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Arun K. Joshi, Ravi P. Singh & Govindan Velu
CIMMYT
Zn and Fe rich wheat in developing
countries of Asia; where we are!
• Micronutrients are
important (many; Zn, Fe)
• But only few can afford
healthy diet in many
countries – south Asia!
• Aro...
Metal-containing & metal-binding proteins in 2 species identified by proteomic techniques.
Gladyshev et al., 2004
Central ...
Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
• Wheat means - a 5th of humanity’s food, and is first as
a source of protein.
• It is an es...
Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
In south Asia,
wheat is 2nd
most
consumed
crop
Target Areas for Zn/Fe dense Wheat
Baseline
Micronutrient Level in
Commercial Crop 25
µgg-1
Target Increment to
be added
8...
• South Asia
continue to be
“plow to plate”
• Nutrient rich,
agronomically
superior mega
wheat varieties
may ensure
reachi...
2004-2009
Discover genes and
sources of variation
2009-13
Develop varieties
2014+
Deliver to clients
Frequently asked
ques...
Zn and Fe grain
concentrations
are internal
traits; agronomic
or external
advantages are
most appealing
to farmers
The progress....
Wild relative species are best Zn sources; T. spelta appears the best
Wheat
30 μgg-1
best Zn sources crossed to elite
wheat adapted to target areas
X
baseline
25 μgg-1
Cd. Obregon, March 2009
...
N = >1200
N =
>800
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
<20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 >55
Grain Zn concentration (mg/kg)
%entries...
R2
= 0.069
10
20
30
40
50
60
110 115 120 125 130 135 140
Maturity (days)
Znconc.(ppm)
No trade-off of yield and yield trai...
Zn and Yield Performance in 2nd HPYT entries for 2011-12 planting
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
95 100 105 110 115
Zi...
Harvest Plus trials and nurseries
1. HPWYT (trial)
2. HPAN (nursery)
3. Ludhiana
4. Karnal
5. Delhi
6. Varanasi
7. Islamab...
Nitrogen and grain Zn relate well
Cakmak et al., 2009. Cereal Chem.
Zinc deficiency in Wheat
Example from Turkey – Chakmak et al., 2009
Minor things can give major impact
“Drought Stress” Zn Foliar Spray
Source: Hans J. Braun, 2009
Zn spray may give more yield as well as more
Zn in the grain
Breeding for Bioavailability
InulinPhytic acid
++
O
OO P
O
H O
OO P
O
O
OO P
O
O
O OP
O
O
OHO P
O
O
OO P
O H
H
H H
H
1
2
3...
Delivery
Two channels
 Normal (public sector)
 Fast track (private
sector) – speed, twice of
public sector
Farmers parti...
Conclusion
• There is significant
progress
• More progress
required
The way forward
• Continue research in strong
linkage mode with NARS
colleagues
• Combine with core traits to
make it sust...
Thanks to all..
Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat
Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat
Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat
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Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat

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“Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat”, presented by Arun Kumar Joshi, CIMMYT at the ReSAKSS-Asia Conference, Nov 14-16, 2011, in Kathmandu, Nepal.

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Transcript of "Bio-fortification options/success story - wheat"

  1. 1. Arun K. Joshi, Ravi P. Singh & Govindan Velu CIMMYT Zn and Fe rich wheat in developing countries of Asia; where we are!
  2. 2. • Micronutrients are important (many; Zn, Fe) • But only few can afford healthy diet in many countries – south Asia! • Around 1 billion suffer from Zn and Fe deficiency (globally); a vast number is in south Asia Photo: Livestrong.com
  3. 3. Metal-containing & metal-binding proteins in 2 species identified by proteomic techniques. Gladyshev et al., 2004 Central Role of Zinc in Life on Earth Source: Hans J. Braun, 2010
  4. 4. Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio • Wheat means - a 5th of humanity’s food, and is first as a source of protein. • It is an especially critical “staff of life” for the approximately 1.2 billion “wheat dependent” to 2.5 billion “wheat consuming” poor—men, women and children who live on less than USD 2 per day—and approximately 30 million poor wheat producers and their families. • Demand for wheat in the developing world is projected to increase 60% by 2050. Source: WHEAT, CIMMYT, 2011 Wheat is important
  5. 5. Source: Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio In south Asia, wheat is 2nd most consumed crop
  6. 6. Target Areas for Zn/Fe dense Wheat Baseline Micronutrient Level in Commercial Crop 25 µgg-1 Target Increment to be added 8 µgg-1 Wolfgang H PFEIFFER ME1: Temperate Irrigated High Production NWPZ ME5: Irrigated High Temperature Stress EGPZ Expected release - 2013
  7. 7. • South Asia continue to be “plow to plate” • Nutrient rich, agronomically superior mega wheat varieties may ensure reaching the masses
  8. 8. 2004-2009 Discover genes and sources of variation 2009-13 Develop varieties 2014+ Deliver to clients Frequently asked questions  Will it be possible to breed nutrient rich varieties?  Will these be bioavailable?  Will such varieties will meet farmers expectations? HarvestPlus initiative of IFPRI
  9. 9. Zn and Fe grain concentrations are internal traits; agronomic or external advantages are most appealing to farmers
  10. 10. The progress....
  11. 11. Wild relative species are best Zn sources; T. spelta appears the best
  12. 12. Wheat 30 μgg-1 best Zn sources crossed to elite wheat adapted to target areas X baseline 25 μgg-1 Cd. Obregon, March 2009 Zn Content Zn Concentration Best deployed to India & Pakistan for GxE Performance Testing on-station & on-farm
  13. 13. N = >1200 N = >800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 <20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 >55 Grain Zn concentration (mg/kg) %entries Zn conc in 2009-10 Zn conc in 2008-09 Progress in Zn and Fe concentration 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 <20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 Fe concentration (mg/kg) %entries Fe conc 2009-10 Fe conc 2008-09 N = >1200 N = >800 CIMMYT trials; more lines with more nutrition
  14. 14. R2 = 0.069 10 20 30 40 50 60 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 Maturity (days) Znconc.(ppm) No trade-off of yield and yield traits R2 = 0.0004 10 20 30 40 50 60 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Yield (t/ha) Znconc(ppm) R 2 = 0.0043 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TKW Znconc.(ppm) R 2 = 0.0019 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 Plant height (cm) Znconc(ppm)
  15. 15. Zn and Yield Performance in 2nd HPYT entries for 2011-12 planting 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 95 100 105 110 115 ZincConcetrationas%ofTarget(8ppm) Grain Yield as % of Check Average (Checks = 100%) Higher chances candidate varieties
  16. 16. Harvest Plus trials and nurseries 1. HPWYT (trial) 2. HPAN (nursery) 3. Ludhiana 4. Karnal 5. Delhi 6. Varanasi 7. Islamabad 8. Faisalabad
  17. 17. Nitrogen and grain Zn relate well Cakmak et al., 2009. Cereal Chem.
  18. 18. Zinc deficiency in Wheat Example from Turkey – Chakmak et al., 2009 Minor things can give major impact
  19. 19. “Drought Stress” Zn Foliar Spray Source: Hans J. Braun, 2009 Zn spray may give more yield as well as more Zn in the grain
  20. 20. Breeding for Bioavailability InulinPhytic acid ++ O OO P O H O OO P O O OO P O O O OP O O OHO P O O OO P O H H H H H 1 2 34 5 6 ++ ++ Mg ++ Fe Ca Ca Zn ++ O OO P O H O OO P O O OO P O O O OPP O O OHO PP O O OOO P O H H H H H 1 2 34 5 6 ++ ++ Mg ++ Fe Ca Ca Zn ++ Bioavailability amount of a nutrient in a food that is absorbable from a typical diet and utilizable whithin body to perform metabolic functions Anti-nutrients Promoters Wolfgang H PFEIFFER Dissect ‘Bioavailability’ into Components which can be translated into breeding targets Direct Micronutrient Enhancement
  21. 21. Delivery Two channels  Normal (public sector)  Fast track (private sector) – speed, twice of public sector Farmers participatory selection – to speed up dissemination
  22. 22. Conclusion • There is significant progress • More progress required
  23. 23. The way forward • Continue research in strong linkage mode with NARS colleagues • Combine with core traits to make it sustainable • New issues; new science • Bring more budget for major breeding programs in each country • Encourage private sector • Think of premium price for nutrient rich varieties
  24. 24. Thanks to all..
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