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Mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf and seed extracts of Lantana camara on Aedes aegypti

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Background and Objectives: This paper reports the toxicity of Lantana camara to developmental stages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Aqueous extracts of leaf and seed of the plant were …

Background and Objectives: This paper reports the toxicity of Lantana camara to developmental stages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Aqueous extracts of leaf and seed of the plant were also tested for their effect on the hatchability of mosquito egg and age at pupation and emergence.
Methods: Different concentrations of aqueous leaf and seed extract were prepared. The data of mortality rate were subjected to finney’s method of probit analysis. The plant was also tested for their effect on the hatchability of mosquito eggs.
Results: Percent log LC50 / 24 h values of the leaf and seed extracts of L. camara to IV instar larvae were 2.25 and 2.25 respectively. Percent hatchability of mosquito eggs was remarkably reduced when treated with higher concentration of the toxicants. Extended time of pupation and emergence was observed for the larvae reared in different concentrations of the plant extract.
Conclusion: The results suggested that leaf and seed extract of Lantana camera possessed remarkable larvicidal, ovicidal, and prolonged time of pupation and adult emergence against Aedes aegypti.

Article Citation:
Sathya K, Mohanraj RS, Dhanakkodi B .
Mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf and seed extracts of Lantana camara on Aedes aegypti.
Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047.

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http://janimalsciences.com/documents/AS0013.pdf


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  • 1. JournalofResearchinAnimalSciences Mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf and seed extracts of Lantana camara on Aedes aegypti Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Lantana camara, toxicity, hatchability, development time. ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: This paper reports the toxicity of Lantana camara to developmental stages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Aqueous extracts of leaf and seed of the plant were also tested for their effect on the hatchability of mosquito egg and age at pupation and emergence. Methods: Different concentrations of aqueous leaf and seed extract were prepared. The data of mortality rate were subjected to finney’s method of probit analysis. The plant was also tested for their effect on the hatchability of mosquito eggs. Results: Percent log LC50 / 24 h values of the leaf and seed extracts of L. camara to IV instar larvae were 2.25 and 2.25 respectively. Percent hatchability of mosquito eggs was remarkably reduced when treated with higher concentration of the toxicants. Extended time of pupation and emergence was observed for the larvae reared in different concentrations of the plant extract. Conclusion: The results suggested that leaf and seed extract of Lantana camera possessed remarkable larvicidal, ovicidal, and prolonged time of pupation and adult emergence against Aedes aegypti. 040-047 | JRAS | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 2 © Ficus Publishers. This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non- commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Submit Your Manuscript www.ficuspublishers.com http://ficuspublishers.com/JRAS.php Journal of Research in Animal Sciences An International Open Access Online Research Journal Authors: Sathya K2 , Mohanraj RS1 , Dhanakkodi B2 . Institution: 1. Department of Zoology, Government Arts college (Autonomous) Coimbatore - 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India. 2. Department of Zoology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous) Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India. Corresponding author: Mohanraj RS. Email: mohanphd2007@gmail.com Web Address: http://ficuspublishers.com/ documents/AS0013.pdf Dates: Received: 12 Sep 2012 Accepted: 01 Oct 2012 Published: 29 Oct 2012 Article Citation: Sathya K, Mohanraj RS, Dhanakkodi B . Mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf and seed extracts of Lantana camara on Aedes aegypti. Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences An International Online Open Access Publication group Original Research
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Mosquitoes are the prominent vectors of human diseases viz., Malaria, yellow fever, dengue, filariasis and encephalitis (Lymio et al., 1992; Rawlins and Wan, 1995). Among the different species of mosquitoes, individuals of genus Aedes are considered highly dangerous because, these show more dependency on human blood (Scott et al., 1993) and breed in artificial containers like discarded automobile tires, flower vases, tin cans, Jars, unused water closets, cisterns and the like in and around human habitations (Barrera, 1996). Aedes aegypti is the potential vector of dengue and yellow fever (Mazzarri and Georghiou, 1995). A severe out break of dengue with 16 death has been reported in Tamil Nadu (The Hindu, 2001). In October, 2006, a total of 5,710 cases were recorded in India. Delhi had the highest number (1,737) of patients. Tamil Nadu had 307 patients, 103 deaths were also reported (The Hindu, 2006). In 2012 total of 3,000 cases and 50 deaths were reports in Madurai, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts (Tamil Nadu) (The Hindu, 2012). Recently out break of chikungunya has become the talk of the world. According to central health secretary of India, in 2006, 13 lakh people affected by this disease. In Tamil Nadu alone 63,000 persons were affected by this disease (The Hindu, 2006). So, priority must be given to the control of the mosquitoes for the protection of public health. Many control strategies for mosquitoes have been suggested since ancient times. Physical control is one of the method by which the physical nature of environment is changed to reduce breeding of mosquitoes. Physical control measures include digging ditches; grading or filling low areas, laying tile etc. Although these measures are expected to provide effective mosquito control, the problem is that they are relatively expensive and must be cooperatively carried out by landowners, the public and government agencies. Use of synthetic pesticides is still the most convenient method all over the world. However, extensive and indiscriminate use of these pesticides caused environmental contamination and showed unwarranted effects on non-target beneficial organism as well as on human beings (Selvaraj Pandian et al., 1994). These serious effects arising due to the use of synthetic chemicals indicate the need for considering alternative control measures for mosquito. In recent years, scientists try a variety of botanical derivatives to eradicate many harmful insect pests including mosquitoes. Some of the plant products tested for their insecticidal properties on the medically and economically important mosquitoes are : Cake powders of linseed, mustard, castor, mahuana (Bowry et al., 1984); aqueous, petroleum ether extracts of Carica papaya, Nerium indicum (Evans and Raj, 1988); steam distilled oils of marigold, Tagetes patula (Green et al., 1991); methanol and acetone extracts of Mentha piperita (Selvaraj Pandian et al., 1994); petroleum ether extracts of Karanja seeds and Garlic bulbs (Das et al., 1995); oils of Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus sp., Pongamia glabra, Se sa mum i ndi cu m, Ricin u s co m muni s, Madhuca longifolia, Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits) Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) (Vrushali, 2001;); fruits of Piper longum (Yang et al., 2002); Crude extract of Celery, Apium graveolens (Choochote et al., 2004); aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum) (Chansang et al., 2005); aqueous leaves extracts of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Obomanu et al., 2006) and leaf extract of Ageratina adenophora (Rajmohan and Ramaswamy, 2007). Insecticidal activity of neem has been reported (Mohanraj and Dhanakkodi, 2007, 2008); aqueous extract of neem leaves (Arunpandiyan, 2011); methanolic extract of Acalypha alnifolia leaves (Kovendan et al., 2012). 041 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 Sathya et al.,2012
  • 3. Prohit et al., (1989) demonstrated that plant products are easily biodegradable, eco-friendly and they leave no poisonous residues. Lantana camara (Family: Verbenaceae), commonly called unnichedi in Tamil is a large shrub found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is completely adapted to varied conditions of soil in India. Chemical constituents of the whole or different parts of this plant are pentacyclic triterpenoids, oxosteroid–lanncamarone, triterpene-lantanolic acid and lantic acid. Though, the plants are widely distributed in India, Tamil Nadu in particular, easily accessible and extensively used for medical purpose, investigations on their insecticidal properties are scanty, while neem which was known for its medicinal properties but later on exploited as pesticide could not be left unnoticed at this juncture. Very few preliminary studies have been so far carried out, to evaluate the toxicity and repellency of Lantana camara (Seyoum et al., 2002; Dua et al., 2003). It is therefore desirable to study multitargeted effects of these plants on insect pests, mosquitoes in particular. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animal Different larval stages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti were used as experimental animals in the present study. Eggs of Aedes mosquitoes were first collected. They were hatched and reared in the laboratory. The adults were identified and maintained in cages for generations. The larvae obtained from this stock were used for different experiments. Test Compounds Powdered leaf and seed of plants Lantana camara which are locally called Unnichedi in Tamil were used as test compounds in the present study. Preparation of water extracts of plant parts Leaf and seed were carefully collected from the plant and air dried under shade. The dried leaf and seed were pounded with mortar and pestle to a course powder. The powder was stored in clean containers until further use. A known quantity of the leaf/seed powder of plant was taken in a container with 200 ml of filtered unchlorinated water, stirred well and kept for 24 h. The mixture was again stirred well and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was used as experimental medium in which larvae were reared for experimental purposes. The amount of powder taken at a time was in proportion to the concentration of the medium required. For example, one percent of test medium of either leaf or seed of Lantana camara was prepared by dissolving 2 gm of the powder in 200 ml of water according to the method adopted for preparing of neem water extracts by Mourier (1997); Mohanraj and Dhanakkodi (2005). Test for toxicity of plant extracts Different concentrations of the test compounds were prepared using unchlorinated water as described earlier. Batches of 20 larvae were exposed to 200 ml of a particular concentration of the test solution. Mortality rates of larvae were recorded after 24 h. Five or more concentrations of a test compound recorded between 0 to 100% mortality of larvae at IV instar stage were tested. Two replicates were done at each concentration. The data of mortality rate were subjected to Finney's method of probit analysis as detailed by Regupathy and Dhamu (1990), toxicity was expressed in terms of LC50 (Median Lethal Concentration). Test for the effect of plant extracts on hatchability of A. aegypti eggs Fresh eggs of A. aegypti were placed in media treated with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) of leaf and seed extracts of the test plant and control as fifty eggs each. Eggs/egg shells were collected from each container after 96 h from the commencement of the experiment and the number of hatched and Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 042 Sathya et al.,2012
  • 4. unhatched eggs were recorded. The eggs which found broken were counted as hatched and those found complete were considered as unhatched. The time (96 h) was fixed, because it was demonstrated that the completion of embryogeny occurs with in four days (Judson and Gojrati, 1967). The experiment was repeated thrice. The data were statistically examined using student ‘t’ test. Determination of effect of plant (leaf / seed) extracts on the development time of A. aegypti Three batches of first instar larvae as 50 each of A. aegypti, were introduced into the media of particular concentration of the test extracts. They were maintained with fish food ad libitum until all surviving larvae pupated. The pupae were also allowed to emerge as adults. The medium was replaced with freshly prepared test solutions every alternate day. Number of larvae completed ecdysis i.e., conversion from one instar stage to the subsequent one, was recorded every 24 h till emergence. The daily record of mortality among the larvae reared in each concentration of the plant extract and control was maintained. Accordingly the percentage of larvae pupated and emerged into adults and mean time required for pupation and emergence was calculated (Sagar and Sehgal, 1997). The data were statistically examined using student ‘t’ test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Toxicity of Lantana camara to different larval stages of A. aegypti Log LC50 / 24 h values of leaf extracts of Lantana camara to the IV instar larvae of the mosquito was 2.25 (LL-2.22 and UL - 2.28) and that of the seed extract it was 2.25 (LL-2.19 and UL-2.31), respectively. (Fig 1and 2). Sathya et al.,2012 Concentration No. of eggs introduced No. of eggs hatched % hatch Per cent reduction over control Control 50 40.33 ± 1.25 80.66 - 0.5% 50 40 ± 0.82 80 0.82 1% 50 30 ± 0.82 60 25.6 1.5% 50 18.33 ± 1.25 36.66* 54.55 * Significantly different (P < 0.01) from that of control Table 1 Change in the hatchability of Aedes aegypti eggs treated with different concentrations of leaf extract of Lantana camara and control. 043 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ProbitofMortality Log dose Fig 1 Probit regression line for the toxicity of Lantana camara (leaf) on fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ProbitofMortality Log dose Fig 2 Probit regression line for the toxicity of Lantana camara (seed) on fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Fig 1 r value =0.478 slope=24 Fig. r value=0.758 slope=38
  • 5. Effect of the plant extracts on hatchability of A. aegypti eggs Percent hatch of the mosquito eggs in control medium was 80.66. This was reduced to 36.66 and 8 for the eggs exposed to 1.5% of leaf and seed extracts of L. camara (Tables 1and 2). Effect of Leaf and seed extracts of Lantana camara on mean age at pupation and emergence of A. aegypti Larvae of A. aegypti reared in control medium pupated at 132.67 h (5.5 days) and adults emerged at 184.67 h (7.6 days). Leaf and seed extracts of L. camara prolonged the period of pupation and adult emergence. Mosquito larvae reared in the leaf extract (1.5%) of L. camara completed pupation in about 176 h (7 days) and those developed in a similar concentration of seed extract attained pupation at 196.3 h (8.2 days) (Fig. 3 and 4). This was significantly different (p < 0.01) from that of the control. In the present study, leaf & seed extracts of L.camara showed notable toxic effect on fourth instar larvae of A.. aegypti. The log median lethal concentration (Log LC50 / 24 h) of leaf and seed extracts of L. camara was 2.25 respectively. Though exact comparisons are not available, due to differences in the methods of the experimental set up, reports of Dua et al., (1996) and Seyoum et.al., 2002 on insecticidal properties of L. camara may be quoted in support of the present observation. Leaf and seed extracts of L. camara as observed in the present study, showed ovicidal effect on the eggs of A. aegypti. Percent hatching of eggs placed in control medium (filtered tap water) was 80.66. This was reduced to a considerable level of 36.66 and 8 when treated with 1.5% of the plant extracts. Reduction in the hatching of eggs from lepidopteran and hymenopteran insects on treatment with aqueous extracts of plant derivatives such as black pepper, neem seed and garlic bulb was recorded by Ekesi (2000). It was opined that chemicals synonym to insect growth regulators diffuse into eggs and effect vital Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 044 Sathya et al.,2012 Concentration No. of eggs introduced No. of eggs hatched % hatch Per cent reduction over control Control 50 40.33 ± 1.25 80.66 - 0.5% 50 35 ± 0.82 70 13.22 1% 50 7 ± 0.82 14 82.6 1.5% 50 4 ± 0.82 8* 90.1 Table 2 Change in the hatchability of Aedes aegypti eggs treated with different concentrations of seed extract of Lantana camara and control. * Significantly different (P < 0.01) from that of control 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Control 0.50% 1% 1.50% Hours 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Days Mean age at pupation (hours) Mean age at Emergence (hours) Mean age at pupation (Days) Mean age at Emergence (Days) Fig 3 Change in development time of Aedes aegypti larvae reared in different concentrations of leaf extract of Lantana camara and control 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Control 0.50% 1% 1.50% Hours 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Days Mean age at pupation (hours) Mean age at Emergence (hours) Mean age at pupation (Days) Mean age at Emergence (Days) Fig 4 Change in development time of Aedes aegypti larvae reared in different concentrations of seed extract of Lantana camara and controls
  • 6. physiological and biochemical processes associated with embryonic development, there by inhibiting eclosion of eggs (Boradbent and Pree, 1984). Crude water extracts obtained from leaf and seed of L. camara were found to prolong the larval period of A. aegypti and thus delay pupation and emergence. Mean age at pupation for the larvae reared in control medium was 132.67 h. This was extended to 176, 196.3 h in larvae exposed to the media (1.5%) of leaf and seed extracts of L. camara, respectively. The prolonged life-span of aquatic larvae was described as a consequence of low feeding rate (Pandian and Madhavan, 1974). CONCLUSION The finding of the present investigation revealed that aqueous leaf and seed extract has good toxic, ovicidal and prolong the larval period of A. aegypti and thus delay pupation and emergence. REFERENCES Arunpandiyan G. 2011. Toxicity of aqueous crude neem leaf extract against Culex mosquitoes. Int. J. Pham. Biomed. Sci., 2(1):1-3. Barrera R. 1996. Competition and resistance to starvation in larvae of container – inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes. Ecol. Entomol., 21:117-127. Boradbent AB and Pree DJ. 1984. Effects of dyflubenzuron and Bay SIR 8514 on the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera : Olethreutidae) and the oblique banded leaf roller (Lepidoptera : Torticidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 77:194-197. Bowry SK, Pandey ND and Tripathi RA. 1984. Evaluation of certain oil seed cake powders as grain protectant against Sitophilus oryzae Linn. Indian J. Ent., 46:196-200. Chansang U, Zahiri, NS, Bansiddhi J, Boonruad T, Thongsrirak P, Mingmuang J, Benjapong N and Mulla MS. 2005. Mosquito larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl) from Thailand. J. Vec. Eco., 30:195-200. Choochote W, Tuetun B, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P, Jitpakdi A, Tippawangkosol P, Riyong D and Pitasawat B. 2004. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Vec. Eco., 29:340-346. Das TK, Somachoudhury AK, Saha K and Sarkar PK. 1995. Persistent toxicity of modern insecticides, germicides and plant extracts against mosquito larvae. Pestology 19:5-12. Dua VK, Gupta NC, Pandey AC and Sharma VP. 1996. Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc., 12:406-408. Dua VK, Pandey AC, Singh R, Sharma VP and Subbarao SK. 2003. Isolation of repellent ingredients from Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers and their repellency against Aedes mosquitoes. J. Appl. Ent., 127:509-511. Ekesi S. 2000. Effect of volatiles and crude extracts of different plant materials on egg viability of Maruca vitrata and Clavigralla tomentosicollis. Phytoparasitica 28:305-310. Evans DA and Raj RK. 1988. Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides. Indian J. Med. Res., 38:38-41. Green MM, Singer JM, Sutherland DJ and Hibben CR. 1991. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes minuta (Marigold) toward Aedes aegypti. J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc., 7:282-287. 045 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1(2): 040-047 Sathya et al.,2012
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