Surgery is when a person undergoes an operation due to diseases, deformities, or injuries. A doctor who performs surgery is a surgeon. There are other physicians who can perform other simple operations.
Except in cases of emergencies, surgical operations happen in an operating room in the hospital. A surgical team is made up of a surgeon, a first assistant, an anesthesiologist, and a nurse. The procedure when you are in an operating room, is to scrub hands thoroughly and wear sterile clothing like face masks, a gown and rubber gloves. The equipment in the room is all sterilized because it minimizes the number of disease-causing microorganisms in the area around the patient.
The instruments used to undergo an operation are sharp instruments such as scissors and scalps. Other instruments include holders for needles and sponges, clamps and retractors. Some surgeons use saws and lasers.
These are surgeries of the head, neck, chest, and abdomen. The recovery time can be lengthy and may involve a stay in intensive care or several days in the hospital. There is a higher risk of complications after such surgeries. In children, types of major surgery may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Removal of brain tumors
Correction of bone malformations of the skull and face
Repair of congenital heart disease, transplantation of organs, and repair of intestinal malformations
Correction of spinal abnormalities and treatment of injuries sustained from major blunt trauma
Correction of problems in fetal development of the lungs, intestines, diaphragm, or anus.