REGIONAL STRATEGIC ANALYSIS AND KNOWLEDGE
SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ASIA (ReSAKSS- ASIA)
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
ON
AGRICULTURAL TR...
1. THE SEED SCENARIO
• The seed scenario in Bangladesh is far from ideal.
• Large gap exists between Requirement & Supply ...
2. KEY PLAYERS IN THE SEED SECTOR
(1) PUBLIC SECTOR
1.1 Ministry of Agriculture (MoA): The Highest body for Regulating the...
Key Players (Continued)
1.7 Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC)
• BADC is the largest seed producer and...
3. SEED REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND PITFALLS IN IT
• The legislative documents are : The Seed Ordinance 1977, The Seed
Policy...
4. CHALLENGES CONFRONTING SEED SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
(1) Poor Innovative and Frontier Technology Application for Variety Deve...
CHALLENGES CONFRONTING SEED SECTOR DEVELOPMENT (Contd.)
(4) Anomalies In Seed Act, Rules & Policies
• The Seeds (Amendment...
5. ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
(1) In-Depth Review of the NSP & The Relevant Legislative Documents
• NSP is a comprehensive...
ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Continued)
4) Declaring Seed as Industry
• Agro-based and agro-processing enterprises, seed pr...
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The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh

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The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh

  1. 1. REGIONAL STRATEGIC ANALYSIS AND KNOWLEDGE SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ASIA (ReSAKSS- ASIA) INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN ASIA : POLICY OPTIONS FOR FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY SIEM REAP, CAMBODIA; 25-27 SEPT. 2013 SEED SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH : POLICY CONSTRAINTS AND IMPEDIMENTS TO IMPLEMENTATION PRESENTED BY ANWARUL QUADER SHAIKH Plant Breeder, Specialist in Research Mgmt & Seed, Agricultural Development and Agro-ecology Management Former Director General, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, and Vice-President, Bangladesh Academy of Agriculture.
  2. 2. 1. THE SEED SCENARIO • The seed scenario in Bangladesh is far from ideal. • Large gap exists between Requirement & Supply of Quality Seed (QS). • In 2011-2012, Requirement - 932, 250 MT; Supply - 186, 450 MT i.e. only 20% of the total need. • Public sector QS was 15.47%, Private Sector (PS) 4.53% & balance 80% was farmers' own seeds, quality of which was unknown or poor. • Public sector has been plagued with various constraints needing immediate actions in institutional reforms, revamping & major reorganizations. • PS seed production but has a long way to go both in terms of quantity & quality due to many shortcomings. • Assessment and redressing of the shortcomings impeding growth of PS are urgently needed. • Farmer’s knowledge & facilities for production, processing and preservation of QS are highly inadequate calling for immediate ameliorative measures.
  3. 3. 2. KEY PLAYERS IN THE SEED SECTOR (1) PUBLIC SECTOR 1.1 Ministry of Agriculture (MoA): The Highest body for Regulating the Seed Sector through its Seed Wing. 1.2 National Seed Board (NSB) : Main functions include; Advising Govt. on Implementation of Rules & Policies, Quality Control, Establishing of Seed Standards, Variety Release & Notification. 1.3 Seed Wing of MoA: Implements the Seed Related Policies, Rules & Acts. 1.4 Seed Certification Agency (SCA) • Certifies seeds produced by the Public & Private Sectors through field verification and Inspection of Seed Processing & Preservation Activities. • Conducts laboratory Tests of seeds before placing certification tags. • Monitors market, collects and tests seed lots imported through land, air & sea. • Conducts pre-release DUS & VCU tests of candidate varieties before release. 1.5 Seed Promotion Committee (SPC) : Coordinates all the Activities of Production and Supply of QS in the Public & Private Sectors. 1.6 Technical Committee (TC) : Advices NSB regarding to Variety Development, Release & Notification.
  4. 4. Key Players (Continued) 1.7 Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) • BADC is the largest seed producer and supplier in the country. • Provides technical support to PS, NGOs and Farmers through training & providing services for seed processing, preservation and quality control on a highly limited scale compared to need due to its shortcomings. • BADC multiplies BS of ARIs as FS and TLS. 1.8 Department of Agricultural Extension(DAE): • The Plant Protection Wing of DAE administers Quarantine Rules and Regulations and provides quarantine services and phyto-sanitary certificates for importing and exporting plants and plant product. 1.9 Agricultural Research Institutes (ARIs) : BARI, BRRI, BINA, BJRI & BSRI develop improved varieties of crops which are released and registered by the NSB. • ARIs produce and maintain BS of crops & supply to both public and PS agencies for multiplication as FS & TLS. • The TLS are sold to farmers as QS by BADC and PS. 2. THE PRIVATE SECTOR (PS): • Private Sector Enterprises (PSEs) include Seed Companies, Merchants, Traders, Dealers and Retailers. The Bangladesh Seed Association is acting as their apex body. • NGOs: More than 20 NGOs are involved in Seed Production and marketing.
  5. 5. 3. SEED REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND PITFALLS IN IT • The legislative documents are : The Seed Ordinance 1977, The Seed Policy 1993, The Seed (Amendment) Act 1997, The Seed Rules 1998, The Seed (Amendment) Act 2005 and the Plant Quarantine Act 2011. • The Documents of the Seed Regulatory Framework fall short in almost all categories of seed management system including : (1) Variety Development and Notification, (2) Maintenance breeding & Breeder Seed (BS) supply, (3) Seed multiplication, (4) Seed processing and preservation, (5) Quality control, and (6) Marketing. • The National Seed Policy NSP 1993 • The provisions of NSP and their present position of implementation do not match • Prices of BADC produced seeds are controlled by the Government. • As a result, seed supply system has remained largely in the domain of the public sector & PS has been discouraged to produced seed.
  6. 6. 4. CHALLENGES CONFRONTING SEED SECTOR DEVELOPMENT (1) Poor Innovative and Frontier Technology Application for Variety Development. • Application of innovative and frontier Technology for seed sector development is limited. • Dearth of trained Scientists in innovative and frontier technology. • Poor investment in facilities and infrastructure development in both public & private sector. (2) Persistently Low Seed Replacement Rate (SRR). • Quality Seed was 12.61% in 2005-2006, has increased to 20% in 2011-2012. • Quality SRR Seed must be increased tremendously. • The private sector has a major role to play in the endeavour . • The PS has to compete with the Public Sector to improve the SRR up to the desired level. (3) Absence of Level Playing Field . • The PS has to be strengthened in all possible ways to compete with the public sector. • The PS should be provided with all the facilities envisioned in the NSP. • Impediments to varietal development, seed testing, BS production & maintenance, TLS production, seed distribution, marketing etc. are impeding the development of the PS. • Reforms in policy and regulatory framework are necessary to remove/lessen these impediments.
  7. 7. CHALLENGES CONFRONTING SEED SECTOR DEVELOPMENT (Contd.) (4) Anomalies In Seed Act, Rules & Policies • The Seeds (Amendment) Act 2005 has restricted the PS to develop new varieties of notified crops and their BS production. This has created uneven regulatory privilege to the public sector. This is contradictory to NSP provision for the PS. • BADC's seed prices should reflect costs more closely and subsidies should be phased out gradually as per NSP strategy. • Promise of BADC’s help to PS in providing the necessary help for fund, facilities and technical training has not been fulfilled significantly. • Seed adulteration has become quite a common phenomenon. SCA cannot cope with monitoring the huge marketing system of both public and private sector. • Inadequate BS supply due to inability of ARIs to produce adequate quantity of BS. Absence of Breeder Seed Production Units (BSPU) is the cause for it. • Shortcomings of SCA like unrealistic linkage with DAE, faulty organogram, shortage of fund, manpower & facilities, as per provision of NSP have not been removed with due urgency.
  8. 8. 5. ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS (1) In-Depth Review of the NSP & The Relevant Legislative Documents • NSP is a comprehensive document for playing desirable activities to develop an useful seed system. • The relevant legislative documents prepared later in the light of NSP do not express fully the intensions of NSP, even contradicts them. • These issues need in-depth review and analysis to develop useful recommendations for improving the quantity of QS in the country. (2) Creating Abundance of Varieties • Regular flow of increased number of improved crop varieties is a pre-requisite to develop an efficient and effective seed system. • Restricting the PS from variety development and imposing strict release have virtually slowed down the process of variety development. • The speed of public sector variety development is slowed due to lack of trained scientists. • Appropriate analysis of the situation is warranted to delineate the causes behind as well as to develop ameliorative measures soonest possible. (3) Correct Information on Seed • There is dearth of dependable information on (a) quantity of QS being marketed and (b) standard of quality of the seed used. • The quality of used seed should be determined through regular survey (e.g. "Drill Box" system used during the 1950s in the USA and Canada). • MIS may be established for the seed system. Information should be sent regularly by the stake-holders of the seed system to the MIS Center, who in turn, will analyze and consolidate the info as well as publish it. All concerned should quote this centrally consolidated data.
  9. 9. ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Continued) 4) Declaring Seed as Industry • Agro-based and agro-processing enterprises, seed processing and storage activities are included in the Industrial Policy -- and are enjoying many financial facilities/exemptions. Other entities engaged in seed production (Research and Development, Seed farm, Seed lab etc. should be declared as industry. (5) Level-Playing Field • Seed marketed by BADC is subsidized by the Govt. to the extent of 50- 100% in varying degrees with different seeds. BADC is selling seeds at less than the cost price. • The PSEs depend entirely on their own resources but have to market their seed on cost price. This situation has distorted level playing field, and as a result, impeding the growth of the PS. Review of the whole situation is required to create level playing field in seed prices between the public sector and the PS. (6) Constraints of SCA • The SCA is treated as an auxiliary branch of DAE, SCA staff are "administered" by DAE, which hampers its development and functioning. It should be taken out of DAE's sphere of unrealistic influence, made independent with its own Sub-cadre as proposed in the NSP.
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