Project FormulationWorkshop on Strengthening Capacity for Strategic Agricultural Policy and Investment Planning and Implementation in Africa Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi on 25th- 26th June 2012 Stella Clara Massawe ReSAKSS-ECA, ILRI
A project• activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period and with a defined budget• Hierarchy of objectives (inputs, activities, outputs, purpose and goal) & assumptions
A programme• Series of several projects• Projects that strategically combined to achieve a common program objective
Situation Analysis and Project Design• Three main components: – Stakeholder analysis – Problem analysis – Objectives/Strategies Analysis
Who is a Stakeholder? ….(1)• Any individual, community, group or organization with an interest in the outputs/outcomes of a project,• Either as a result of being affected by it positively or negatively, or by being able to influence project activities.
Who is a Stakeholder? …(2)• Key stakeholders: Those who can significantly influence or are important to the success of an activity.• Primary stakeholders: Those who are ultimately affected by an activity.• Secondary stakeholders: All other stakeholders than Primary stakeholders.
The importance of Stakeholder Analysis• To Know: – Those around a project, who may affect or be affected by a project – Opportunities and relationships to build upon in implementing a project to help make it a success – Who should be encouraged to participate in a project – Potential conflicts and risks that could jeopardize a project, etc.
Problems Analysis• is a central tool for the project design, showing issues which need to be dealt with• Problems Tree Analysis: an effective technique used for Problems Analysis• In the Problems Tree, problems are connected by “cause-effect” logic.
From a problem to strategic intervention (1)Identify problems faces and the causal linkage among them
Objectives/Strategies Analysis• Is a tool to understand what objectives to address the problems identified in Problems Analysis.• It also shows what strategies will be taken to solve the problems identified in Problems Analysis.• In Objectives Tree, objectives/strategies are connected by “if-then” logic.
Link to the thinking about impact pathways & result chain
Logic model…• Is a systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program• The activities you plan, and the changes or results you hope to achieve• Input and activities = Your planned work• Output, outcome and impacts=Your intended results
Prepare project Management Plan• Need to prepare a detailed project management plan which specifies the key tasks, targets and timescales• Logical Framework (Logframe)/ Project Design Matrix (PDM)• A four-by-four matrix which shows the design of a project and functions as a base of management after the project commencement
Log frameNarrative Objectively Means of Important Verifiable Verification Assumptions Indicators (OVI) (MOV)Goal Indicators and Sources of target values InformationProject PurposeOutputsActivities Inputs External factors and preconditions
Framework for reviewing the case studies SPATIAL VARIATION
Factors for success of the reviewed interventions • Problem definition • Community Participation • Choice of commodity • Gender consideration • Project/ programe Design-strategy • Complimentary investments &partnerships
Factors for success of the reviewed interventions • Capacity building • Sustainability • Well organized groups • Timing & conditioning factors • Leadership and Dedication • Financial resources: access to credit, rural finance
Key messages: factors to consider in designing agricultural interventions (1)• Demand for the intervention, not only at the national level but also at the local level as well as enabling environment;• Stakeholder/beneficiary participation;• Impact on the beneficiaries;• Quality design arising from quality technical assistance and feasibility study;
Key messages: factors to consider in designing agricultural interventions (2)• Quality of implementation• Government support and commitment• Performance of the executing agency and effective quality control system• Exogenous factors.
Exercise 1 Constructing and Using a Theory of ChangeTask objective: to enable the participants practice how to develop a theory of change for their programme Estimated time: 30 minutes
Task 1• Consider a programme you are currently working with or one which you are familiar but not directly involved. Develop a graphic showing of the theory of change for this programme or project.• Be sure to identify the assumptions underlying the programme or project• Use simple theory of change template (please only include a few outputs and activities)• Reference pages 150-171