NRM and GCC – Cambodia example
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NRM and GCC – Cambodia example

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“NRM and GCC – Cambodia example”, presented by Sambath Sak and Kimberley Lucas, USAID-Cambodia

“NRM and GCC – Cambodia example”, presented by Sambath Sak and Kimberley Lucas, USAID-Cambodia

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NRM and GCC – Cambodia example NRM and GCC – Cambodia example Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Integrating Agriculture & NRM: USAID/Cambodia’s Feed the Future and GCC Kathmandu November 15, 2011
  • 2 FTF Cambodia has 3 integrated components • Rice-fish-horticulture sectors • Household agricultural production • Livelihoods diversification • Post harvest activities • Access to finance • Behavior change nutrition education Reduced food insecurity for 100,000 households in rural Tonle Sap focusing on: Improved ability to adapt to climate change by targeting: • Agricultural and fisheries management techniques • Community-based natural resource management of forests, fisheries, water resources and protected areas • Ecosystem services In collaboration with RGC, improved capacity for national-level policy and research through: 1 2 3 Food security Natural resource management & GCC • Applied research • Inventory and valuation of key natural resources • New SFFSN development (country investment) National level capacity building
  • 3 Agricultural/Environmental Profile of Cambodia Crop production concentrates around Mekong river & Tonle Sap lake High fertility Medium fertility Low fertility Paddy rice Forest Orchards Rainfall and seasonal floods are critical to soil fertility and food production
  • 4 NRM/ GCC: Forest Zones: flooded, evergreen & dry deciduous
  • 5 Target pool of 70K food insecure households in key lowland & forest areas
  • 6 Rural Tonle Sap: • 200K food insecure HH lean season • 45% poverty rate • 36% of Cambodia’s poor • Highest concentration of stunting & malnutrition • Highest soil fertility • Good water availability • 2 of top 10 rice producing provinces Preah Viheear Stung Treng Ratanakiri Mondul KiriKra Cheh Svay Rieng Kampong Thum Takev Kampot Kaoh Kong Pursat Siemreab Batdambang Kampong Chhnang Kampong Spoe Kampong Cham Kandal Prey Veng Banteay Meanchey Phnom Penh Oldar Mean Meanchey Preah Viheear Stung Treng Ratanakiri Mondul KiriKra Cheh Svay Rieng Kampong Thum Takev Kampot Kaoh Kong Pursat Siemreab Batdambang Kampong Chhnang Kampong Spoe Kampong Cham Kandal Prey Veng Banteay Meanchey Phnom Penh Preah Viheear Stung Treng Ratanakiri Mondul KiriKra Cheh Svay Rieng Kampong Thum Takev Kampot Kaoh Kong Pursat Siemreab Batdambang Kampong Chhnang Kampong Spoe Kampong Cham Kandal Prey Veng Banteay Meanchey Phnom Penh Oldar Mean Meanchey Tonle Sap has highest soil fertility & water availability Tonle Sap is 2nd most populated region GCC: flooded, evergreen & deciduous dry forests Tonle Sap has highest share of food insecure and is 2nd in poverty Target pool of 70K food insecure households in key lowland and forest areas Focus Areas High Medium Low Evergreen Deciduous Non forest Viillage center Phom Penh (1.0%) Costal zone (3.8%) Plateau zone (17.6%) Plains zone (37.1%) Tonle Sap zone (40.6%)
  • 7 • Increased income opportunities from NTFP and conservation activities • Improved resilience of agricultural production to climate stressors • Improved watershed management Adaptation to Climate Change Impact on FTF target population Climate change: impacts and adaptation • High vulnerability country • Extremes in flooding and drought • Temperature increase of 0.5-2.5 degrees Celsius • Change in vegetation patterns Potential Climate Change impact • Flooded, evergreen & deciduous dry forests and Tonle Sap basin • Drought resistant & other appropriate cultivars • Certification and audit requirements for the CDM, REDD, REDD+ and voluntary markets
  • Alignment with Royal Government of Cambodia Strategies Strategic Framework for Food Security & Nutrition Strategy for Agriculture & Water (e.g. Agriculture and livestock production, higher incomes, capacity to cope with risks & shocks) (e.g. Policy & regulation; capacity building; agricultural research, extension & education; food security; water & land management; agriculture business marketing) • Agricultural productivity & economic diversification • Inputs, extension & post harvest • Natural resource management and climate change adaptation • Access to finance (credit) • Institutional capacity RGC investment plan programs FTF/GCC strategic areas 8 These links confirmed through ongoing TWG process and Food Policy Stocktaking Roundtable • NRM (farms, forests, fisheries) • Institutional capacity • Sustainable economic benefits for livelihoods • Adaptive capacity to GCC • Mitigation efforts to combat GCC/REDD+ National Forest Program (2010) Protected Areas Law (2008) Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) (20 year program) (Mandates the National Protected Areas Strategic Management Plan) (Forestry, fisheries and protected area strategies mandate CBNRM to reverse forest loss and impact on local livelihoods.)
  • 9 Stocktaking roundtable prioritized areas for research & policy development Agriculture Policy & Strategy Food security, nutrition & social protection Natural resources & climate change Priority research areas • Agriculture census / survey; land suitability analysis & crop zoning • Rice value-chain differentiation and horticulture analysis • Groundwater research for Ag. • Upland agriculture knowledge • Trade offs: export vs. local FS Priority policy capacity building • Policy communication strategy • Policy harmonization – across line ministries • Agriculture/Farm insurance policy (crop, livestock and fisheries) • Policy on agricultural services quality control • Policy on promotion of Ag. value- addition and job creation Priority research areas • Analysis of food consumption and utilization behavior (including root causes of food insecurity and nutritional deficiency) • Impact of improvement of different production systems on food security and nutrition • Nutritional impact of shocks such as damming rivers Priority policy capacity building • Evaluation of efficiency of existing programs for evidence-based advocacy for more investment on social protection • Information (income and prices) and data for efficient and effective monitoring, evaluation and targeting Priority research areas • Prediction of CC impacts on FS in Cambodia • Balance long-term CC risk & current NRM/governance challenges • Advantages & risks of large scale concession vs. S/H systems Priority policy capacity building • Strategies for investment in agriculture R&D in CC adaptation and mechanisms to communicate effectively to farmers • Defining strategy for common pool resources, including livelihoods effects of community forestry and community fishery reforms • Strategies to support women roles in CC adaptation
  • FTF & GCC interventions should be mutually reinforcing • Value chain investments in nutrient rich crops • Homestead gardening • More efficient food processing and storage: increase effective yields without increasing land under cultivation. • Increased access to piped, potable and affordable water & sanitation (ongoing) • Explore use of agriculture delivery platforms to promote environmentally sound interventions Improved food security & diversity Environmental health-related behaviors improved Support country capacity and ownership • Advocacy to elevate agriculture and NRM on national agenda • Capacity building for development, implementation and monitoring & evaluation of agriculture, NRM and climate related programs • Research to inform policy development and decision-making • Inventory and valuation of key natural resources: both forest and agricultural Examples of GCC related interventions • Income diversification NTFPs (honey, resin, rattan, cardamom, etc.) • Watershed management (works to improve, maintain, & grow fish stocks) • Silviculture activities introduced in degraded watersheds Examples of FTF related interventions 10 • Community-based water quality monitoring systems developed • Train community leaders to monitor and protect community natural resources • National & sub-national REDD+ dialogues
  • 11 Overall FTF goals (Forecast includes anticipated impact of other donors & RGC) • Prevalence of poverty (under $1.25/day) • Prevalence of underweight children under 5 National level (Focus will be on Tonle Sap region) • Expenditures of rural households (by proxy)2 • Prevalence of wasted children under 5 • Prevalence of stunted children under 5 Cambodia Project Level Indicators • Improved access to markets – Value of incremental sales (collected at firm level) attributed to FTF implementation • Increased agricultural sector jobs – Number of jobs attributable to FTF implementation (firm level survey)3 • Private sector investment – Value of new private sector investment in the ag sector or food chain leveraged by FTF • Improved access to diverse & quality foods – Prevalence of maternal anemia • Improved nutrition related behaviors – Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of children under 6 months FTF impact indicators
  • 12 Outcome Indicators • Number of HA under improved NRM as result of USG Assistance • Number of HA in areas of biological significance under improved management as a result of USG Assistance • Number of private enterprises, producers organizations, water users associations, trade and business associations and community based organizations that applied new technologies or management practices as a result of USG Assistance • Number of policies, agreements or regulations promoting sustainable NRM and conservation implemented as a result of USG Assistance • Number of policies, agreements or regulations addressing climate change proposed, adopted or implemented as a result of USG Assistance Impact Indicators: • Number of people with increased economic benefits derived from sustainable NRM and conservation as a result of USG Assistance • Number of people/households with increased adaptive capacity to cope with the impact of climate change and climate variability as a result of USG Assistance Output Indicators: • Number of private enterprises, producers organizations, water users associations, trade and business associations and community based organizations receiving USG Assistance • Number of people trained in NRM/Conservation or GCC framework convention GHG Inventories, mitigation analysis as result of USG Assistance (disaggregated) • Number of climate change mitigation tools, technologies developed, tested, adopted as result of USG Assistance NRM/GCC Cambodia indicators Integrated with FTF programming
  • 13 • Lack of available and reliable data • Limited number local NGOs in the agriculture and NRM sectors able to receive direct funding • Technical and project management capacity remains a challenge at many levels • Coordination challenges for cross- sector & cross-strategy issues • Agriculture and GCC are new fields for USAID/Cambodia Key constraints in Cambodia: 13
  • 14 THANK YOU!