The most common forms of lung cancer are squamous
cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma
and large cell carcinoma.
28% of cancer deaths are from lung cancer.
Exact cause is unknown
Risk factors include
Exposure to industrial air pollutants (
A diet poor in vitamins A, C & E
Lung cancers originate in the respiratory tract
epithelium, most originate in the lining of the
Small cell carcinoma sometimes called oat cell
carcinoma. It grows rapidly and has metastasized by
the time of diagnosis. It is usually caused by smoking
and often found centrally, near the bronchi. The
patient with small cell carcinoma has a poor prognosis.
Large cell carcinoma is rapidly growing cancer that
can occur anywhere in the lungs. It metastasizes
early in the disease, so the patients have poor
Adenocarcinoma occurs more in women, and most
often in the peripheral lung fields. It is slow
growing but often is not diagnosed until
metastasis has occurred.
Squamous cell carcinoma usually originates near
the bronchi and metastasizes late in the disease.
They are associated with history of smoking.
STAGES OF LUNG CANCER
Non- small cell lung cancer
No metastasis to lymph nodes
Atelectasis or Pneumonia
may be present
Cancer has spread to local
Small cell lung cancer
Cancer has invaded chest
wall and usually has spread
to lymph nodes
Tumor has metastasized to
distant organs and lymph
Cancer is limited to one side
of the chest
Cancer cells are found
outside one side of the chest
or in pleural fluid
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Cough with sputum production
Repeated respiratory infections
Thick, purulent sputum
Dyspnea if the airway becomes obstructed by the
Wheezing or stridor
Late signs include chest pain, weight loss, anemia
Superior vena cava syndrome
Ectopic hormone production
Atelectasis and Pneumonia
A complete medical history and physical
Chest X-ray examination
CT Scan and Lung scan
Sputum analysis for abnormal cells
Brain and bone scans are done to find out
Biopsy of the lesion
NURSING DIAGNOSES AND
Anticipatory grieving related to poor prognosis
Expected outcome: The patient will express his feelings
about his diagnosis and the potential for death.
Fatigue related to hypoxia
Expected outcome: The patient will employ measures to
prevent and modify fatigue.
Impaired gas exchange related to pulmonary dysfunction
Expected outcome: The patient will maintain his
respiratory rate within 5 breaths/minute of his baseline.
Give supportive care and provide patient teaching to
minimize complications and speed patient’s recovery.
Urge the patient to voice his concerns and provide
proper explanations before doing any procedures.
Prepare the patient for surgery.
Encourage the patient to eat high calorie .
Provide antiemetics and antidiarrheals as needed with
Provide skincare to minimize skin breakdown.