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Investing in Agricultural Research and Development, presented by Nienke Beintema, Program Head, Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI), IFPRI, at the 2013 ReSAKSS Annual Conference, ...

Investing in Agricultural Research and Development, presented by Nienke Beintema, Program Head, Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI), IFPRI, at the 2013 ReSAKSS Annual Conference, Dakar, Senegal, Nov 12-13, 2013



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  • Ratios don’t take into account the policy and institutional environment within which agricultural R&D takes placeRatios don’t take into account the influx of foreign technologiesIncreased ratios don’t always reflect increased agricultural R&D spending; they can also reflect declining or stagnating agricultural output

Asti re sakss_dakar_nov2013 Asti re sakss_dakar_nov2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Tracking Investments in CAADP’s Pillar IV Public agricultural R&D spending trends in Africa South of the Sahara Nienke Beintema and Gert-Jan Stads International Food Policy Research Institute 2013 Annual ReSAKSS Conference Dakar, Senegal | 12-13 November, 2013
  • Why monitor agricultural R&D resources? (1) asti.cgiar.org • Many challenges in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA): - Food insecurity / malnutrition - Population growth - Climate change - Degradation of land and water resources - Food price volatility • Agricultural R&D is a major contributor to productivity growth, food security, and poverty reduction
  • Why monitor agricultural R&D resources? (2) asti.cgiar.org • Quantitative data are essential for agricultural R&D stakeholders to be able to analyze trends in agricultural R&D investments; identify gaps; set future investment priorities; and better coordinate agricultural R&D across institutes, regions, and commodities • R&D indicators are also an indispensable tool when assessing the contribution of agricultural R&D to agricultural growth and to economic growth more generally
  • Agricultural S&T Indicators (ASTI) initiative asti.cgiar.org • Collects national-level investment and human resource capacity data as well as institutional developments in agricultural R&D: – Focus on low- and middle-income countries; incl. 40 SSA countries – Through institutional survey rounds (primary data) • Large network of national, regional and international partners; led by IFPRI • Provides: – Trends over time at country / regional levels – Comparisons within and across countries / regions
  • Public agricultural R&D investments, 1981–2011 asti.cgiar.org • In 2011, spending totaled $1.7 billion (in 2005 PPP prices) Spending (billion 2005 PPP dollars) 2.0 1.5 • Spending increased by more than one third during 2000– 2011 1.0 0.5 0.0 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 2000-2011 growth Nigeria Uganda Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Tanzania • Growth is driven by a handful of countries (Public = government, higher education, nonprofit)
  • Challenge: Underinvestment asti.cgiar.org Target (UN/NEPAD): Allocation of at least 1% of GDP to R&D • On average, 0.5% of SSA’s AgGDP was spent on public agricultural R&D in 2011 • Declined since 2008 due to relative stronger AgGDP growth • Caution when analyzing intensity ratios 4 Public agricultural R&D spending as a share of AgGDP, 2011 3 2 1 0 Guinea-… Gabon CAF Cong, DR Niger Madagascar Guinea Sierra Leone Ethiopia Sudan Zambia Eritrea Nigeria Mozambiq… Burkina Faso Togo Liberia Côte d'Ivoire Tanzania Burundi Mali Benin Lesotho Rwanda Ghana Senegal Chad Mauritania Congo, Rep. Gambia, The Malawi Cape Verde Kenya Uganda Swaziland South Africa Botswana Namibia Mauritius Average Share (%) 5 Preliminary data for some countries
  • Challenge: Uneven investment growth asti.cgiar.org Target (UN expert group): 5% annual spending growth over the next decade • 2000–2011 marked by spending decline or stagnation in about half of the 30 countries with timeseries data • However, about two thirds of the 30 countries experienced increased agricultural R&D spending during 2008–2011 Annual public agricultural R%D spending growth, 2000–2011 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Eritrea Guinea Gabon Togo Zambia Gambia, The South Africa Cote d'Ivoire Burkina Faso Mauritius Mali Senegal Madagascar Ethiopia Botswana Mauritania Malawi Zimbabwe Namibia Kenya Niger Sudan Nigeria Ghana Burundi Benin Congo, Rep. Uganda Tanzania Sierra Leone Average Annual growth (%) 15 Preliminary data for some countries
  • Country examples of underinvestment asti.cgiar.org million 2005 PPP dollars 100 80 DR Congo 60 40 20 0 2009 2010 2011 2010 2011 million 2005 PPP dollars 400 Ethiopia 300 200 100 0 2009 Actual public agricultural R&D spending Required spending to reach 1% target • DR Congo spent $16 million or 0.17% of AgGDP on agricultural R&D in 2011 • Ethiopia spent $78 million or 0.22% of AgGDP on agricultural R&D in 2011 • These levels are extremely low considering population levels (SSA’s 2nd and 3rd largest countries) • Spending needs to increase sixfold in DR Congo and fivefold in Ethiopia to reach the UN/NEPAD 1% target
  • Country examples of sustainable investment asti.cgiar.org • Uganda: High and continued government commitments to agricultural research combined with donor support • Côte d’Ivoire: Unique funding mechanism involving private sector funding, which has resulted in stable research investment levels over time Total public agricultural R&D spending trends, 1996-2011 120 60 Côte d’Ivoire Uganda 45 90 30 60 15 30 0 0 1996 2001 2006 2011 1996 2001 2006 2011
  • Challenge: Investment volatility asti.cgiar.org • Annual agricultural R&D spending in SSA has been considerably more volatile than in other developing regions • Volatility is more pronounced in donor-dependent lowincome countries • Donor/development bank funding is generally short-term and ad-hoc (and 2-3 times more volatile than government funding)
  • Challenge: Fragmentation asti.cgiar.org • More than 600 agricultural R&D agencies scattered across the region 100% 80% • Enhanced role of universities 60% 40% • …but increased fragmentation of agricultural R&D 20% 0% 1981 Government 1991 2001 Higher education 2011 Nonprofit • Economies of scale are lower than in other (developing) regions
  • Challenge: Staff turnover and composition asti.cgiar.org • Number of researchers (in full-time equivalents) increased by about 50%: – Initially driven by recruitment of junior BSc holders – Since 2008, increase in MSc holders too – Increased role of universities (Nigeria, Sudan) • Many small countries lack a critical mass of researchers (especially PhD holders) • In about half of the sample countries more than 50% of PhD holders is 50 or older; more pronounced in West Africa • Urgent need to recruit and train next generation of scientists in these countries
  • Concluding remarks asti.cgiar.org • To achieve future growth targets, national governments will need to provide sufficient and stable financial resources, adequate human resources in terms of numbers and quality, and support institutional improvements in agricultural R&D • There are encouraging signs that SSA is moving (although slowly) in the right direction in terms of agricultural R&D – Expansion in its agricultural investment and capacity – A number of countries are putting measurements in place to address current investment and capacity challenges – Enhanced recognition of the importance of agricultural R&D by national governments and international community – Latter resulted in the development of the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa
  • Coming soon • • • • New series of country fact sheets Regional publications Various enhancements to www.asti.cgiar.org Dissemination and outreach activities