Role of Non-State Actors in AgriculturalStrategic Analysis & Knowledge Support Systems (SAKSS) in Nigeria By Manson Nwafor Policy Analyst, ReSAKSS WA, IITA-Ibadan
Outline• Introduction: Some basic targets and principles of CAADP• What is SAKSS and Why Is It Needed?• The Mutual Accountability Framework (MAF)• SAKSS Implementation in Africa• A Possible SAKSS Organogram at the Country Level• SAKSS in Nigeria• The Role of Non State Actors in the SAKSS and MAFRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 2
Introduction: Some Basic Targets and Principles of CAADP• CAADP is a strategic framework by which to guide country development efforts and partnerships in the agricultural sector: Agric-led and pro-poor growth; 6% growth; 10% Allocation.• Basic Requirements: • Greater efficiency and consistency in the planning and implementation of sector policies and programmes • Adequate level of these expenditures to sustain an annual sector growth rate of 6 percent, • Increased effectiveness in translating government expenditures into public goods and services, and • Expertise and mechanisms to regularly and transparently measure performance against targets and keep policies and programmes on track. This will inform continental, regional and national review and dialogue processes aimed at improving outcomes. Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 3
What is SAKSS and Why Is It Needed: A Possible SAKSS Structure Analysis aimed at guiding public Strategic and private policy/decision Analysis makers in planning, implementation and review of programs/projects/policies Knowledge (Data, Knowledge (Data, Information ..) SAKSS Information ..) Users Providers Knowledge Small Group of users + providers SupportLarge Group of users + providers Systems/ Group of program monitors Networks of Group of researchers people Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 4
What is SAKSS and Why Is It Needed?• SAKSS stands for Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System. It is basically a system that ensures that producers of knowledge are producing what private and public sector decision makers need to plan, review progress and make timely decisions.• The review and dialogue processes under the CAADP agenda operate at three different levels: Continental (Africa wide), regional (ECOWAS) and national levels.• Countries across ECOWAS and Africa review agriculture and livelihood indicators with respect to National targets set and achieved as well as the performance of other countries.• The review and dialogue processes described above add real value to current and future development outcomes to the extent that they are well informed and are supported through accurate and intelligent data derived from rigorous analysis.• This involves strategic analysis in order to identify the requirements for meeting the goals of the country and CAADP. It also involves assessing the adequacy of government programs and policies for the achievement of these goals.• This requires human capacities, technical infrastructure, analytical tools, and communications instruments to gather the relevant data and information and analyze it to generate credible, high-quality knowledge products, which can be stored and accessed as needed to inform and guide the debate associated with the review and dialogue processes. The above capacities, tools, and instruments are needed both at the regional and country level and can be provided by a SAKSS.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 5
What is SAKSS?• Based on SAKSS Guide Book by Johnson and Flaghety (2010):• SAKSS is defined as a collaborative network that acts as a mechanism by which relevant and timely evidence is generated and utilized to inform agricultural and rural development strategy formulation and implementation. SAKSS brings together two important concepts – strategic analysis and knowledge support systems.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 6
What is SAKSS?• Strategic analysis is an integrated framework of analysis that helps identify policy and investment options for achieving high-end development goals. This type of analysis can guide a credible action plan of policy and investment priorities for the sectors that contribute to the achievement of desirable development outcomes (e.g. growth and poverty reduction).• Such prioritization implies finding answers to a range of strategic questions such as: What is the role of agriculture in promoting overall economic growth and poverty reduction in the different stages of development given a country’s natural resource endowments? How should public resources be mobilized and allocated among different sectors, sub-sectors, and regions?• Answers to these questions can help arm policymakers with useful evidence on the kinds of tradeoffs and outcomes associated with their policy and investment choices.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 7
What is SAKSS?• The strategic analysis is carried out within the context of a knowledge support system which provides a dynamic network platform for serving the evidence needs of strategy formulation and implementation.• This network includes individuals such as farmers, researchers, policymakers, and development practitioners and institutions such as government agencies, research institutes, development organizations, and private and civil society groups.• Through this network platform, information, data analysis, and knowledge can be compiled, synthesized and packaged into evidence that is supplied on a timely and reliable basis to be of use during strategy processes.• Typical activities of a SAKSS would include: Strategic analysis (informed by comprehensive M&E reports); capacity building and knowledge management (including public policy dialogues).Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 8
Review and Dialogue Through The Mutual Accountability Framework• Mutual accountability is a process by which partners hold one another accountable for the commitments they voluntarily make to one another. It is largely targeted at providing incentives for collective responsibility of partners to achieve shared goals (NEPAD NPCA 2011)• 3 core activities in the mutual accountability framework are (a) M&E systems (b) Review and dialogue platforms ( c ) recognition platforms (NEPAD NPCA 2011)• ReSAKSS and SAKSS play more role in providing the Monitoring system which will indicate the annual progress being made in the sector and in the reduction of poverty.• Based on the results of the monitoring, review and dialogue is expected to take place to further understand how the present status was arrived at and what can be done to improve upon it.• The recognition platforms are political fora where governments that have performed well are recognized and encouraged as pacesetters. This is to motivate others to spur growth in the agriculture sector and reduce poverty.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 9
SAKSS Implementation in Africa• ReSAKSS is the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support system (Regional SAKSS)• It was established in 2005 to support the implementation of CAADP.• Specifically it was established in order to meet the need for timely and policy relevant analysis to inform and guide CAADP planning, benchmarking and implementation processes.• It is coordinated by the International Food Policy Research Institute and implemented in 3 Africa based CGIAR centers: IITA for West Africa (ReSAKSS WA), ILRI for East and Central Africa (ReSAKSS ECA) and IWMI for Southern Africa (ReSAKSS SA).• ReSAKSS is guided by a steering committee chaired by the african Union and NEPAD at the continental level and the regional economic communities at the regional level.• In the pre-roundtable stage, ReSAKSS WA facilitated the analytical processes leading up to the signing of the compacts and subsequently supported the NAIP review process.• Presently we are tasked with facilitating the establishment of Country- SAKSS and promoting monitoring and evaluation of CAADP at the continental and regional level.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 10
SAKSS Implementation in Africa: ReSAKSS - Organization IWMI + SADC ReSAKSS-SA IITA + ECOWAS COMESA + ILRI AU-NEPAD IFPRI ReSAKSS-ECA ReSAKSS-WA ReSAKSSRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 11
A Possible SAKSS Organogram at the Country Level (Nwafor and Yade) Ministerial CAADP Steering Committee CAADP Policy Dialogue Group (Stakeholders’ Group from across the country ) CAADP Country Team Coordinated by the Permanent Secretary Country-SAKSS Unit SAKSS Steering Committee Program Coordination and Implementation Team (PCIT) Coordinator M&E ICT Economist Expert Expert GOOD PLATFORM FOR REVIEW, DIALOGUE AND MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY SAKSS Network of collaborators BASED ON SAKSS (Farmers, CSOs, National OUTPUTS Thematic working groups Statistical (NAIP based) Bureau; National Ag and socio-economic research System, NGOs etc)Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 12
SAKSS in Nigeria• Organizations in Nigeria which currently have SAKSS like structures and activities include – The Agriculture Policy Research Network (APRNet) - public- private and nationally spread executive committee and membership; objectives in the area of SAKSS – The agriculture research council of Nigeria – has departments on knowledge management and policy analysis. – Nigeria Institute for Social and Economic Research- strong research capacities. – The Nigeria Economic Summit Group – strong public sector linkages and good track record for public-private dialogue – The FMARD value chain groups of the agricultural transformation agenda – bring together stakeholders on the relevant commoditiesRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 13
SAKSS in Nigeria• Further work is needed to better coordinate strategic analysis and knowledge support systems in the country. – Currently no annual report on the agriculture sector in the country – Internet access to agricultural data is difficult thus necessitating visits to Abuja amongst other difficulties. The result is that very large volumes of useful agriculture data are unused by stakeholders – No website to access and follow up on the government’s planning process and results thus making the process less transparent than desirable. This also makes tracking progress more difficult – Government’s research needs are also difficult to ascertain as it is unclear what the communication channels are. – Overall, there is no central body/knowledge support system that serves to ensure that applied (policy) research is meeting the needs of agriculture sector stakeholders. A SAKSS, and in particular a SAKSS steering committee, is needed for this purpose.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 14
The Role of Non State Actors in the SAKSS and MAF• Participate actively in the M&E system by being active members of the SAKSS Steering committee and the working groups which will provide analytical support for the implementation of the National Agriculture Investment Plan. This is critical for redesigning programs/projects which are not working.• Where there is no clear SAKSS, form alliances with research organizations for the purpose of creating it. – A website is of special importance after it is created.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 15
The Role of Non State Actors in the SAKSS and MAF• Use the annual report on the agriculture sector and other reports produced (e.g. program level M&E) to monitor performance – visit relevant offices and websites etc: – For more updates on agriculture indicators, SAKSS, CAADP Implementation and M&E please visit www.resakss.org. – Other useful sources of data and information on agriculture include • The national bureau of statistics (www.nigerianstat.gov.ng) • The central bank of Nigeria (www.cenbank.org) • The agriculture research council of Nigeria (www.arcnigeria.org) • The national program on agriculture and food security • Etc• Where there is no annual report, form alliances with research organizations in order to produce one in partnership with the government.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 16
The Role of Non State Actors in the SAKSS and MAF• Design field monitoring systems through which farmers can monitor national and sub-national agriculture expenditure and project execution. Reports from this type of activity can feed into the Country-SAKSS and provide up to date grass roots data on the extent of project implementation in the sector. This can be done in partnership with research organizations• Organize an agriculture policy dialogue group which will meet biannually/annually to review and dialogue about the status of the agriculture sector and livelihoods based on the annual report, other output from the SAKSS, program implementation reports etc. This is critical for redesigning programs/projects which are not working. This policy dialogue should create an avenue where farmers can discuss directly with high level government officials.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 17
The Role of Non State Actors in the SAKSS and MAF• Use the output of the SAKSS for advocacy and policy reform. – Legislative meetings (lobbying) – Policy briefs/Memos to the government – Policy dialogues/stakeholder forums including annual agriculture sector review – Organize recognition/awards for pacesetters in the agriculture sector • This entails an alliance and division of labour between Farmers, CSOs etc and researchers which is to be achieved through the SAKSS Steering Committee 1. CSOs etc state their knowledge needs to researchers through the committee 2. the researchers take the lead and produce the knowledge resources 3. CSOs etc take up the results for advocacy purposes as shown aboveRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 18
Possible SAKSS Steering Committee Composition• Public Knowledge Users - Policy makers (Legislative committees on agriculture; FMARD, National Planning Commission etc);• Private Knowledge Users – NGOs (Farmer organizations across the country, Banking sector (for agric funding), Development partners, etc)• Knowledge Providers - Research and Data Leaders (ARCN, CBN, Universities, IITA, IFPRI, Think tanks, NISER, NBS etc)Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 19
Possible Structure of a Nigeria-SAKSSMembership Members Importance FunctionsgroupSteering Public Knowledge Users - Policy To ensure that both the demand and 1. Approve the work plan andCommittee makers (Legislative committees on supply of knowledge for evidence budget of the SAKSS. agriculture; FMARD, National Planning based policy making is increased in a 2. Ensure that the activities of Commission etc); practical and efficient way. the SAKSS are relevant to the Private Knowledge Users – NGOs country (Farmer organizations across the country, This involves providing the data, 3. Mobilize funding for the SAKSS Banking sector (for agric funding), analysis, laws, financial accounting 4. Maintain high level awareness Development partners, etc) regulations (for reporting agriculture and political support for the Knowledge Providers - Research and expenditure) and finance needed for SAKSS Data Leaders (ARCN, CBN, Universities, private and public policy making IITA, IFPRI, Think tanks, NISER, NBS based on evidence etc)SAKSS SAKSS Coordinator, Knowledge Will provide the personnel needed for To coordinate strategic analysis,secretariat in managers, administrative secretary, carrying out the functions of the knowledge management, capacityFMARD thematic working group coordinators SAKSS building and policy dialogue. They will also lead the activities of the thematic group.Thematic Networks of about 40 - 60 staff from the To carry out research into strategicworking members of the steering committee and issues in the work plan. These researchgroups related organizations: government MDAs, projects will all emanate from research(Research civil society, farmers, development gaps observed in relation to the NAIP’snetworks) partners, research and data leaders. programs.Stakeholders A wider group of MDAs, civil society, To ensure that knowledge To provide feedback on the design and farmers, development partners, research management (including M&E) impacts of the NAIP. This will provide and data leaders. involves consultations with a large insight on any areas where there are number of stakeholders in the knowledge and capacity gaps. They will country. This will ensure continuous also provide feedback on analysis policy dialogue and review processes. carried out. Interaction with stakeholders will provide an avenue for informing them about available information options for private and public policy makers.Facilitators ReSAKSS WA ( ECOWAS) To ensure that links are maintained Provide the SAKSS with guidelines with the rest of the sub-region. This adopted at the regional level. Also, toRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa will support the shared operational arrange interactions with other Page 20 national framework of CAADP and international organizations.
Thank You For Your Kind AttentionRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 21
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