Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis
on the growth and biochem...
INTRODUCTION
The marine ecosystem is the treasure place for
many natural resources (Anandhan and Sorna kumari,
2011). Seaw...
calculated. The biochemical parameters such as total
chlorophyll and carotenoid were quantified by using the
method of Wel...
enhanced the total chlorophyll content of the pulse to
1.93 mg/g, soluble protein to 6.12 mg/g and starch to
3.02 mg/g. Wi...
requirement of certain vitamins (Anantharaj and
Venkatesalu, 2002). The similar trends of results were in
the Sargassum sp...
Lingakumar K, Jeyaprakash R, Manimuthu C and
Haribaskar A. 2004. Influence of Sargassum sp. crude
extract on vegetative gr...
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Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (slf) prepared from sargassum wightii and hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L).

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The effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis were evaluated on the seedling growth and biochemical parameters of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L). The seeds of C. tetragonoloba soaked in SLF performed better when compared to the water soaked controls in terms of growth and certain biochemical attributes. The seeds were sown in soil and SLF were added to soil bed in four different concentrations separately (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% w/v). C. tetragonoloba seedlings showed positive response at 0.5% concentration of aqueous seaweed extracts in almost all the growth parameters studied. Similarly, a significant increase in the content of photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents such as soluble protein and starch was noted. The use of Sargassum and Hypnea extracts proved to be effective.

Article Citation:
Thambiraj J, Lingakumar K and Paulsamy S.
Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L).
Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1(1): 065-070.

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Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (slf) prepared from sargassum wightii and hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L).

  1. 1. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L). Keywords: Seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Sargassum wightii, Hypnea musciformis. ABSTRACT: The effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis were evaluated on the seedling growth and biochemical parameters of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L). The seeds of C. tetragonoloba soaked in SLF performed better when compared to the water soaked controls in terms of growth and certain biochemical attributes. The seeds were sown in soil and SLF were added to soil bed in four different concentrations separately (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% w/v). C. tetragonoloba seedlings showed positive response at 0.5% concentration of aqueous seaweed extracts in almost all the growth parameters studied. Similarly, a significant increase in the content of photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents such as soluble protein and starch was noted. The use of Sargassum and Hypnea extracts proved to be effective. 065-070 | JRA | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 1 This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. www.jagri.info Journal of Research in Agriculture An International Scientific Research Journal Authors: Thambiraj J1 , Lingakumar K 2 and Paulsamy S3 . Institution: 1. Department of Botany, Gobi Arts and Science College, Gobichettipalayam - 638 453, India. 2. Department of Botany, Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College, Sivakasi- 626 124, India. 3. Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore- 641 029, India. Corresponding author: Paulsamy S. Email: paulsami@yahoo.com. Web Address: http://www.jagri.info documents/AG0023.pdf. Dates: Received: 03 Apr 2012 Accepted: 15 Apr 2012 Published: 23 Apr 2012 Article Citation: Thambiraj J, Lingakumar K and Paulsamy S. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L). Iournal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 Original Research Journal of Research in Agriculture JournalofResearchinAgriculture An International Scientific Research Journal
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The marine ecosystem is the treasure place for many natural resources (Anandhan and Sorna kumari, 2011). Seaweeds are among the important marine living resources with tremendous commercial application. In recent times, seaweed extract have been used as fertilizers. These extracts are commonly known as Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF). Seaweeds have been used as manure, cattle feed, food for human consumption and as a source of phycocolloides such as agar, alginic acid and carrageenan (Chapman, 1970). Seaweed extracts as liquid fertilizers(SLF) has come in the market, for the reason that they contain many growth promoting hormones like auxins and gibberellins, trace elements (Fe,Cu,Zn,Co,Mo,Mn,Ni), vitamins, aminoacids etc (Challen and Hemingway, 1965). Thus, these extracts when applied to seeds or when added to the soil, stimulate the seed germination (Blunden, 1971). Seaweed fertilizer was found to be superior to chemical fertilizer because of high level of organic matter which aids in retaining moisture and minerals in the upper soil level available to the roots (Wallen Kemp, 1955). Considering the above facts, the present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of crude extracts of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on growth and certain biochemical characteristics of the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L). MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of Seaweeds The seaweeds used in the present study were Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis belonging to the classes Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae respectively. They were collected from the coastal area of Rameswaram, India (90 25’ N and 790 15’ E). The algal species were hand picked and washed thoroughly with seawater to remove all the unwanted impurities, adhering sand particles and epiphytes. The thallus of two algae was placed separately in new polythene bags and were kept in an ice box containing slush ice and transported to the laboratory. Then seaweeds were washed thoroughly using tap water and maximum care was taken to remove the salt and epiphytes on the surface of the sample. The water was drained off and the algae were spread on blotting paper to remove excess water. Preparation of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers The two seaweeds were cut into small pieces separately, and boiled with 1 liter of distilled water for an hour and filtered. The filtrate was treated as 100% concentration of the seaweed extract and from this, different concentrations of seaweed liquid fertilizers (SLF) (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) were prepared using distilled water (Bhosle et al., 1975). As the seaweed liquid fertilizers contained organic matter, they were refrigerated between 0 and 40 C. Selection of Crop Plant The crop plant, selected for the present study was Cyamopsis tetragonoloba belonging to the family, Fabaceae. The seeds were collected from Department of Pulses, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The seeds with uniform size, colour and weight were chosen for the experimental purpose. The selected seeds were stored in a metal tin (Rao, 1976). Experiment Five hundred seeds were soaked in water for 24 h. After soaking, they were divided into batches of 100 seeds each and were placed over filter paper kept in petriplates. One batch of seeds was considered as the control and they were watered with 10 ml of tap water. The remaining four batches of seeds were separately treated with 10 ml of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% of SLF of Sargassum wightii. After 24 h, the seeds were placed in soil bed separately and the respective concentration of SLF was added to the soil bed. Samples were taken from each set after 30 days. Triplicates were maintained for each seaweed. The growth parameters such as shoot length, root length, total fresh weight and total dry weight were 066 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 Thambiraj et al., 2012
  3. 3. calculated. The biochemical parameters such as total chlorophyll and carotenoid were quantified by using the method of Wellburn and Lichtenthaler (1984). The total soluble protein content was analyzed by following the method of Lowry et al. (1951). The content of starch was estimated by ninhydrin assay method of Jayaraman (1981). The activities of enzyme such as in vivo nitrate reductase, catalase and peroxidase were estimated by the following procedures of Jaworski (1971) Addy and Goodman (1972) and Kar and Mishra (1976) respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The data of vegetative growth parameters as influenced by different concentrations of seaweed liquid fertilizers of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis in the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba are presented in Tables 1. It shows that the SLF of both seaweeds at 0.5% concentration are the most optimum for high growth. The range of variation in this concentration existing between 9.8 (SLF of Hypnea musciformis) and 11.9 cm (SLF of Sargassum wightii) for shoot length and 4.5 cm (SLF of H. musciformis) and 4.7 cm (SLF of S. wightii) for root length. However for the seedling dry weight, both SLF are influencing uniformly (ie) the dry weight per seedling in 0.5% concentration was noted to be 0.60 mg in both cases. The increased seedling growth may be due to the presence of phenyl acetic acid (PAA) and other closely related compounds (P-CH-PAA) in the SLF (Taylor and Wilkinson, 1977) as well as the presence of some growth promoting substances. The growth enhancing potential of seaweeds might be attributed to the presence of macro and micronutrients (Challen and Hemingway, 1965). Another view is that the wide range of trace elements or micronutrients present in this seaweed extracts might also responsible for enhanced growth (Aitken and Senn, 1965). Among the two seaweed liquid fertilizers, S. wightii liquid fertilizer yielded better results. The higher concentrations showed a decreasing trend. Similar results were recorded in Padina which induced maximum seedling growth at lower concentrations in Cajanas cajan (Mohan et al., 1994) Vigna radiate, Zea mays and Phaseolus mungo (Lingakumar et al., 2004). Dhargalkar and Untawale (1983) also reported similar findings with Hypnea musciformis, Spatoglossum asperum, Stoechospermum marginatum and Sargassum sp. on the vegetative growth of crop plants like green chillies, turnips and pineapple. The results of the study revealed that low concentration (0.5% and 1%) of both seaweed extracts (SLF) significantly enhanced the vegetative growth parameters such as shoot length, root length and dry weight of the seedlings. The impact of seaweed extracts on certain biochemical constituents of seedlings of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba are presented in Table 2. The results of the study showed that generally the attributes are influenced significantly by different concentrations of SLF of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis. The lowest concentration of Sargassum wightii at 0.5% Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 067 Thambiraj et al., 2012 Concentration (%) Shoot length (cm/ seedling) Root length (cm/ seedling) Dry weight (mg/ seedling) SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis Control 8.44 ±0.09 8.44 ±0.09 3.1 ±0.20 3.1 ±0.20 0.41 ±0.03 0.41 ±0.03 0.5 11.9a ±0.28 9.8ab ±0.09 4.7ab ±0.12 4.5a ±.0.10 0.60cd ±0.03 0.60ab ±0.04 1 11.6a ±0.61 9.6ab ±0.41 3.9a ±0.12 4.1a ±0.16 0.58bc ±0.04 0.50a ±0.04 2 9.96a ±0.19 8.9ab ±0.74 3.6a ±0.71 3.8a ±0.41 0.55ab ±0.05 0.49a ±0.03 5 8.8a ±0.16 7.8a ±0.27 3.0a ±0.26 2.9a ±0.08 0.47a ±0.10 0.47a ±0.04 Table 1. Effect of sea weed liquid fertilizers (SLF) of Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on growth parameters of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. Means in column followed by different letter are significant to each other at 5% level according to DMRT.
  4. 4. enhanced the total chlorophyll content of the pulse to 1.93 mg/g, soluble protein to 6.12 mg/g and starch to 3.02 mg/g. With the treatment of SLF of Hypnea musciformis at 0.5% concentration, these attributes were raised to 1.81 mg/g, 6.02 mg/g and 3.01 mg/g respectively. Higher concentrations of both SLF decreased the chlorophyll content. A similar kind of observation was made in Scytonema sp. (Venkataraman Kumar and Mohan, 1997a) and in Vigna mungo (Venkataraman Kumar and Mohan, 1997b). Blunden et al. (1996)observed that the seaweed extract applied as foliar spray enhanced the leaf chlorophyll level in many crop plants. The increase in the protein and starch contents at lower concentration of SLF of both algae might be due to absorption of most of the necessary elements by the seedlings (Kannan and Tamilselvan, 1990; Anantharaj and Venkatesalu, 2001). The changes in pH by the influence of higher concentration SLF may retard the absorption of necessary elements in certain species which may result in lower content of protein and starch in that seedlings (Aitken and Senn, 1965). Similar to growth and biochemical parameters, the activity of the enzymes such as nitrate reductase, catalase and peroxidase in the pulse, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba were also determined to be highly influenced by various concentrations of SLF of Sargassum sp. and Hypnea sp. (Table 3). However, the higher concentrations of SLF of both algae at 5% significantly increased the catalase and peroxidase activity (0.024 and 0.022 µ moles H2O2 /mg protein/min respectively for catalase activity and 95.80 and 92.95 µ moles H2O2 /mg protein /min respectively for peroxidase activity). On the other hand, the in vitro nitrate reductase activity was higher in the seedlings of the studied pulse grown by the influence of lower concentration of 0.5% SLF of both algae (1.26 and 1.24 µ moles/hr respectively for SLF of S. wightii and H. musciformis). This variation in activity may be due to species specific 068 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 Thambiraj et al., 2012 Concentration (%) Total Chlorophyll (mg/g leaf weight) Soluble protein (mg/g leaf fresh weight) Starch (mg/g leaf fresh weight) SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis Control 1.424 ±0.004 1.424 ±0.004 4.62 ±0.060 4.62 ±0.060 2.15 ±0.01 2.15 ±0.01 0.5 1.927cd ±0.003 1.809a ±0.004 6.12c ±0.14 6.02c ±0.08 3.02b ±0.21 3.01b ±0.08 1 1.730bc ±0.005 1.633a ±0.003 5.82b ±0.05 5.70b ±0.10 2.90a ±0.24 2.85a ±0.21 2 1.618ab ±0.002 1.481a ±0.004 5.21b ±0.02 5.11b ±0.41 2.64a ±0.12 2.52a ±0.41 5 1.441a ±0.001 1.313a ±0.004 4.21a ±0.01 4.42a ±0.20 2.08a ±0.04 2.10a ±0.16 Table 2. Effect of sea weed liquid fertilizers (SLF) of Sargassum Wightii and Hypnea musciformis on chlorophyll content and certain biochemical constituents in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. Means in column followed by different letter are significant to each other at 5% level according to DMRT. Table 3. Effect of sea weed liquid fertilizers (SLF) of Sargassum Wightii and Hypnea musciformis on certain enzymatic activity in the seedlings of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. Concentration (%) In vivo nitrate reductase (µ moles /hr) Catalase activity (µ moles H2O2 /mg protein /min) Peroxidase activity (µ moles H2O2/mg protein /min) SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis SLF of S. wightii SLF of H. musciformis Control 0.93 ±0.01 0.93 ±0.01 0.018 ±0.02 0.018 ±0.02 65.80 ±0.12 65.80 ±0.12 0.5 1.26b ±0.20 1.24b ±0.16 0.017c ±0.01 0.016b ±0.01 76.50b ±0.14 61.97a ±0.56 1 1.18b ±0.04 1.13b ±0.04 0.019c ±0.10 0.019b ±0.04 82.16c ±0.89 80.63bc ±0.61 2 1.08b ±0.18 1.04b ±0.12 0.021d ±0.04 0.021c ±0.10 91.74de ±0.99 85.42c ±0.18 5 0.89a ±0.02 0.86a ±0.06 0.024d ±0.06 0.022c ±0.14 95.80f ±0.29 92.95d ±0.93 Means in column followed by different letter are significant to each other at 5% level according to DMRT.
  5. 5. requirement of certain vitamins (Anantharaj and Venkatesalu, 2002). The similar trends of results were in the Sargassum sp. liquid fertilizer treated seedlings of Z. mays and P. mungo and Ulva lactuca liquid fertilizer treated seedlings of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba and Phaseolus mungo (Lingakumar et al., 2004 and 2006). CONCLUSION A holistic approach on the effectiveness of seaweeds viz., S. wightii and H. musciformis in the present study as evidenced by the increase in physiological and yield attributes could be related to growth promoter mediated reactions leading to higher nutrient uptake, resulting in higher yield. Hence, this simple practice of application of ecofriendly seaweed liquid fertilizers to the pulse Cyamopsis tetragonoloba is recommended to the growers for attaining better germination, growth and yield. REFERENCES Addy SK and Goodman RN. 1972. Polyphenol-oxidase and peroxidase activity in apple leaves inoculated with a virulent or avirulent strain for Erwinia amylovora, Indian J Phyto Path., 25:575-579. Aitken JB and Senn TL. 1965. Seaweed products as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. Bot Mar., 8: 144-148. Anandhan S and Sorna kumari H. 2011. Biorestraining potentials of marine macroalgae collected from Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Research in biology., 5:385-392. Anantharaj M and Venkatesalu V. 2001. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on Vigna catajung. Seaweed Res Utiln., 23(1&2): 33-39. Anantharaj M and Venkatesalu V. 2002. Studies on the effect of seaweed extracts on Dolichos biflorus. Seaweed Res Utiln., 24(1): 129-137. Bhosle NB, Untawale AG and Dhargalker VK. 1975. Effect of seaweed extract on growth of Phaseolus vulgaris. Indian J Mar Sci., 4: 208-210. Blunden G, Jenkins T and Liu YW. 1996. Enhanced chlorophyll levels in plants treated with seaweed extract. J Appl Phycol., 8: 535-543. Blunden G. 1971. The effect of aqueous seaweed extract as fertilizer additives. Proc. VII. Int. Seaw. Symp.Tokyo, 584-589. Challen SB and Hemingway JC. 1965. Growth of higher plants in response to feeding with seaweed extracts. Proc. 5th Ind. Seaweed Symp. Chapman GJ. 1970. Seaweeds and Their Uses. Methuen and Co. Ltd., London, 66. Dhargalkar VK and Untawale AG. 1983. Some observations of the effect of SLF, on higher plants. Indian J Mar Sci., 12: 210-214. Jaworski JS. 1971. Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissues. Biochem Biophy Res Commun., 43: 1274- 1279. Jayaraman J. 1981. Laboratory manual in Biochemistry. Willey – Eastern Limited, Madras, 65. Kannan L and Tamilselvan C. 1990. Effect of seaweed manures on Vigna radiatus. Perspectives in Phycology. (Prof. M.O.P. Iyenger Centenary Celebration Volume) VN. Rajarao (Ed.):427-430. Kar M. and Mishra D. 1976. Catalase, Peroxidase and Polyphenol –oxidase activities during rice leaf senescence. Plant Physiol., 57:315-319. Lingakumar K, Balasubramanian D, Sundar SKG, Jeyaprakash R and Jeyakumar M. 2006. Effect of Ulva lactuca crude extract on growth and biochemical characteristics in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba and Phaseolus mungo. Seaweed Res Utiln., 28(1):75-80. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 069 Thambiraj et al., 2012
  6. 6. Lingakumar K, Jeyaprakash R, Manimuthu C and Haribaskar A. 2004. Influence of Sargassum sp. crude extract on vegetative growth and biochemical characteristics in Zeamays and Phaseolus mungo. Seaweed Res Utiln., 26(1&2): 155-160. Lowry OH, Rosenburg NJ, Farr AL and Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem., 193: 262-275. Mohan VR, Venkataraman kumar V, Murugeswari R and Muthuswami S. 1994. Effect of crude and commercial seaweed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth in Cajanus cajan L. Phykos., 33(1&2): 47-51. Rao RSN. 1976. Seed viability studies under different storage condition. Patnagar J Res., 2: 253. Taylor IEP and Wilkinson AJ. 1977. The occurrence of gibberellins and gibberellins-like substances in algae. J Agric Res., 28(1): 121-126. Venkataraman Kumar V and Mohan VR. 1997a. Effects of seaweed extract SM3 on the cyanobacterium, Scytonema species. Seaweeds Res Utiln., 19(1&2): 13- 15. Venkataraman Kumar V and Mohan VR. 1997b. Effects of seaweed liquid fertilizer on black gram. Phykos., 36(1&2): 43-47. Wallen Kemp JO. 1955. Treasure from the sea. Organic Gard F., 2(3): 52-53. Wellburn AR and Lichtenthaler H. 1984. Formulae and program to determine total carotenoids and chlorophyll a, & b of leaf extracts in different solvents, In: C. Sybesma, (Ed.) Advances in Photosynthesis Research, Martinus Nijhoff / Dr.W.Junk, The Hague. Vol. II: 9-12. 070 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 065-070 Thambiraj et al., 2012 Submit your articles online at www.jagri.info Advantages  Easy online submission  Complete Peer review  Affordable Charges  Quick processing  Extensive indexing  You retain your copyright submit@jagri.info www.jagri.info/Sumit.php.

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