Graphene a wonder material


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Graphene and its potential applications

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Graphene a wonder material

  1. 1. The 2-D material That Can Change Everything Presented By: Zaahir Salam M.TECH NST .
  2. 2.  The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. Andre Geim Konstantin Novoselov
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONGraphene can be synthesized from Graphite to create the thinnest, strongest and most conductive material know today.Graphite flakes are actually made of many layers of graphene stacked on top of each other with weak bonds holding them together.
  4. 4.  2-dimensional  Electrons in p-orbitals hexagonal lattice of above and below plane. carbon  p-orbitals become conjugated across the plane.  Electrons free to move across plane in delocalized orbitals. sp2 hybridized carbon atoms  Extremely high tensile strength. Among strongest bonds in nature
  5. 5. Mother of all graphitic forms0D buckyballs 1D nanotubes 3D graphite. A. K. Geim & K. S. Novoselov. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials Vol 6 183-191 (March 2007)
  6. 6. Graphene Visualized Under Various Available MicroscopesAFM Image TEM Image SEM Image A. K. Geim & K. S. Novoselov. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials Vol 6 183-191 (March 2007)
  7. 7. Graphene production  Graphene sheets in solid form (e.g. density > 1g/cc) is presently one of the most expensive materials on Earth.  Researchers obtained relatively large graphene sheets (eventually, up to 100 micrometers in size and visible through a magnifying glass) by mechanical exfoliation (repeated peeling) of 3D graphite crystals.  Another method is to heat silicon carbide to high temperatures (1100°C) to reduce it to graphene.
  8. 8.  Graphene can be isolated in 1 atom thick sheets of carbon atoms arranged in honey comb Structure. Length Of a Hexagon side is 0.142 nanometers. 3 million sheets of graphene stacked on one another are 1 millimeter thick..
  9. 9. Graphene Unique properties STRENGTH:  It is 200 X more STRONGER than Structural Steel.  Its Youngs modulus is 0.5 TPa CONDUCTIVE:  The resistivity of the graphene sheet is 10−6 Ω·cm, less than the resistivity of silver, the lowest resistivity substance known at room temperature.  It can Conduct 1000 X density of current in copper.  Conducts 10 X heat better than Copper.
  10. 10.  FLEXIBLE:  Can Flex 20% without damage. 2-D IN STRUCTURE:  Each layer is 1 atom thick which gives unique electrical and computing properties. TRANSPARENT:  Its 97.3 % Transparent.
  11. 11. Potential Applications: Graphene is being currently being tested by researchers and the following applications are considered: COMPUTING:  Graphene may be able to replace semiconductor in computer chips and electronics.  No need of cooling fans as it functions at room temperature.
  12. 12.  MIT has developed at 1000+ GHZ graphene microchip that is 300 times faster than commercially available chips today. This all could mean smaller and more powerful chips. CHALLENGE :  The Graphene transistors cannot be switched on to off. This is a challenge researchers are currently taking ON.
  13. 13. Materials: Graphene can be added in small amounts to metal and plastics to make stronger and lighter composite materials. Vehicles and airplanes could be lighter and stronger, increasing fuel efficiency and safety. By seeding plastics with just 1% Graphene they can become conductive while remaining transparent.
  14. 14. Energy + Optics Graphene Could replace indium to make better solar cells which are flexible, cheaper and suited for mass production. Graphene could make better touchscreens, LCD’s and LED’s. Graphene may revolutionize data transfer it can make smaller optical modulators that transfer data at speeds upto 10X faster than current technology.
  15. 15. References Graphene on March, 29 2009 Graphene Confirmed the World’s Stronged Known Material worlds-strongest-known-material accessed on March, 29 2009 Nanotechnology Reserchers go Ballistic Over Graphene accessed on March 29, 2009 TR10: Graphene Transistors ctions&sc=emerging08&id=20242 accessed on March 29, 2009 Graphene: Charged Up materials/highlight.php?id=77 accessed on March 29, 2009
  16. 16. THANK YOU