Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat

on

  • 296 views

“Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat”, presented by Arun Kumar Joshi, CIMMYT at the ReSAKSS-Asia Conference, Nov 14-16, 2011, in Kathmandu, Nepal.

“Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat”, presented by Arun Kumar Joshi, CIMMYT at the ReSAKSS-Asia Conference, Nov 14-16, 2011, in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
296
Views on SlideShare
295
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideee.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat Presentation Transcript

    • Arun K. Joshi, Ravi P. Singh & Govindan Velu CIMMYT Zn and Fe rich wheat in developing countries of Asia; where we are!
    • • Micronutrients are important (many; Zn, Fe) • But only few can afford healthy diet in many countries – south Asia! • Around 1 billion suffer from Zn and Fe deficiency (globally); a vast number is in south Asia Photo: Livestrong.com
    • Metal-containing & metal-binding proteins in 2 species identified by proteomic techniques. Gladyshev et al., 2004 Central Role of Zinc in Life on Earth Source: Hans J. Braun, 2010
    • Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio • Wheat means - a 5th of humanity’s food, and is first as a source of protein. • It is an especially critical “staff of life” for the approximately 1.2 billion “wheat dependent” to 2.5 billion “wheat consuming” poor—men, women and children who live on less than USD 2 per day—and approximately 30 million poor wheat producers and their families. • Demand for wheat in the developing world is projected to increase 60% by 2050. Source: WHEAT, CIMMYT, 2011 Wheat is important
    • Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio In south Asia, wheat is 2nd most consumed crop
    • Target Areas for Zn/Fe dense Wheat Baseline Micronutrient Level in Commercial Crop 25 µgg-1 Target Increment to be added 8 µgg-1 Wolfgang H PFEIFFER ME1: Temperate Irrigated High Production NWPZ ME5: Irrigated High Temperature Stress EGPZ Expected release - 2013
    • • South Asia continue to be “plow to plate” • Nutrient rich, agronomically superior mega wheat varieties may ensure reaching the masses
    • 2004-2009 Discover genes and sources of variation 2009-13 Develop varieties 2014+ Deliver to clients Frequently asked questions  Will it be possible to breed nutrient rich varieties?  Will these be bioavailable?  Will such varieties will meet farmers expectations? HarvestPlus initiative of IFPRI
    • Zn and Fe grain concentrations are internal traits; agronomic or external advantages are most appealing to farmers
    • The progress....
    • Wild relative species are best Zn sources; T. spelta appears the best
    • Wheat 30 μgg-1 best Zn sources crossed to elite wheat adapted to target areas X baseline 25 μgg-1 Cd. Obregon, March 2009 Zn Content Zn Concentration Best deployed to India & Pakistan for GxE Performance Testing on-station & on-farm
    • N = >1200 N = >800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 <20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 >55 Grain Zn concentration (mg/kg) %entries Zn conc in 2009-10 Zn conc in 2008-09 Progress in Zn and Fe concentration 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 <20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 Fe concentration (mg/kg) %entries Fe conc 2009-10 Fe conc 2008-09 N = >1200 N = >800 CIMMYT trials; more lines with more nutrition
    • R2 = 0.069 10 20 30 40 50 60 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 Maturity (days) Znconc.(ppm) No trade-off of yield and yield traits R2 = 0.0004 10 20 30 40 50 60 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Yield (t/ha) Znconc(ppm) R 2 = 0.0043 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TKW Znconc.(ppm) R 2 = 0.0019 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 Plant height (cm) Znconc(ppm)
    • Zn and Yield Performance in 2nd HPYT entries for 2011-12 planting 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 95 100 105 110 115 ZincConcetrationas%ofTarget(8ppm) Grain Yield as % of Check Average (Checks = 100%) Higher chances candidate varieties
    • Harvest Plus trials and nurseries 1. HPWYT (trial) 2. HPAN (nursery) 3. Ludhiana 4. Karnal 5. Delhi 6. Varanasi 7. Islamabad 8. Faisalabad
    • Nitrogen and grain Zn relate well Cakmak et al., 2009. Cereal Chem.
    • Zinc deficiency in Wheat Example from Turkey – Chakmak et al., 2009 Minor things can give major impact
    • “Drought Stress” Zn Foliar Spray Source: Hans J. Braun, 2009 Zn spray may give more yield as well as more Zn in the grain
    • Breeding for Bioavailability InulinPhytic acid ++ O OO P O H O OO P O O OO P O O O OP O O OHO P O O OO P O H H H H H 1 2 34 5 6 ++ ++ Mg ++ Fe Ca Ca Zn ++ O OO P O H O OO P O O OO P O O O OPP O O OHO PP O O OOO P O H H H H H 1 2 34 5 6 ++ ++ Mg ++ Fe Ca Ca Zn ++ Bioavailability amount of a nutrient in a food that is absorbable from a typical diet and utilizable whithin body to perform metabolic functions Anti-nutrients Promoters Wolfgang H PFEIFFER Dissect ‘Bioavailability’ into Components which can be translated into breeding targets Direct Micronutrient Enhancement
    • Delivery Two channels  Normal (public sector)  Fast track (private sector) – speed, twice of public sector Farmers participatory selection – to speed up dissemination
    • Conclusion • There is significant progress • More progress required
    • The way forward • Continue research in strong linkage mode with NARS colleagues • Combine with core traits to make it sustainable • New issues; new science • Bring more budget for major breeding programs in each country • Encourage private sector • Think of premium price for nutrient rich varieties
    • Thanks to all..