary´s train is leaving at 3 o´clock, but John´s is leaving in 3 minutes. ___________train is leaving at 3 o´clock, but____________is leaving in 3 minutes. b) My brother´s favorite fruit is apple. ___________favorite fruit is apple. c) The cats are sleeping in the dog´s house. The cats are sleeping in ___________house. d) The teacher corrects the students´compositions. The teacher corrects _____________compositions. e) Mr. Allen´s computer puts him in connection with the Internet. ___________computer puts him in connection with the Internet. 2. Complete com o possessivo correto: a) I do______________things, you do________________ b) She can do ______________homework alone. He can´t do___________ c) We must wash________hands before lunch. d) The boys aren´t going to clean_____________rooms today. e) Dr. Smith washes____________car every morning. 3. Escolha a alternativa correta: a) Does __________bring__________books to the class? a) he – him c) her – she b) she – her d) she – hers b) Do you prefer listening to _________records or______________? a) your – yours c) your – our b) my – him d) your – mine c) Everybody must talk to _____________coordinator. a) ours c) his b) mine d) him d) Mrs. Cohen and ___________children are waiting for________answer. a) his – our c) her – our b) their – yours d) her – ours 25
  • 25. 26 4 – VERB THERE TO BE – PRESENT TENSE Observe o quadro abaixo com as expressões there is e there are. Elas não apresentam os pronomes pessoais. AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA SINGULAR There is/there´s There is not/there isn´t Is there? PLURAL There are/there´re There are not/there aren´t Are there? Exercises 1. Complete as frases usando there is ou there are: a) __________children playing ball. b) __________a bus on the street. c) __________three boats on the lake. d) __________a boy reading under a tree. e) __________policemen at the gate of the park. 2. Complete com there is not ou there are not (pode-se usar a forma contracta): In a small city __________________heavy traffic, __________________pollution, ________________many cinemas, ________________many job opportunities, ________________ amusement. 3. Faça perguntas com is there ou are there: a) ________________ a museum in your city? Yes, there is. b) ________________ pollution in São Paulo? Yes, there is. c) ________________ car accidents in New York? Yes, there are many. d) ________________ job opportunities in your city? No, there are not many. 5 – PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE O present continuous tense é formado pelo verbo to be mais o verbo principal com a terminação – ing. Example: I am reading now. (eu estou lendo agora) She is reading now. We are reading now. They are reading now. Forma Interrogativa do Present Continuous Tense: Example: Am I reading now? Is she reading now? 26
  • 26. 27 Forma negativa do Present Continuous Tense: Example: Isn’t she reading now? Aren’t you reading now? Nota: – Os verbos terminados em “e” perdem o “e” e recebem “ing”. Example: To love – loving. – Os verbos terminados em consoante/vogal/consoante, dobram a consoante final e recebem “ing”. Example: To run – running. Exercises 1. Escolha a alternativa correta: a) The children (is/are) sleeping now. Don’t make any noise. b) (Is/Are) it raining outside? c) What (is/are) Marion doing in the laboratory right now? d) Can you help me? (Is/am/are) cleaning the garage. 2. Complete com o “present continuous” dos verbos entre parenteses: a) Our classes are _______________(begin) now. b) Look at these plants! They are _________________(die). c) Don’t worry about Mary. She is _______________(have) a good time on the farm. d) Is your bus __________________(leave) in the morning? Yes, it is. e) What are your brothers __________________(do)? They are ______________(swim). 3.Responda as questões, seguindo o exemplo: What’s the secretary doing? (type a letter) She’s typing a letter. a) What´s the secretary doing? (cry) ____________________________________________________________________ b) What´s the boy doing? (run in the park) ____________________________________________________________________ c) What are the men doing? (read) ____________________________________________________________________ d) What is the woman doing? (buy an ice cream) ____________________________________________________________________ e) What´s the dog doing? (sleep) ____________________________________________________________________ f) What´s the dog doing? (cry) ____________________________________________________________________ g) What´s the cat doing? (climb a tree) ____________________________________________________________________ 27
  • 27. 28 6 – SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE O Simple Present expressa ações habituais, normalmente aparece com palavras como always, sometimes, every, in the never. Ex: We go to school every day. They always play tennis. A forma interrogativa Simple Present é feita colocando-se o verbo auxiliar “do” antes do sujeito. Ex: Do they write letters every weekend? Do you play football every weekend? A forma negativa do Simple Present é feita por do + not (don´t) após o sujeito. Ex: We don´t write letters every week. I don´t go to school every day. Simple Present Tense (Third Person) − Na terceira pessoa do singular (he, she, it), o verbo Simple Present geralmente recebe “s” : Like – likes Say - says Eat – eats Drink – drinks − O verbo recebe “es”quando terminado em s,ss,ch,x ou o . Fix – fixes Wash - washes Pass – passes Do - does Go – goes Watch - watches − O verbo terminado em “y”, precedido de consoante, muda o “y” para “i” e recebe “es”. Study – studies Fly – flies Obs.: A terceira pessoa do singular de have é has. − A interrogativa da terceira pessoa do singular é feita colocando-se a forma does antes do sujeito. Ex.: Does she live in Maringá? Does he work in the morning? − A forma negativa é feita por does + not (doesn´t) após o sujeito. Ex.: My sister doesn´t like bananas. He doesn´t want a newspaper from Minas Gerais. TO LIKE Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa I like I don´t like Do I like? (eu gosto) (eu não gosto) (eu gosto) You like You don´t like Do you like? He likes He doesn´t like Does he like? She likes She doesn´t like Does she like? It likes It doesn´t like Does It like? We like We don´t like Do we like? You like You don´t like Do you like? They like They don´t like Do they like? 28
  • 28. 29 No quadro, o verbo to like está conjugado no presente simples. Você pode verificar que se usa o auxiliar do nas formas negativa e interrogativa, para todas as pessoas, exceto para a 3ª pessoa do singular – usa-se does, seguido do verbo principal sem s: like. Isto serve de modelo para outros verbos: work, help, come, buy, leave, take, have etc. Ex.: He likes his job. Does he like his job? He doesn´t like his job. Exercises 1. Complete as sentenças trocando os sujeitos: a) I take the bus at six. He_______________________________________________________________ b) They work at our office. She______________________________________________________________ c) We buy a newspaper every day. He_______________________________________________________________ 2. Observe os exemplos. Reescreva as frases na negativa: She likes school. – She doesn´t like school. My wife works, too. – My wife doesn´t work, too. He has a good job. – He doesn´t have a good job. a) She stays at home. ___________________________________________________ b) He helps with the children. _____________________________________________ c) John comes at seven.___________________________________________________ d) Mary has problem. ___________________________________________________ 3. Observe os exemplos e reescreva as frases fazendo perguntas. She likes school. – Does she like school? My wife works. – Does my wife work? He has a good job. – Does he have a good job? a) He likes to work at night. ________________________________________________ b) She wants to work. ____________________________________________________ c) The teacher leaves school at seven. _________________________________________ d) He has a lot of money. ___________________________________________________ 29
  • 29. 30 7 – VERB TO BE – PAST TENSE Agora você vai estudar o verbo to be no passado. Observe que existe duas formas: was e were. AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA I was I was not (I wasn’t) Was I? You were You were not (you weren’t) Were you? He was He was not (he wasn’t) Was He? She was She was not (she wasn’t) Was She? It was It was not (it wasn’t) Was It? We were We were not (we weren’t) Were you? You were You were not (you weren’t) Were You? They were They were not (they weren’t) Were They? Exercises 1.Complete com o verbo To BE no passado: a) This ____________ my first Italian book. b) ____________ you in Rio last february? c) The dog ____________ in the garden an hour ago. d) ___________ we at john’s house last weekend? e) You _________ not a good student last month. 8 – VERB THERE TO BE – PAST TENSE AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA There was There was not Was there? There were There were not Were there? Este é o verbo There to be, conjugado no Simple Past. São usadas duas formas: uma para o singular e outra para o plural, ambas traduzidas por uma só forma. Simple Present There is há There are Simple Past There was houve ou havia There were 30
  • 30. 31 There was: é usado antes de substantivos no singular. There were: é usado antes de substantivos no plural. Exercises Vamos agora praticar o que aprendemos sobre o verbo there to be: 1. Complete as sentenças a seguir com o verbo There to be no Simple Past: a) _________a lot of books on the table yesterday. b) He didn´t come because ___________ problems in the factory. c) I could not enter the house because_________ a dog in the garden. d) She stayed because __________ a party there. e) He wanted to live in that city because___________ a lot of opportunities there. f) ____________ an accident near my house last week. g) _____________ many books at the club yesterday. h) _____________ a good TV show last night. i) ______________ three books on my bed one hour ago. j) ______________ an atomic explosion in Japan in 1945. k) ______________many children in the Park yesterday. l) ____________ butter in the refrigerator yesterday. m) ___________ a cat in my room last night. n) ____________ two famous artists at the hotel. o) ____________three apples on the table. 9 – PRONOMES INTERROGATIVOS Who quem What o que, qual When quando Where onde 31
  • 31. 32 Exercises 1. Complete com who, what, when ou where. a) Peter was at home last nigth. ___________was peter last night? ___________was at home last night? ___________was Peter at home? b) Mother is cooking dinner in the kitchen now. ___________ is mother doing in the kitchen now? ___________ is mother cooking in the kitchen now? ___________ is mother dinner in the kitchen now? ___________ is mother cooking dinner now? 10 – THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Passado do Verbo verbo terminado em TO BE + ING TO SLEEP I was sleeping You were sleeping Afirmativa: He was sleeping He was sleeping Interrogativa: Was he sleeping? She was sleeping Negativa: He was not sleeping It was sleeping Formas abreviadas: wasn´t (was not) We were sleeping weren´t (were not) They were sleeping Nota: O verbo terminado em “ing” não se altera na interrogativa e na negativa. Ortografia: Todos os tempos contínuos seguem as mesmas normas ortográficas. Uso: Expressa ações que estavam acontecendo em um determinado momento no passado. Ex: They were sleeping 5 minutes ago. 32
  • 32. 33 Exercises 1. Complete com passado contínuo: a) Susan___________(help) her mother in the kitchen. b) We_____________(run) to school at 8:00 this morning. c) The children ____________(look) for the cat in the garage. d) Father____________(drive) home at 6:00 yesterday. e) Dennis and Tom____________(solve) the problem in the classroom. f) The telephone___________(ring) at o´clock this morning. g) I__________(walk) down the street at 5:00 in the afternoon. h) They_________(do) their homework at 8:30 last night. i) Helen_________(work) with your brother last night. j) I___________(work) with your brother last night. 2. Reescreva as sentenças usando o passado contínuo. a) She sleeps upstairs. ___________________________________________________________________ b) They called Dr. Harris again. ___________________________________________________________________ c) I don´t talk to teacher in the classroom. ____________________________________________________________________ d) Do you play a video game your father´s computer? ___________________________________________________________________ e) Does she write to her friends in Dallas? ____________________________________________________________________ 11 – SIMPLE PAST TENSE Affirmative form 1. Forma-se o “simple past tense” dos verbos regulares em inglês acrescentando, geralmente “ed” à forma do infinitivo. Infinitive Past tense Look looked Start started Ex.: I looked for you yesterday. Mary started her english course last month. 2. O “simple past” dos verbos regulares terminados em –y pode ser feito de duas maneiras: 33
  • 33. 34 a) Quando antes do “y” vier uma vogal, segue a regra geral, ou seja, acresecenta-se “ed”. Infinitive Past tense Play played Stay stayed Ex.: John stayed in his grandfather´s house during his trip to London. My sister played cards last Saturday. b) Quando antes do “y” vier uma consoante, muda-se o “y” para “i” e acresecenta-se “ed”. Infinitive Past tense Study Studied Ex.: Paul studied in Paris last year. Irregular Verbs Não há regra para se formar o “simple past” (afirmativo) dos verbos irregulares, eles se apresentam de várias formas, sendo necessário memorizá-los. Infinitive Simple Past Be (ser/estar) was – were Begin (começar) began Bring (trazer) brought Build (construir) built Come (vir) came Fly (voar) flew Go (ir) went Have (had) ter Know (saber) knew Meet (encontrar) met Read (ler) read See (ver) saw Sit (sentar-se) sat Swim (nadar) swam Think (pensar) thought Write (escrever) wrote Negative Form A forma negativa do simple past dos verbos regulares e irregulares se faz usando o auxiliar did e a palavra not entre o sujeito e o verbo principal da frase no infinitivo. Ex.: He did not visit his grandmother yesterday. (didn´t) I did not go to São Paulo in July. (didn´t) Interrogative Form A forma interrogativa do simple past dos verbos regulares e irregulares se faz usando o auxiliar did antes do sujeito da frase e do verbo principal no infinitivo. Ex.: Did he visit his grandmother yesterday? 34
  • 34. 35 Verb to work (regular) AFFIRMATIVE FORM NEGATIVE FORM INTERROGATIVE FORM I worked I didn´t work Did I work? You worked You didn´t work Did you wok? He worked He didn´t work Did he work? She worked She didn´t work Did she work? It worked It didn´t work Did It work? We worked We didn´t work Did we work? You worked You didn´t work Did you work? They worked They didn´t work Did they work? Verb to buy (irregular) AFFIRMATIVE FORM NEGATIVE FORM INTERROGATIVE FORM I bought I didn´t buy Did I buy? You bought You didn´t buy Did you buy? He bought He didn´t buy Did he buy? She bought She didn´t buy Did she buy? It bought It didn´t buy Did It buy? We bought We didn´t buy Did we buy? You bought You didn´t buy Did you buy? They bought They didn´t buy Did they buy? Exercises 1. Complete as frases a seguir empregando o passado dos verbos marcados entre parênteses: a) The Mississipi ________________its water. (Roll) b) The dark smoke_____________in the sky. (Appear) c) A negro_____________slowly. (Cry) d) The scene_________________soon. (Change) e) The river__________________like a sea. (Look) f) They___________their friends in the party. (Meet) g) He____________his wife to see the river. (Bring) h) We__________to São Paulo last week. (Come) i) Eric_________in that river when he was young. (Swim) j) The children_____________in the sun. (Sit) k) I__________her well. (Know) 2. Escreva frases relacionadas aos itens abaixo usando os seguintes verbos no passado: MEET – READ – BUY – GO – FLY – HAVE – WRITE – READ Ex.: Paul – a house – last year. Paul bought a house last year. a) Ana – some wine – last night. ____________________________________________________________________ b) Peter and John – to – the cinema – yesterday 35
  • 35. 36 ____________________________________________________________________ c) Mr. Souza – “Veja” – last weekend. ____________________________________________________________________ d) Mr. And Mrs. Torres – to Paris – last month ____________________________________________________________________ e) Miss Brown – a friend – last Saturday. ____________________________________________________________________ f) Joana – a letter to Marlene – last Sunday. ____________________________________________________________________ g) Antonio – a book – yesterday. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Complete com o simple past dos verbos entre parênteses. Child of the Devil John Knox (1505 – 1572) _______ (be) a famous religious leader in Scotland. He ________(be) always very strict and hard on everybody, including his family. One morning his daughter________(be) late for breakfast. When she_________(arrive), Knox________(look) at her, saying, “good morning, child of the devil”. “Good morning, Father”, she ________(answer). 12 – THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE (WILL + VERBO) I will work You will work Afirmativa: He will work He will work Interrogativa: Will he work? She will work Negativa: He will not work It will work We will work Formas abreviadas: I´ll (will) You will work Won´t (will not) They will work Uso: Para expressar ação ou previsão quanto ao futuro. É usado com advérbios ou expressões que indiquem tempo futuro: tomorrow, next, in July, on Monday etc. Exercises 1. Complete com o futuro simples dos verbos entre parênteses. a) We___________(meet) you by the lake. b) The Browns___________(move) to the country in November. c) John__________________(arrive) tomorrow morning. d) I_________(catch) the midnight train to Amsterdam. 36
  • 36. 37 e) Cars_________(be) lighter in the future. f) Mrs. Jenkins ____________(not come) for the show. g) I________(represent) my company in the conference. h) The new project____________(begin) in March. i) What___________you _____________(do) after class? j) I am on a diet, so I __________(not eat) any ice cream. 13 – FUTURE WITH “GOING TO” Presente do verbo TO BE + GOING TO + VERBO I am going to work You are going to work Afirmativa: He is going to work He is going to work She is going to work Interrogativa: Is he going to work? It is going to work We are going to work Negativa: He is not working. You are going to work They are going to work Uso: 1. Expressa ação futura ou intenção. I am going to swim. We are going to get married. 2. Geralmente vem acompanhado de: tomorrow, next, in etc. She´s going to travel in March. They are going to study tomorrow. Exercises 1. Supply the going to form of the verbs in parentheses. a) The show_______________(begin) at 9 o´clock sharp. b) Mr. Shaw_______________(leave) the office after 5:00 today. c) What __________they _________do her the reports? d) ________you ________(send) her the reports? e) The Ministry says that food an housing______________(be) more reasonable next month. f) The new factory___________(throw) 2 tons of chemicals into the reiver. g) Mr. Allen________________(teach) us Arts next semester. h) I´m sure Sharon____________(ask) you help her with her Math homework. 14 – ADJETIVES 37
  • 37. 38 Comparative Form O grau comparativo dos adjetivos é usado na comparaçãoi entre dois elementos. 1. Geralmente, acrescenta-se “er” aos adjetivos de uma ou duas sílabas para formar o comparativo de superioridade. Ex.: poor – poorer small – smaller narrow – narrower near – nearer 2. Adjetivos terminados em “v” mundan o “v” para “i” antes de receber “er”. Ex.: happy – happier pretty – prettier ugly – uglier healty – healthier 3. Adjetivos terminados em consoante/vogal/consoante dobram a consoante final antes de receber “er”. Ex.: fat – fatter big – bigger Thin – thinner hot – hotter 4. Adjetivos com três sílabas ou mais para formar o comparativo de superioridade usa a palavra more. Esta regra também se aplica a todos os adjetivos terminados por re, ful, ed, ous e ing. Ex.: convenient – more incovenient important – more important careful – more careful amusing – more amusing obscure – more obscure 5. Os adjetivos good e well fazem o comparativo com a palavra better. Superlative form O grau superlativo é usado na comparação entre três elementos ou mais. 1. Para formar o superlativo dos adjetivos de uma ou mais sílabas (curtos), geralmente acrescentam- se “est” ao grau normal do adjetivo e o artigo the antes dele. Ex.: near – the nearest poor – the poorest short – shortest old – the oldest 2. Os adjetivos curtos, de 1 ou 2 sílabas, terminados em “y” para “i” e acrescentam-se “est”. Ex.: happy – the happiest pretty – the prettiest heavy – the heaviest healthy – the healthiest 3. Adjetivos terminados em consoante/vogal/consoante dobram a consoante final antes de receber “est”. Ex.: fat – the fattest 38
  • 38. 39 big – the biggest hot – the hottest thin – thinnest 4. Adjetivos com três sílabas ou mais, para formar o superlativo, usam a expressão the most antes do grau normal do adjetivo. Esta regra também se aplica a todos os adjetivos terminados por re, ful, ed, ous e ing. Ex.: handsome – the most handsome beautiful – the most beautiful careful – the most careful expensive – the most expensive 5. Há alguns adjetivos que formam o superlativo de maneira irregular. Ex.: good – the best bad – the worst well – the best much – the most little – the least many – the most Degree of Adjectives (grau dos adjetivos de uma sílaba) Grau Comparativo Igualdade Ex.: John is as taller as Mary.(João é tão alto quanto Maria) Superioridade Ex.: Joe is taller than Bob.(Joe é mais alto que Bob.) Inferioridade Ex.: Bob is less careful than Joe.(Bob é menos cuidadoso que Joe) Superlativo Ex.: Joe is the tallest of the them all.(Joe é o mais alto deles todos) Exercises 1) Complete as sentenças a seguir com o comparativo dos adjetivos indicados entre parênteses: a) Her energy is _______________than her courage. (abundant) b) You were __________last year. (thin). c) Mary is much_________than her mother. (fat) d) My street is _________than Brazil avenue. (narrow) e) She swins _______than her sister. (well) f) This book is good, but that one is_________(good) g) I´m always tired, but today I´m ___________than usual. (tired) h) This exercise is __________than the others. (difficult) i) I can´t find and ________way to solve this problem.(easy) 39
  • 39. 40 j) I had a _______car last year. (big) Now I have a small car. It is _________than your car. (small) 2. Complete as sentenças a seguir com o superlativo dos adjetivos indicados entre parênteses: a) Paula is___________girl in our class. (old) b) José is___________student in the class. (good) c) He is_______boy that I know. (ambitious) d) Hilda was________girl at the party. (attractive) e) January is ________month of the year. (hot) f) São Paulo is_______city in Brazil. (big) g) This is _________book that I own. (expresive) h) He is _________friend in the world. (good) i) This is________house here. (beautiful) j) This is_______problem that we have. (difficult ) 3. Complete as sentenças a seguir com o comparativo dos adjetivos indicados entre parênteses. Use than quando necessário. a) He is ________than I am. (young) b) Mr Vieiria is much__________than I expected. (old) c) Chicago is______Paris. (big) d) My car is new but your car is________. (new) e) Last summer was hot, but this summer is ________(hot) f) He speaks Spanish well, but his sister speaks________well. (well) g) My house is_______your apartment (comfortable) h) The weather today is________than weather yesterday. (good) BIBLIOGRAFIA 40
  • 40. 41 1 - ALMEIDA FILHO. Dimensões Comunicativas no Ensino de Língua Campinas, SP, Pontes Editores, 1993. 2- AMOS, PASQULIM e PRESCHER. New Graded English. São Paulo, Moderna 3 – AMOS e PRESCHER. Apuarius Simplified Gramniar Book. São Paulo, Moderna, 1995. 4 – AUN. Eliana, MORAES, Maria Clara Prete de. SANDANOVICZ, Neuza Bilia, Get to the point. São Paulo, Saraiva, 1995. 5 – ATUN, MORAES E SANSANOVICZ. Get to the point, São Paulo, Saraiva 6 – LIBERATO, Wilson. Stairway. São Paulo : FTD, 1993. 7 – LIMA, Maria Cecília Truffi e XAVIER, Rosely Perez. Teaching in a Clair Way. Florianópolis, Ed, Da UFSC, 1996. 8 – LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORATY ENGLISH. New Editora Lon group LTD England, 1995. 9 – MARQUES, Amadeu, English 2º Grau, São Paulo : Editora Ática, 1996. 10 – PRESCHER, Elisbeth, PASQUALIN, Ernesto, AMOS, Eduardo, New Granded . São Paulo, Moderna, 1997. 11 – PRESCHER, Elisbeth, PASQUALIN, Ernesto, AMOS, Eduardo, New Granded. São Paulo, Moderna. 1997. 12 – RICHARDS, Jack c. New Interchanger : English for International Communication. Cambridge University Press, 1997. 13 – SIQUEIRA, Rute. Magic Reading, São Paulo : Saraiva, 1996. 14 – SPEAK UP, São Paulo: Globo, junho, 1998. 15 – SPEAK UP, São Paulo : Globo, novembro, 1998. 16 – TELECURSO 2000 2º GRAU. Inglês , Rio de Janeiro : Globo, 1995. 17 – TOTIS, Verônica Pakarauskas, Lígua Inglesa : Literatura . São Paulo : Cortez, 1991. 41

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