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Hill ch 004-03
Hill ch 004-03
Hill ch 004-03
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Hill ch 004-03

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  • 1. International Business Fourth Edition
  • 2. CHAPTER 4 International Trade Theory
  • 3. 4-3 Chapter Focus Explain why it is beneficial for a country to engage in international trade. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. 4-4 Chapter Focus Explain why it is beneficial for a country to engage in international trade. Explain the pattern of international trade observed in the world economy. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. 4-5 1st British African colony to win independence (1957). Nkrumah espoused pan African socialism. High tariffs. Anti export (trade) policy. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. 4-6 Kept lowering tariffs on manufactured goods. Created incentives to export (trade). Reduced quotas. Reduced subsidies. 1950s: 77% of employment in agriculture. Now 20%. Manufacturing GNP went from 10% to over 30%. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. 4-6 The Impact of Trade Policies Ghana 1970 GNP/capita $250 1992 GNP/per capita $450 GNP Growth/year 1.5% Shift from productive uses (cocoa) to unproductive uses (subsistence agriculture). McGraw-Hill/Irwin Korea 1970 GNP/per capita $260 1992 GNP/per capita $6790 GNP Growth/year 9% Shift from non-comparative advantage uses (agriculture) to productive uses (labor-intensive manufacturing). © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. 4-7 An Overview of Trade Theory Free Trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence, through quotas or duties, what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. 4-7 An Overview of Trade Theory Free Trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence, through quotas or duties, what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. The Benefits of Trade allow a country to specialize in the manufacture and export of products that can be produced most efficiently in that country. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. 4-7 An Overview of Trade Theory Free Trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence, through quotas or duties, what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. The Benefits of Trade allow a country to specialize in the manufacture and export of products that can be produced most efficiently in that country. The Pattern of International Trade displays patterns that are easy to understand (Saudi Arabia/oil or China/crawfish). Others are not so easy to understand (Japan and cars). McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. 4-7 An Overview of Trade Theory Free Trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence, through quotas or duties, what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. The Benefits of Trade allow a country to specialize in the manufacture and export of products that can be produced most efficiently in that country. The Pattern of International Trade displays patterns that are easy to understand (Saudi Arabia/oil or China/crawfish). Others are not so easy to understand (Japan and cars). The history of Trade Theory and Government Involvement presents a mixed case for the role of government in promoting exports and limiting imports. Later theories appear to make a case for limited involvement. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. 4-8 Mercantilism: mid-16th century A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. 4-8 Mercantilism: mid-16th century A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure Gold and silver are the currency of trade. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. 4-8 Mercantilism: mid-16th century A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure Gold and silver are the currency of trade. Theory says you should have a trade surplus. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. 4-8 Mercantilism: mid-16th century A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure Gold and silver are the currency of trade. Theory says you should have a trade surplus. Maximize exports through subsidies. Minimize imports through tariffs and quotas. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. 4-8 Mercantilism: mid-16th century A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure Gold and silver are the currency of trade. Theory says you should have a trade surplus. Maximize exports through subsidies. Minimize imports through tariffs and quotas. Flaw: “zero-sum game”. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. 4-10 Theory of Absolute Advantage Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776). Capability of one country to produce more of a product with the same amount of input than another country. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. 4-10 Theory of Absolute Advantage Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776). Capability of one country to produce more of a product with the same amount of input than another country. Produce only goods where you are most efficient, trade for those where you are not efficient. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. 4-10 Theory of Absolute Advantage Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776). Capability of one country to produce more of a product with the same amount of input than another country. Produce only goods where you are most efficient, trade for those where you are not efficient. Assumes there is an absolute advantage balance among nations, e.g., Ghana/cocoa. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. 4-20 The Theory of Absolute Advantage 10 A Figure 4.1 K 5 Cocoa 15 20 G B K’ G’ 0 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 5 10 Rice 15 20 © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. 4-21 The Theory of Absolute Advantage and the Gains from Trade Resources Required to Produce 1 Ton of Cocoa and Rice Ghana S. Korea Cocoa Rice 10 40 20 10 Production and Consumption without Trade Ghana 10.0 S. Korea 2.5 Total production 12.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 Ghana S. Korea Total production 20 0 20 0 20 20 Ghana S. Korea 14.0 6.0 6.0 14.0 Ghana S. Korea 4.0 3.5 1.0 4.0 Production with Specialization Consumption after Ghana Trades 6T of Cocoa for 6TSouth Korean Rice Increase in Consumption as a Result of Specialization and Trade McGraw-Hill/Irwin Table 4.1 © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Theory of Comparative Advantage David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy (1817). 4-13 Should trade even if country is more efficient in the production than its trading partner. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. 4-23 The Theory of Comparative Advantage 20 G Cocoa 15 C 10 A Figure 4.2 5 K B 2.5 0 3.75 5 7.5 K’ 10 G’ 15 20 Rice McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. 4-24 Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Trade Resources Required to Produce 1 Ton of Cocoa and Rice Ghana S. Korea Cocoa 10 40 Rice 13.33 20 Production and Consumption without Trade Ghana 10.0 S. Korea 2.5 Total production 12.5 7.5 5.0 12.5 Ghana S. Korea Total production 15 0.0 15 3.75 10.0 13.75 Ghana S. Korea 11 4 7.75 6 Ghana S. Korea 1.0 1.5 0.25 1.0 Production with Specialization Consumption after Ghana Trades 4T of Cocoa for 4TSouth Korean Rice Increase in Consumption as a Result of Specialization and Trade McGraw-Hill/Irwin Table 4.2 © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. 4-16 Extensions of the Ricardian Model Immobile resources: Resources do not always move easily from one economic activity to another. Diminishing returns: More a country produces, at some point, will require more resources (diminishing returns to specialization). Different goods use resources in different proportions. However: Free trade might increase a country’s stock of resources (as labor and capital arrives from abroad), and Increase the efficiency of resource utilization. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. 4-26 Ghana’s PPF under Diminishing Returns Cocoa G Figure 4.3 G’ 0 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Rice © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. 4-27 The Influence of Free Trade on the PPF PPF2 Cocoa PPF1 G’ Figure 4.4 0 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Rice © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. 4-28 A Link Between Trade and Growth Sachs and Warner: 1970 to 1990 study Open economy developing countries grew 4.49%/year. Closed economy developing countries grew 0.69%/year. Open economy developed countries grew 2.29%/year. Closed economy developed countries grew 0.74%/year. Frankel and Romer: On average, a one percentage point increase in the ratio of a country’s trade to its GDP increases income/person by at least 0.5%. For every 10% increase in the importance of international trade in an economy, average income levels will rise by at least 5%. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. 4-20 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory Labor is not the only Factor of production. We need to account for land, capital, and technology. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. 4-20 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory Factor endowments: extent to which a country is endowed with such resources as land, labor, and capital. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. 4-20 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory Export goods that intensively use factor endowments which are locally abundant. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. 4-20 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory Export goods that intensively use factor endowments which are locally abundant. Corollary: import goods made from locally scarce factors. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. 4-20 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory Patterns of trade are determined by differences in factor endowments - not productivity. Remember, focus on relative advantage, not absolute advantage. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. 4-21 The Leontief Paradox, 1953 Disputes Heckscher-Olin in some instances. Factor endowments can be impacted by government policy - minimum wage. US tends to export labor-intensive products, but is regarded as a capital intensive country. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. 4-23 Product Life-Cycle Theory (Raymond Vernon, 1966) Article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics. As products mature, both location of sales and optimal production changes. Affects the direction and flow of imports and exports. Globalization and integration of the economy makes this theory less valid. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. 4-24 The Product Life-Cycle Theory 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 production United States Exports Imports Other Advanced Countries consumption Exports Imports Developing Countries Exports Imports New Product Maturing Product Standardized Product Figure 4.5 Stages of Production Development McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. 4-25 The New Trade Theory Began to be recognized in the 1970s. Deals with the returns on specialization where substantial economies of scale are present. Specialization increases output, ability to enhance economies of scale increase. In addition to economies of scale, learning effects also exist. Learning effects are cost savings that come from “learning by doing”. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. 4-26 Application of the New Trade Theory Typically, requires industries with high, fixed costs. World demand will support few competitors. Competitors may emerge because “they got there first”. First-mover advantage. Some argue that it generates government intervention and strategic trade policy. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. 4-27 First-Mover Advantage Economies of scale may preclude new entrants. Role of the government. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. 4-28 Porter’s Diamond (Harvard Business School, 1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Looked at 100 industries in 10 nations. Thought existing theories didn’t go far enough. Question: “Why does a nation achieve international success in a particular industry?” McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. 4-41 Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Factor endowments:nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. 4-42 Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Factor endowments:nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry. Demand conditions:the nature of home demand for the industry’s product or service. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. 4-43 Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Factor endowments:nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry. Demand conditions:the nature of home demand for the industry’s product or service. Related and supporting industries:the presence or absence in a nation of supplier industries or related industries that are nationally competitive. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. 4-44 Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Factor endowments:nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry. Demand conditions:the nature of home demand for the industry’s product or service. Related and supporting industries:the presence or absence in a nation of supplier industries or related industries that are nationally competitive. Firm strategy, structure and rivalry:the conditions in the nation governing how companies are created, organized, and managed and the nature of domestic rivalry. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. 4-30 Porter’s Diamond Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Factor Endowments Figure 4.6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. 4-31 The Diamond Success occurs where these attributes exist. More/greater the attribute, the higher chance of success. The diamond is mutually reinforcing. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 47. 4-32 Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Chance Two external factors that influence the four determinants. Company Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Factor Conditions Government McGraw-Hill/Irwin Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. 4-33 Factor Endowments Taken from Heckscher-Olin Basic factors: natural resources climate location demographics Advanced factors: communications skilled labor research technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 49. 4-34 Advanced Factor Endowments More likely to lead to competitive advantage. Are the result of investment by people, companies, government. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. 4-35 Relationship of Basic to Advanced Factors Basic can provide an initial advantage. Must be supported by advanced factors to maintain success. No basics, then must invest in advanced factors. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 51. 4-36 Demand Conditions Demand creates the capabilities. Look for sophisticated and demanding consumers. impacts quality and innovation. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 52. 4-37 Related and Supporting Industries Creates clusters of supporting industries that are internationally competitive. Must also meet requirements of other parts of Diamond. McGraw-Hill/Irwin the © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 53. 4-38 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Management ‘ideology’ can either help or hurt you. Presence of domestic rivalry improves a company’s competitiveness. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 54. 4-39 Evaluating Porter’s Theory If Porter is right, we would expect his model to predict the pattern of international trade that we observe in the real world. Countries should be exporting products from those industries where all four components of the diamond are favorable, while importing in those areas where the components are not favorable. Too soon to tell. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 55. 4-55 Implications for Business Location implications:makes sense to disperse production activities to countries where they can be performed most efficiently. First-mover implications:It pays to invest substantial financial resources in building a first-mover, or earlymover, advantage. Policy implications:promoting free trade is generally in the best interests of the home-country, although not always in the best interests of the firm. Even though, many firms promote open markets. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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