Juup Stelma


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Juup Stelma

  1. 1. Intentionality, convention and fashion in researching multilingually Juup Stelma School of Education University of Manchester Juup.Stelma@manchester.ac.uk Second Researching Multilingually Seminar University of the West of England, Bristol 25 April 2012
  2. 2. Structure of the presentation Ecological theory Intentionality, convention and fashion …… and relate this to researching multilingually Conclude
  3. 3. One (not uncommon) definition of ecology is…… the interrelationship of an organism and the environment static animal nature dynamic people nature researcher research community… the activity of a researcher in a research community
  4. 4. Intentionality, Convention and Fashion Convention Fashion Interrelationship Intentional? Revenge LoveDuty PowerSurvival Materialism Religion Autokinesis
  5. 5. Focus on activity … as in research-ING multilinguallyWhy are you doing that?Because it is what is expected of me CONVENTIONBecause everyone seems to be doing it FASHIONBecause < it achieves something I value > INTENTIONAL ________________________
  6. 6. An ecological model of intentional activity Resources and Expectations in the Research Environment Developing Intentional Activity Developing Awareness
  7. 7. Convention, FashionResources and Expectations in the Research Environment Following Convention or Fashion Habit of Mind ??
  8. 8. Intentionality on different levels of research activity Improving practice/curriculum (Action Research) Planning Acting Observing Reflecting Recording Analysing Transcribing Why transcribe Why transcribe at all? like this?
  9. 9. Intentionalities in Researching Multilingually Activity Intentionalities in researching multilingually may include: a) directly or indirectly exploring multilingual phenomena; b) enhancing research quality; c) responding to resource considerations; d) furthering lingua-political agendas. Clearly not comprehensive; May include both apples and oranges; … Gets us thinking about intentionality, convention and fasion in researching multilingually.
  10. 10. directly or indirectly exploring multilingual phenomena;enhancing research quality;responding to resource considerations;furthering lingua-political agendas.
  11. 11. Exploring multilingual phenomenaDirectly when research aim is overtly about multi-lingual phenomenaLeeming, P. (2011). Japanese high school students’ use of L1 duringpair-work. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 21(3):360-382.Developing Intentionality during MA research education: When transcribing Japanese I used the original Japanese script … In terms of a final copy I was thinking of writing phonetic reading underneath (Roman alphabet) and then a translation under that. Is this going to make my transcription messy? Would it be okay to omit the phonetic transcription or would it be better to get rid of the original Japanese script as it is unreadable by most? (BB, 17/12, Paul).
  12. 12. Maya: in my picture … the … nani yaro? onegai shimasu// (what is it? please go on)Kaori: in my picture … it’s five o’clock//Maya: tokei {[shakes head]nai} … in my picture nothing.. tokei watch? (there is no clock) (clock)Kaori: clock//“When Maya is unable to proceed she makes a request in line 22 forKaori to take over, using the Japanese phrase omegai shimasu.Although translated as “please go on”, there is no direct equivalent ofthis phrase in English. This is the only example in the data wherepolite Japanese is used … Between friends overly polite language isoften used as a joke and eases the tension here as Maya struggleswith the task” (Leeming 2011, p.370).
  13. 13. Indirectly by exploring multi-lingual phenomena embedded in dataSahar Abdulelah – PhD student at ManchesterFocus on intertextuality in Arab postgraduate students’ writingSource (http://www.aleqt.com/2007/12/08/article_120490.html):Student:<Student text removed from this published version for confidentialityreasons >
  14. 14. “… she used a short paragraph from an Arabic newspaperwhere she basically translated what was written word byword … close word by word translation but only structuralalterations for the sake of style. Since I have donetranslation projects, this is the kind of translation I woulddo in order to closely mirror the target source of thetranslation”(Personal Communication, Sahar Abdulelah).
  15. 15. directly or indirectly exploring multilingual phenomena;enhancing research quality;responding to resource considerations;furthering lingua-political agendas.
  16. 16. Enhancing Research Quality reliability / validity / credibility / otherFashion / Include both languages alongside each other at allConvention stages of the research process. Nikander’s (2008) suggestion for a set of guidelines for the presentation of translation in qualitative research transcripts … … to “guarantee the publicly verifiable nature of qualitative research” (p. 229). … to ensure that “the acceptability of the translation constructed remains, at least potentially open to challenge and suggestions of alternative improvedIntention versions” (p. 229).
  17. 17. Critique Intentionality = Enhance research quality multilingualtranscription? multilingual coding? multilingual interpretation? multilingual dissemination?Does intentionality on one level mean thatassociated activity on another level is intentional?
  18. 18. Exploring Intentionality on Different LevelsChafe’s (2003) three stages of remembering: Everyday Researching Multilingually1. awareness of ideas and Data generation in evaluations, plus how these were one language verbalised (categorisation, orientation and combination) how to transition ?3. retaining ideas and evaluations Interpretations in5. retaining evaluations only another language
  19. 19. Intentional Translation (metaphoric expressions)Example from Woojoo Lee (PhD Thesis 2010):YMTranslation: Public school is “acting with eyes closed” on English educationThis means that “public schools do not have a carefully considered plan forEnglish education”.YM Public school does not seem to plan for English education with much care.
  20. 20. Intentional Translation (anaphoric references) Extract from Hamid Rahmani Sangani (PhD Thesis 2009): “In Farsi, my mother tongue, we usually use pronouns and we refer to previous events without caring about the immediate nouns which precede them. The pronouns may refer to events or nouns having been discussed some time back. This differs from English in which any pronoun refers to the immediate preceding or following noun.”
  21. 21. directly or indirectly exploring multilingual phenomena;enhancing research quality;responding to resource considerations;furthering lingua-political agendas.
  22. 22. Resource considerations – Linguistic Competence“I conducted the interviews in Turkish ... I transcribed … and thentranslated them into English so that I could discuss them with mysupervisors in Leeds” (Zeynep Onat-Stelma PhD Thesis 2005).“The reason I used the translation … for analysis was to share theprocess of analysis with my supervisor, allowing him to understandthe interview data” (Woojoo Lee PhD Thesis 2010).Resource considerations – Technology“The TDS sessions were run in Farsi and their transcriptions werealso in Farsi, so for data analysis and writing-up I needed to translatethe transcriptions into English (I had to write my thesis in English andI used ATLAS. ti for manipulating the data)” (Hamid RahmaniSangani, PhD Thesis 2011).
  23. 23. Resource considerations – DisseminationJarvis, Jennifer (1999). Aktiv læring i engelsk - oppfølging av prosjekt inordland [Active learning in English - follow-up of project in Nordland].Bedre Skole, (1): 16-22.
  24. 24. directly or indirectly exploring multilingual phenomena;enhancing research quality;responding to resource considerations ;furthering lingua-political agendas. This may include: b) Developing Identity c) Developing Diversity d) Balancing Power Relationships
  25. 25. Developing Identity
  26. 26. Developing IdentityLada Smirnova (MA TESOL course unit assignment – 2011): “doing research multilingually is my reality”
  27. 27. Three linguistic codes – Lada’s own translations!“I followed Richard’s advice, as it was my first experience of this kind … therewere quotes in Russian, translated in English in the body of my draft followed byRussian and English author’s surname … but I had to remove them and replaceby the indirect references in English due to the word limit. I decided to leave theauthor’s surname in Cyrillic for ‘reader-friendliness’ anyway, as the Russiansources were stored in the reference section separately and with Cyrillic comingfirst” (Personal Communication, Lada Smirnova).
  28. 28. Why dowe needDiversity? A species of African freshwater fish called mormyrids (elephant fish), generate and perceive electrical signals. They use this to navigate, hunt (sometimes in groups), and communicate. http://www.nbb.cornell.edu/neurobio/hopkins/video.htm
  29. 29. There are two sub-families of mormyrids. The one called mormyrins has amore developed ability to generate and perceive electrical signals, and theother called petrocephalins has a less developed ability to generate andperceive electrical signals.There are 178 species of mormyrins / 30 species of petrocephalins.http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2011/04/28/in-african-rivers-an-electric-tower-of-babel/
  30. 30. Loss of Diversity - Futurama http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnbSnTMnTFY
  31. 31. ConclusionResearcher EnvironmentKnowledge and ExpectationsAwareness and ResourcesLinguistic Fashion Participantsknowledge Technology(Multi)cultural Intentionalityknowledge Supervisor / other ColleaguesAwareness of Conventionpossibilities Academia
  32. 32. Thank you!
  33. 33. References (not already detailed)Chafe, Wallace. 2003. The Translation Paradox. In N. Baumgarten, C. Böttger,M. Motz and J. Probst (Eds). Übersetzen, Interkulturelle Kommunikation,Spracherwerb und Sprachvermittlung: das Leben mit mehreren Sprachen.Festschrift für Juliane House zum 60. Geburtstag. (pp. 57–66). Available from:zif.spz.tu-darmstadt.de/jg-08-2-3/docs/Chafe.pdfLee, W-J. (2010). Views and experience of English language education foryoung learners in South Korea. Unpublished PhD thesis. University ofManchester, United Kingdom.Nikander, P. (2008). Working with transcripts and translated data. QualitativeResearch in Psychology, 5: 225-231.Onat-Stelma, Z. (2005). Moving from Teaching Older Learners to YoungLearners: Cases of English Language Teachers in Turkey. Unpublished PhDThesis, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.Sangani, A-H. (2009). How reflective practice impacts on English writingteachers in a particular context in Iran. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University ofManchester, United Kingdom.