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Robert Crashaw


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  • 1. Two case studiesFrench-English/English-French Robert Crawshaw Lancaster University AHRC workshop Manchester 22nd May 2012
  • 2.
  • 3. An isomorphic dynamic A BA1 Entretien A1 - transcription B1 Entretien - transcription French NS student in conversation in English NS student in conversation in English with English NS Teacher. French with French NS teacher.A2 Témoignage A2 - transcription B2 Témoignage - transcription French NS student records reactions English NS student records reactions to earlier entretien in French. to earlier entretien in English.A3 Logbook A3 - written and B3 Logbook - written and transcribed transcribed French NS student records English NS student records reflections reflections on earlier encounters with on earlier encounters with French NS English NS Teacher in French. Teacher in English.
  • 4. Research questions- Which methodologies most appropriate when approaching isomorphic data of this kind?- To what extent can generalised conclusions be drawn from situated intercultural discourse?
  • 5. The featuresFORCE - the students are seeking information – How direct are they in forming their requests...? Offers grounds for cross-cultural comparison of target language speech act formation in intercultural communication situations.MITIGATION - the teacher/responsables are providing information or avoiding being over-specific in the information they provide…COMPLAINT - the students are reacting to the quality of the information received and to the respect for their person shown to them by the teacher/responsables
  • 6. Quantitative and qualitative cross-culturalcomparison – some findings (2009) French EnglishCONCRETENESS 51 127(ce/this)AGENCY(je/I) 317 786INTENSITY(avge intensifiers pp.) 13.52 31.55
  • 7. Requests/mitigation A1T1 Est-ce que tu te souviens du nombre d’heures dont on avait parlé, pour l’école ?S1 Non, parce que en entière je vais travailler 12 heures erm par semaine mais je ne sais pas ce que vous voulez que je faire, si je je passe 10 heures à l’école et 2 heures par semaine avec des enseignants, c’est er ce que vous voulez…T1 [simul : oui, absolument – mm - en conversation, oui] Moi, je pense que on pourrait faire, ce qu’on appelle une côte mal taillée, eh bien pour commencer, 10 heures pour l’école et 2 heures euh de la conversation, hein pour des collègues qui qui viendraient euh soit le soir soit sur leurs heures de midi. Voilà. Mais alors, j’ai déjà, j’en ai déjà parlé à de nombreux collègues euh mais euh mais ce n’est pas qu’ils soient réticents mais ils ont tellement de choses à penser et puis c’est une chose de plus à caser. Même si des fois, même même s’ils sont demandeurs…alors euh, alors on a 2 solutions, soit nous prévoyons un horaire d’avance, on dira par exemple, je sais pas, par exemple le mardi midi, de de midi 30 ou midi 45 jusquà euh 1h15, on fera atelier conversation. On peut, on peut imaginer ça comme ça. Mais ça fait pas 2 heures. Pour faire 2 heures de conversation, il faudra avoir 4 ateliers du midi ou du soir dans la semaine, c’est ça; donc on va essayer de faire comme ça, on va dire on va essayer de caser euh 4 périodes d’une demi-heure, 2 le midi, peut-être demain soir, hein, comme on aura nos 2 heures. Euh…S1 [simul : d’accord, oui – oui, oui, d’accord – mm - mm – mm - oui, oui, d’accord] C’est c’est seulement la conversation, ou c’est un du de n’importe quel sujet ?T1 Voilà, c’est ça. Le sujet euh c’est toi ou moi ou nous ensemble qui choisissons. Mais je pense qu’il vaut mieux aller au-devant des des collègues en leur donnant des choses toutes prêtes et après pour les fois suivantes s’ils viennent, ils pourront avoir des idées, mais au début il faut commencer par apporter des choses qui leur conviennent alors je je j’avais imaginé qu’on pourrait faire une première série de séances en parlant des voyages.
  • 8. Requests/mitigation B1S1 Do I have to prepare something in advance or… er when I come, just tell me what I have to do?T1 Mmm Probably a bit of both In - first of all in the first few weeks I think it’ll be um, having - you’ll be sort of in lessons seeing how the students work and so on and you can go round and help them and after a couple of weeks maybe start taking some groups out. We can tell you what we want you to do in advance if you want us to, or it may be just something when you arrive. We can always use e-mail if you need to know in advance,S1 [Simul: Yeah – yeah - yeah - mmm] Yeah, that will be good yeahT1 So you can- prepare games or things like that you knowS1 Yeah, yeahT1 To work in small groups... And erm...S1 Er yeah, about the language. Am I supposed to speak exclusively in French, or isn’t it too difficult for the pupils to understand me if I just speak in French?T1 Erm, I think with the years 10 and 11…S1 YeahT1 It would - it would be good if you could speak French all the timeS1 All the time, right?T1 Um, with my year 10 classS1 Mm-hmmT1 I’m taking part in a project, to use only French in the classroom, and them as well. So if they’re just chatting, they speak in FrenchS1 [Simul: Yeah – yeah - mm-hmm] OKT1 Now, I’m still working on getting that going, we tried to get it going in the beginning, but it was a bit too early I think. So after half-term… leave it going for a while, but then after half-term when we’ve got through some work and we know where we are and everything else, I’ll start that againS1 [Simul: Mm-hmm - mm] OKT1 So then we’ll, you know be hopefully, only speaking French
  • 9. Complaint/comment - ‘severity’ A2 I had been really wanting to ask him some questions about the stage because I’m really confused about what’s going on, because erm, I have been told like by the British Council and stuff like that that the stage should only be one or two days long, and my accommodation and everything should be paid for, but mine seems to be lasting for like a week, and I think I’m expected to pay for my accommodation, and I wanted to clear it up with him but like I had absolutely no opportunity because he was really really offhand with me the whole time, and seemed really busy in, you know, paperwork and talking to people and all this stuff, and I really had absolutely no chance to speak to him at all, and erm when I went out the door with this other teacher he sort of glanced at me and went ‘oh bon weekend, I’ll see you when you get back from the stage’ And that was it…so I feel really really like let down by him, I feel like he didn’t do his what he…, you know, he is my responsable, and I understand that he was there and he had a job to do because he was like the coordinator of all these people, but he’s also got a responsibility to me
  • 10. Comment/(Complaint?) B2 On a parlé de le langue, je voulais savoir en fait quelle langue je devais utiliser avec les élèves et il m’a dit que l’idéal ce serait de ne parler qu’en français. C’est vrai que je ne suis pas vraiment super convaincue pour l’instant, ayant vu comment ça se passait au niveau des cours, je ne pense pas qu’ils pourront comprendre si je veux parler exclusivement français et que je vais être obligée de au moins de sonner les consignes en anglais quand on va travailler ensemble. A voir, pour l’instant c’est l’idéal de parler exclusivement en français, mais sur le terrain ça ne sera pas super possible. Je pense qu’il faudra voir comment ça se passe directement pour voir ça de façon beaucoup plus concrète parce que pour l’instant ça reste assez vague.
  • 11. Complaint/comment – ‘severity’ A3 I went to see Sylvain on my return to Confolens after the Toussaint holidays to check in and to see if anything had happened about the ateliers de conversation Im supposed to be running for the teachers. I had sent out an email before the holidays giving the times etc and wanted to know if Sylvain had received any responses. He said he hadnt and moved off the subject very quickly, asking me about my holiday and after my family. Although I tried to steer the conversation around to the ateliers because I was really unsure about what I was supposed to be doing, Sylvain kept dismissing it with comments like "on verra" which I found really vague and frustrating. I left feeling like Id got nowhere and hadnt found out anything I wanted to. Although Sylvain is always very pleasant to be around and always asks how I am and so on, he never seems to have any concrete answers to the questions I have and rather leaves me to deal with them alone - hes not very helpful.
  • 12. Comment/complaint? B3 M Y… m’a dit que mes premières semaines à l’école constituaient un temps d’adaptation, d’observation principalement, de façon à ce que je me familiarise avec un système nouveau, que je comprenne comment les élèves travaillent et comment je vais pouvoir les aider. Je trouve que c’est bien de sa part de me laisser ce temps d’adaptation. C’est précieux de prendre le temps de découvrir, de s’adapter. Tout est tellement nouveau que je suis contente qu’on me laisse l’opportunité de ‘m’accoutumer’. Il n’attend pas de moi le ‘top niveau’ dès le premier jour de travail. Ça me rassure qu’on me laisse le temps de prendre mes marques de façon à ce que je puisse viser par la suite le ‘top niveau’. Je lui ai ensuite parlé de la langue que je devrai utiliser dans les cours. L’idéal, m’a-t-il dit, serait de parler exclusivement français. Après ma semaine d’observation, j’ai remarqué que le niveau était quand même assez bas, et il me semble difficile de ne m’exprimer qu’en français pendant les cours. Je risquerai de passer pour une extra-terrestre. On verra, je verrai directement sur le terrain, mais je ne suis d’avance pas très convaincue. Je pense que je devrai en reparler avec M Y. une fois que j’aurai mieux ciblé le niveau des élèves et que j’aurai eu l’occasion de travailler en petits groupes avec eux.
  • 13. Conclusion 1 Complete bilingualism on the part of the researcher is essential!
  • 14. Conclusion 2Technical cross-cultural comparison ofindividual speech acts on the part of non-native speakers is possible, but offersmore information about the state oflearners’ TL proficiency and personalitythan about cultural difference
  • 15. Conclusion 3 Degrees of ‘force’, ’mitigation’ and ‘severity’ can be measured quantitatively over large quantities of data using search tools but only under carefully controlled conditions.
  • 16. Conclusion 4 Individual profiling of bi-lingual data through close textual analysis supported by contextual information is more revealing than cross-cultural generalisation