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Perta Daryai-Hansen Perta Daryai-Hansen Presentation Transcript

  • LANGUAGEREPRESENTATIONSA Classification Based on a Multilingual Empirical Approach.Petra Daryai-Hansen, Ph.D.Roskilde University, Denmark
  • What is the most beautiful/ugly language in the World?”Beautiful: Id say its between the Spanish and Frenchlanguages, although Italian has a subtle beauty andPortuguese has lovely romantic tones as well.Ugly: Definitely German, Russian is very harsh as well.Japanese is just too much, too maniac like. Danish ishorrible as well.”SummerRain, Forum Member 08-02-2010, 19:56http://forums.digitalspy.co.uk/showthread.php?s=ef4bdc67785ea28003a236ff76d24ca0&t=1213673
  • Language representations – a definitionlanguage attitude research, social psychology, ethnodia- lectologyy, linguistic anthropology in the Chicago tradition• Hall’s (1997, 25) constructivistic definition: ”[…] things don’t mean: we construct meaning, using representational systems.”• Bourdieu (1982:135): ”[…] sentations mentales, c’est- -dire d’actes de perception et ciation, […] où les agents investissent leurs ̂ts et leurs s” View slide
  • Language hierarchisations in Denmark”Engelsk har en vældig høj status […]. Dansk har [...]naturligvis også en høj status […]. Efter engelsk og danskkommer de øvrige fremmedsprog som der er udstraktundervisning i: tysk, fransk, spansk m.v., og til sidstkommer indvandrersprog som tyrkisk, arabisk, […]mandarin m.v.” (Lund/Risager 2001, 6)Risager (2005): three levels View slide
  • Initial research questions• Can Lund/Risager and Risager’s language hierarchy be empirically substantiated?• Are there internal hierarchisations? (Calvet 1987, 75)• Are these trends particular to Denmark or are such hierarchisations also manifest in other European countries?
  • Project design• comparison between Denmark and Germany• representation of foreign languages• framework of official language and educational policies• documents: 2003-2008• 1,940 Danish language representations• 1,154 German language representations
  • Comparative critical discourse analysis (Jäger 2001, Niehr 2002) language policies language ideology sociology ofsociolinguistics language
  • Language hierarchisations (Risager 2005) Inclusive practice (a) + language choice (b) + language representation Practices Exclusive practice (a) - language choice (ba) - language representation (bb) 0 language representation
  • Bourdieu’s linguistic market Legitimate languages Linguistic capital Languages with positive distinction value Illegitimate languages Languages with negative distinction value
  • Dualism Languages with positive market value Inclusion – Promotion + language choice + language representation Practices Languages with negative market value Exclusion – Discrimination - language choice - language representation 0 language representation
  • Convergence and divergence Inclusive and exclusive practice (a) + language choice (b) - language representation Practices Exclusive and inclusive practice (a) - language choice (b) + language representation
  • Theoretisation of language hierarchisation:Language representation and language choice M a c r o- a n d m i c r o c o n t e x t Levels of inclusion and exclusion absolute relative SUBJECT RECIPIENT OBJECT: What languages? PRACTICE: How?
  • The multilingual basis:The object and practice of the representation Immigrant languages: • German discourse: ”Familiensprache“, ”Mehrsprachigkeit“ • Danish discourse: “ikke dansk som modersmål“, ”tosprogethed“ English: • German discourse: ”Einsprachenregime“, ”sprachliche Monokultur“ • Danish discourse: ”fremmedsprog”, ”parallelsproglighed“
  • Inclusive and exclusive representational forms language promotion language rivalry language acknowledgment a n t i - e x clusiv e l a n g u a g e i n c l u s i o n subordinated language inclusion language discrimination
  • Other representational parametersnamed not namedlinked to English not linked to Englishlinked to the present/future linked to the pastlinked to status/acquisition linked to corpus specification of the representation
  • Language hierarchisations in the Danish discourse English English >< Danish Immigrant languages Antihegemonic discourse
  • Language hierarchisations in the German discourse Two European languages (+ others, receptive) language diversity English, French English >< German Immigrant languages
  • DiscussionDo language policy studies, which are based on aconcept of language recognition anddehierarchisation, have a special responsibility forresearching multilingually?
  • Language choice on the textual level:A plurilingual language policy• Thesis written in Denmark – in German• Primary sources: Danish data without translation• Secondary sources: Danish, French and English research without translation• Promotion of receptive plurilingualism outlined by European language policies• Accepted by the PhD Committee and the German publisher
  • Bibliography• Bourdieu, Pierre (1982). Ce que parler veut dire: léconomie des échanges linguistiques. Paris: Fayard.• Calvet, Louis-Jean (1987). La guerre des langues et les politiques linguistiques, Paris: Payot.• Jäger, Siegfried (2001a). Kritische Diskursanalyse. Eine Einführung, Duisburg: Duisburger Institut für Sprach- und Sozialforschung.• Niehr, Thomas (2002). ”International vergleichende Diskurs- und Argumentationsanalyse. Vorstellung eines Forschungsprogramms.” EliSe, Essener Linguistische Skripte – elektronisch 2 (2002), 51-64.• Lund, Karen / Risager, Karen (2001). ”Dansk i midten”. Sprogforum 19 (2001). København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsforlag, 4-8.• Risager, Karen (2005). ”Sproglige eksklusionshierarkier – de hundrede sprogs betydning”. Fra Minoritetsstudiers værksted nr. 2. København: Københavns Universitet, 1-21.• Hall, Stuart (1997) (ed.). Representations. Cultural Representations and
  • Danish discourse German discourseSproglovgivning, Redegørelse af 18/12 03 Grundgesetz, Artikel 3,regering om det danske sprog Absatz 3 Sprog på spil – et ud- Diskursfragmente der Bundes- spil til en dansk sprogpolitik regierung und des Bundestagessprog- Diskursfragmenter fra Diskursfragmente frainstitutioner Dansk Sprognævn Deutscher SprachratSkolevæsen, Fremtidens Sprogfag – Fremdsprachen in dersprogfag vinduer mod en større verden Grundschule (KMK) Almen sprogforståelse: lære- Bericht ‘Konzepte für den plan/undervisningsvejledning bilingualen Unterricht’ (KMK)Skolevæsen, Bekendtgørelse om folke- Empfehlung ‘Interkulturelleindvandrersprog skolens modersmålsunder- Bildung und Erziehung in visning der Schule’ (KMK) Fælles Mål: Indvandrersprog Bericht ‘Zuwanderung’ (KMK) Organisering af folke- Integration als Chance – skolens undervisning af to- gemeinsam für mehr sprogede elever Chancengerechtigkeit (KMK)
  • The multilingual basis:The practice of the representation How to define language promotion? 1. Positive evaluations 2. Representation as languages that are learned or should be learned 3. Representation as languages that are promoted or should be promoted
  • Discourses as flows of knowledge throughout time
  • The structure of discourse• Discourse (strands)• Entanglements of discourse strands (discursive knot)• Interdiscourse, special discourse (scientific)• Discourse planes and sectors• Discourse fragments, discourse elements• History, present and future of discourse strands• Discursive context, discursive events• Discourse positions (counter-discourses)• Overall societal discourse, global discourse
  • Simultaneous inclusion and exclusion“Any language policy, be it monolingual ormultilingual, strategies of inclusion and exclusion oflanguages go hand in hand. Languagehierarchizations can never be avoided altogether.”(Risager 2012)