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Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)
Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)
Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)
Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)
Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)
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Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera; culicidae)

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Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis was evaluated for the egg hatchability, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of mosquito, Aedes aegypti under the room temperature in …

Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis was evaluated for the egg hatchability, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of mosquito, Aedes aegypti under the room temperature in the laboratory. A relationship was observed between the plant extract dose and the percentage of egg hatchability, larval and pupal mortality. Dosage value as expressed in % was 0.01 to 4.0 for Aedes aegypti. The percentage of egg hatchability, larval and pupal mortality were found to increase with the dosage indicating a relationship between the two. Based on the probit analysis the LC50 (mg/l) value of egg (31), I instar (59), II instar (231), III instar (606), IV instar (1578) and pupa (2637) were observed.

Article Citation:
Rajmohan D and Logankumar K.
Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l.
(Diptera: Culicidae)
Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032.

Full Text:
http://janimalsciences.com/documents/AS0012.pdf

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  • 1. JournalofResearchinAnimalSciences Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera: Culicidae) Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Bougainvillea spectabilis, LC50 ABSTRACT: Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis was evaluated for the egg hatchability, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of mosquito, Aedes aegypti under the room temperature in the laboratory. A relationship was observed between the plant extract dose and the percentage of egg hatchability, larval and pupal mortality. Dosage value as expressed in % was 0.01 to 4.0 for Aedes aegypti. The percentage of egg hatchability, larval and pupal mortality were found to increase with the dosage indicating a relationship between the two. Based on the probit analysis the LC50 (mg/l) value of egg (31), I instar (59), II instar (231), III instar (606), IV instar (1578) and pupa (2637) were observed. 028-032 | JRAS | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 1 © Ficus Publishers. This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non- commercial, distribution, and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Submit Your Manuscript www.ficuspublishers.com http://ficuspublishers.com/JRAS.php Journal of Research in Animal Sciences An International Open Access Online Research Journal Authors: Rajmohan D and Logankumar K. Institution: PG and Research Department of Zoology Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamilnadu, India. Corresponding author: Rajmohan D Email: rajmohandevadass@gmail.com Web Address: http://ficuspublishers.com/ documents/AS0012.pdf Dates: Received: 16 Jul 2012 Accepted: 25 Jul 2012 Published: 14 Aug 2012 Article Citation: Rajmohan D and Logankumar K. Mosquitocidal property of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nictaginaceae) against the growth and development of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. l. (Diptera: Culicidae) Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences An International Online Open Access Publication group Original Research
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects well- known for their public health importance, since they act as a vector for many tropical and sub tropical diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, malaria, filariasis and encephalitis of different types including, Japanese encephalitis. (Service and Youdeowei, 1983). Mosquitoes transmit some of the world’s worst life threatening and debilitating parasitic and viral diseases including malaria, filariasis and dengue fever. These diseases are on the rise in many tropical and subtropical areas (WHO, 1986). Insect- transmitted diseases remain a major source of illness and death world wide. Mosquitoes alone transmit diseases to more than 700 million people annually (Taubers. 1997). Aedes aegypti is a principal vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhage fever and it is reported to infect more than hundred million people every year in more than 100 countries in the tropics (Halstead, 2000). Mosquitoes cause annoyance to man and other animals and affect health for centuries. These are the carriers of malaria, yellow fever, filariasis and Encephalitis (Perich et al., 1994). Control of such mosquito borne diseases is becoming more and difficult, because of the increasing resistance to pesticides, lack of effective vaccines and drugs against disease causing mosquitoes. Hence, an alternative approach for mosquito control is the use of extract of plant origin (El Hag et al., 1999). Search of natural insecticides, which do not have any ill effects on the non-target population and are easily degradable, remains to be one of the top priority issues for the tropical countries (Redwane et al., 2002). Recently the workers have shifted their focus from synthetic insecticides to botanicals because plant materials are non-toxic to non-target animals, have no phytotoxic properties and leave no residues in the environment. Plants and their products could be used in the control of insects, offering a safer alternative to the conventional use of pesticides (Mulla et al., 2003). Keeping this in view, the present study has been carried out to evaluate the effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis on the growth and development of Aedes aegypti. MATERIALS AND METHODS Important vector species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L) is selected for the present study (Jan 2007- July 2007). Leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis were collected from wasteland and brought to the Kongunadu Arts and Science College research laboratory. The separated leaves were dried under shade at room temperature (29±1°C) for about 20 days. The completely dried leaves were powdered and sieved to get fine powder of leaf. The acetone leaf extract from the sieved fine leaf powder was obtained by using Soxhlet apparatus. One gram of the concentrated extract of dried leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis was dissolved in 100ml of acetone and kept as stock solution (10mg/ml). This stock solution was used to prepare the desired concentration of the extract for exposure of the mosquito egg, larvae and pupae. The eggs of Aedes aegypti were procured from the research laboratory of Indian Center for Communicable Diseases at Mettupalayam and were maintained in the laboratory conditions (29±1°C). On the next day, the eggs were observed to hatch out into first instar larvae. Appropriate amount of nutrients (Yeast powder and glucose) were added to the culture medium. For the treatment of egg, larvae and pupae with the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis 100ml of tap water was kept in a series of glass beakers (of 200ml capacity). Required quantity of stock solution (containing 10 mg/ml) was added into each beaker (containing 100 ml of tap water) to obtain a particular concentration of the extract. Control medium was also maintained with 100ml of tap water added with maximum quantity of acetone present in the stock solution of the extract. Separate series of exposure medium with desired concentration of extract were kept 029 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032 Rajmohan and Logankumar, 2012
  • 3. Table 1.7 LC50 (ppm) of the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis on the different stages of Aedes aegypti. Concentration (%) Mean percentage Egg hatchability Control 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 100 78 72 62 40 24 14 Concentration (%) Mean percentage mortality Control 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0 14 20 34 46 70 84 Concentration (%) Mean percentage mortality Control 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1.0 1.1 0 32 52 62 74 78 84 Concentration (%) Mean percentage mortality Control 0.07 0.08 0.09 1.0 1.5 2.0 0 18 34 52 64 82 96 Concentration (%) Mean percentage mortality Control 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0 30 44 62 68 86 94 Concentration (%) Mean percentage mortality Control 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 18 32 44 56 72 86 Plant Stages LC50 (mg/l) 95%Fiducial limit (mg/l) Lower Upper Bougainvillea spectabilis Egg I Instar II Instar III Instar IV Instar Pupa 31 59 231 606 1578 2637 19 48 65 298 843 2044 71 103 726 889 2117 4102 Mortality percentage of different stages of Aedes aegypti against the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis Table 1.1 Egg Table 1.2 I instar Table 1.3 II instar Table 1.4 III instar Table 1. 5 IV instar Table 1.6 Pupae Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032 030 Rajmohan and Logankumar, 2012
  • 4. for Aedes aegypti. The egg hatchability, larval and pupal mortality of Aedes aegypti were observed separately. Twenty numbers of eggs, first instar to the fourth larvae and pupa of Aedes aegypti were separately introduced into control and different concentrations of the seed extract. At the end of 24 h the number of survival organisms were recorded and the percent mortality values were calculated. Based on the percent mortality values, LC50 value of leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis for Aedes aegypti was obtained separately by calculating the regression line employing probit analysis of Finney (1964) as described by Busvin (1971). The e ffe ct o f le a f e xt r act o f Bougainvillea spectabilis on the mortality of the egg, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti following 24h were corrected for natural response by Abbot’s formula (Abbot, 1925) as follows: corrected % kill= (Proportion of less mortality -Proportion of control mortality)/ (1- Proportion of control mortality) 100. Busvin (1971) suggested that the critical doses of susceptibility could be estimated with sufficient accuracy from a probit/log concentration graph. Based on the log concentration and the probit mortality percentage values, regression equation was obtained. LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis for 24 h of exposure of egg, larvae and pupae (Aedes aegypti) and their fiducial limits (95% upper fiducial limit and lower fiducial limit) were calculated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Mortality values of egg, larvae and pupae treated with different concentration (ranging from 0.01% to 4.0%) of the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis at the end of 24hrs are represented in Tables 1.1 to 1.6 for egg, different instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values and their 95% upper and lower fiducial limits of the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis for 24h of exposure of Aedes aegypti are given in Table 1.7. Based on the probit analysis, the 24h LC50 (mg/l) value of the leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis for egg, different instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti was found to be 31 mg/l (egg), 59mg/l (I instar), 231 mg/l (II instar), 606 mg/l (III instar), 1578mg/l (IV instar) and 2637 mg/l (pupa) (Table. 1.7). The results of the study revealed that the experimental plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis is more toxic against all the developmental stages of Aedes aegypti. Therefore it is understood that the plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis could be employed for the mosquito control programme. `The control of mosquito borne diseases can be achieved either by killing or preventing mosquitoes from biting human beings (by using repellents) or by causing larval mortality in a large scale at the breeding centers of the vectors in the environment. A survey of literature on the control of different species of mosquito revealed that the assessment of the efficacy of different phytochemicals obtained from various plants exhibited more pronounced inhibition over the developmental stages of mosquito. Despite many plants of mosquitocidal property, a very few plant products only have shown practical utility for mosquito control in an effective manner (Sukumar et al., 1991). Development of insecticides from plant origin is essential because of their biodegradable, non-toxic quality and also safe for the public health. Thus the observations made in the present study have come as yet another evidence for the significant influence of the plant desired botanical pesticide like Bougainvillea spectabilis in the control of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. REFERENCES Abbot WS. 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of the insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol; 18:265-7. 031 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032 Rajmohan and Logankumar, 2012
  • 5. Busvin R J. 1971. A critical review of the techniques for testing insecticides. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, London, 263-288 El Hag EA, El Nadi AH and Zaitoon AA. 1999. Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipens larvae (Diptera:Culicidae). Phytother. Res. 13(5):388-392 . Finney DJ. 1964. Probit analysis. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, London, 20. Halstead SB. 2000. Global perspective on Dengue Research. Dengue Bulletin, 24:77-82. Mulla MS, Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Chompoosri J and Zaim M. 2003. Laboratory and field evaluation of novaluron, a new insect growth regulator (IGR), against Aedes aegypti. Journal of Vector Ecology 28:241-254. Perich MJ, Berstsch W and Tredwau KE. 1994. Toxicty of extracts from three Tagetes against adults and larvae of yeiow fever mosquto and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera Culicidae). /. Med. Entomol. 31(6):833-837. Redwane A, Lazrek HB, Bouallam S, Markouk M, Amarouch H. and Jana M. 2002. Larvicidal activity of extract from Querus lusitania var infectoria galls (oliv). J. Ethenopharmaco. 79:261-263. Service MW and Youdeowei A. 1983. Management of vectors. Editors. Pest Vector Management in Tropics; 265-280. Sukumar KMJ, Perich and Boombar LR. 1991. Botanical derivatives in mosquito control: A review. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 7:210-237. Taubers G. 1997. A. Mosquito bites bank. New York Times Magazine. August 24:40-46. WHO. 1986. Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides. Tenth report of the Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Technical Report Series, 737:87. Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(1): 028-032 032 Rajmohan and Logankumar, 2012 Submit your articles online at Ficuspublishers.com Advantages Easy online submission Complete Peer review Affordable Charges Quick processing Extensive indexing Open Access and Quick spreading You retains your copyright submit@ficuspublishers.com www.ficuspublishers.com/submit1.php.

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