0
Economy,
     Politics &
       Culture
in CyberSpace

     Dr. Özgür Uçkan



         January 2009
net world
net-world
GLOBAL GAME
net-speed
net speed
new rules of the game

Economic Transformation     Technological Revolution
                                    g



     ...
knowledge economy


“(Basic economic resource) is knowledge and will
be knowledge…”
                       Peter F Drucker...
pillars of the knowledge economy



1. Economic incentive and institutional regime that
   provides incentives for the eff...
dynamic information infrastructure



Building a dynamic information infrastructure, and a
competitive and innovative info...
ICT impact


• Strong impact on productivity and economic
  growth
• Gl b li ti of business
  Globalization f b i

• Netwo...
global Internet use snapshot




                               Source: Internet Works, www.iwks.com
Pew internet survey, December 2006

• 17% of world population use Internet
• 91% of Internet surfers use e-mail
• 91% use ...
Internet industry: strategic partnerships
Internet industry partnerships
Source: OECD
fuel for the new economy: immaterial investments

                                 1985-1998    1998

                    ...
intellectual vs. tangible assets




                                   Source: 1000ventures.com
THREAT
global bandwidth


                             0.4
                             04
                             USA /
   ...
Internet Density Map, Carnegie Mellon University
INTERACTIVITY & CONVERGENCE
Full Internet Map
Nervous system network
Yeast
protein
interaction
network
Internet backbone network
position of individual toward media




           Old Media                                 New Media
Role       Spectato...
Convergence
Definition:
  Convergence has been made possible by digitalization which allows
  different types of content (...
Why does convergence matter?
Around the world, countries are competing for leadership in the global
   knowledge economy. ...
ICT & collision of industries




                     Source: New Paradigm Learning Corporation, 1996
“City of Bits”: urban information systems
Cyber Architecture




M-House, Red Sky Vacation Retreats




                           Michael Jantzen




             ...
underground living




‘the taisei company's’ ambitious plan
for subterranean living imaginatively
titled li
titl d alice ...
“OfftheRoad_5spead”
“Offth R d 5        d”
Lars Spuybroek, TROD
   Venedik Bienali
  7. Mimarlık Bienali
        2000
TV.com
::the electronic journal::




::the travel mate::
    e ae      ae
wearable computers
wearable computers
wearable computer fashion show at MIT
CYBERCULTURE SCENE
1950s: sybernetic, computer...
“Beat Generation”
computer counter-culture
8888888b.
888 Y88b
888 888 # #### #### #### ##### #####                              ## #    #
##...
computer counter-culture




“The fact is that a few of us saw what      “We are still enthusiastic about the
was happenin...
William Gibson
                  Philip K. Dick / Ridley Scott



 Bruce Sterling




Neil Stephenson
CYBERSPACE / VIRTUAL REALITY
cyberspace

“ Program a map to display frequency data exchange
                                                exchange,
e...
cyberspace


“A new universe, a parallel universe created and
sustained by the world’s computers and
communication lines A...
cyberspace



“Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced
daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nati...
cyberspace



“Cyberspace is the ‘place’ where a telephone
conversation appears to occur. Not inside your actual
phone... ...
cyberspace
“It is the Broadway, the Champs Élyseés of the
Metaverse. It i th b illi tl lit boulevard… Th
Mt             is...
virtual reality
“Artificially stimulated perception” – Marjan Kindersley

“Virtual Reality won’t merely replace TV. It wil...
Lawnmoverman2




                Dark
                City
Videodrome
Matrix




Johny The Mnemonic
Cube
VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
a brief history of virtual communities

•1975 – MSGGROUP Mailing List                        •1992 – “HTTP://” and “URL”
 ...
a brief history of virtual communities

    •1995 – Lycos
    •1995 – DejaNews
    •1996 – Compuserve.Com
    •1996 – WebT...
“The words community and communication have the same root. Wherever you put a
 The
communications network, you put a commu...
online games
Social Networks
and after
                                                after…

•   Web 2.0    Web3.0, 4.0, etc.
•   MARC     MARCML (or...
virtual communities



“When you think of a title for a book, you are forced to
think of something short and evocative, li...
2002 2009
           2002-2009-…. Mobility … what’s next
                                   what s next…. ?
Smart mobs eme...
VRML chat
virtual agora

“The most recent incarnation of the agora is neither
 The
the shopping mall nor the closed electronic
envir...
VIRTUAL BODY / POSTHUMAN
prosthesis
prosthesis
posthuman
Stelarc
Stelarc
Stelarc
Stelarc
Stelarc
Source: http://www.me.berkeley.edu/hel/bleex.htm



Bionic legs give soldiers a boost:
The exoskeleton allows people
to ca...
From the movie “matrix
                matrix
          revolutions”
VIRTUAL LANGUAGES:

html-dhtml-shtml-xml-vrml-java-flash-php-cgi etc...

                    NETART
http://www.digicult.org
www.ctheory.net
VIRTUAL POWER / VIRTUAL OPPOSITION
virtual power – virtual war
virtual power / virtual citizen
virtual opposition / network guerillas
virtual opposition / network guerillas
virtual opposition / network guerillas
 Dennis Ritchie
                                  Kevin Mitnick
                   ...
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
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Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace

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Network economy-ICT and economic change-knowledge economy-Cyberspace & Network culture: virtuality & information speed, digital visual culture, virtual self, posthuman, virtual communities, cybercultures, infowar, e-topias, cyber cities, net-art, cyber performances etc.

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  1. 1. Economy, Politics & Culture in CyberSpace Dr. Özgür Uçkan January 2009
  2. 2. net world net-world
  3. 3. GLOBAL GAME
  4. 4. net-speed net speed
  5. 5. new rules of the game Economic Transformation Technological Revolution g New Global Economy New Rules of the Game Fast Slow Linked Isolated Continuous Learning Static % 100 Trustable < % 100 Trustable New Opportunities New Challenges Source: World Bank
  6. 6. knowledge economy “(Basic economic resource) is knowledge and will be knowledge…” Peter F Drucker Post Capitalist Society F. Drucker, Post-Capitalist “An economy that makes effective use of knowledge for its f it economic and social development. This i d i ld l t Thi includes tapping foreign knowledge as well as adapting and creating knowledge for its specific pg g g p needs.” Knowledge for Development, WBI
  7. 7. pillars of the knowledge economy 1. Economic incentive and institutional regime that provides incentives for the efficient use of existing and new knowledge and the flourishing of entrepreneurship 2. Educated, creative and skilled p p , people 3. Dynamic information infrastructure 4. Effective national innovation system 5. and a fifth and “missing” pillar: (Knowledge) C lt (K l d ) Culture
  8. 8. dynamic information infrastructure Building a dynamic information infrastructure, and a competitive and innovative information sector of the economy,economy, that fosters a variety of efficient and competitive information and th t f t i t f ffi i t d titi i f ti d communications services and tools available to all sectors of society. This includes not only high-end information and high- communication technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet and mobile telephony but also other elements of an information-rich society information- such as radio, television and other media, computers and other devices for storing processing and using information and a range storing, information, of communication services.“ Final Report of the Knowledge Economy Forum - Paris, February 19-22, 2002 19-
  9. 9. ICT impact • Strong impact on productivity and economic growth • Gl b li ti of business Globalization f b i • Networking of information technology • New products, services and process • Transparency Accountability, Participation: Transparency, Accountability eGovernance
  10. 10. global Internet use snapshot Source: Internet Works, www.iwks.com
  11. 11. Pew internet survey, December 2006 • 17% of world population use Internet • 91% of Internet surfers use e-mail • 91% use search engines • 67% read news online • 66% visit government web sites • 39% read blogs Photo: Kimi Iwasaki http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimix/149816828/
  12. 12. Internet industry: strategic partnerships
  13. 13. Internet industry partnerships
  14. 14. Source: OECD
  15. 15. fuel for the new economy: immaterial investments 1985-1998 1998 10% 10% 10,0% 9% 9,0% 8,0% 7,0% 6,0% 5,0% 3,3% 4,0% 2,9% 2,7% 2 7% 3,0% 2,0% 1,0% 0,0% USA France F EU Source: D. Foray, OECD After 1998, investing to knowledge in developed countries (education, Research&Development, software, (education Research&Development software human resources etc ) increase etc.) increase. These investments supply the fuel for the new economy.
  16. 16. intellectual vs. tangible assets Source: 1000ventures.com
  17. 17. THREAT
  18. 18. global bandwidth 0.4 04 USA / Canada 56 Gbps Asia / Europe Pacific Latin Africa America 0.1 Gbps Note:Gbps= Note:Gbps= Gigabits (1 000 Mb) per second (1’000 second. Source: ITU adapted from TeleGeography .
  19. 19. Internet Density Map, Carnegie Mellon University
  20. 20. INTERACTIVITY & CONVERGENCE
  21. 21. Full Internet Map
  22. 22. Nervous system network
  23. 23. Yeast protein interaction network
  24. 24. Internet backbone network
  25. 25. position of individual toward media Old Media New Media Role Spectator User Behavior Passive Active Function Consumer Producer Location Physical Space Everywhere (home, office, etc.) (Network) Kaynak: New Paradigm Learning Corporation, 1997 y g g p ,
  26. 26. Convergence Definition: Convergence has been made possible by digitalization which allows different types of content (audio, video, text) to be stored in the same format and delivered through a wide variety of technologies (computers, mobile phones, televisions, etc). There are therefore two b oad The e a e the efo e t o broad definitions of convergence: con e gence • technological and • media or content. Technological convergence refers to the trend for some set of technologies initially having distinct functionalities to evolve to having those that overlap; it occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them – eg your computer as purveyor of voice as well as text and graphics; cell f phones that provide text and graphics as well as voice. Convergence in the media refers to the removal of entry barriers across the IT, telecoms, media and consumer electronics industries, IT telecoms industries creating one large ‘converged’ industry.
  27. 27. Why does convergence matter? Around the world, countries are competing for leadership in the global knowledge economy. Success in this race will depend upon how g y p p quickly countries can leverage the opportunities for innovation, investment and economic growth presented by convergence. Convergence between the telecoms, IT, consumer electronics, broadcasting and creative content sectors is now starting to have a real impact in the globe. It has the potential to deliver an unparalleled degree of choice, flexibility fl ibilit and convenience to users (b th consumers and d i t (both d businesses) in terms of the way in which they access and exploit information, communication and new media content, services and applications. Convergence has the potential both to create and to destroy value. Deloitte predicts that worldwide, it will lead to $1 trillion shift in valuations and revenues in the converging sectors by 2010. As such, such it represents both a disruptive threat and a huge opportunity for companies of any nation, across a wide and fast moving global sector...
  28. 28. ICT & collision of industries Source: New Paradigm Learning Corporation, 1996
  29. 29. “City of Bits”: urban information systems
  30. 30. Cyber Architecture M-House, Red Sky Vacation Retreats Michael Jantzen Internet Observatory
  31. 31. underground living ‘the taisei company's’ ambitious plan for subterranean living imaginatively titled li titl d alice city f it from Alice in Ali i Wonderland offers a utopia that is almost as fantastical as the book.
  32. 32. “OfftheRoad_5spead” “Offth R d 5 d” Lars Spuybroek, TROD Venedik Bienali 7. Mimarlık Bienali 2000
  33. 33. TV.com
  34. 34. ::the electronic journal:: ::the travel mate:: e ae ae
  35. 35. wearable computers
  36. 36. wearable computers
  37. 37. wearable computer fashion show at MIT
  38. 38. CYBERCULTURE SCENE
  39. 39. 1950s: sybernetic, computer...
  40. 40. “Beat Generation”
  41. 41. computer counter-culture 8888888b. 888 Y88b 888 888 # #### #### #### ##### ##### ## # # ##### 888 888 # # # ## ## ## # # # ## # # 888 888 # #### # # ## ## ## ### # # 888 888 # ## # # ##### # # ###### # # # # 888 .d88P # # ## ## ## # # ## # # ## # 8888888P # #### #### #### # # ##### # ## ## .d88888b. d88P Y88b 888 888 ##### ##### #### #### # ##### # #### # # 888 888 # ## ## ## # # ## # ## # 888 888 # ## ## # #### # # # # ### # 888 888 ##### ##### # # ## # ## ## ## Y88b. .d88P # # # ## ## # ## # # ## Y88888P # # #### #### # # # #### # # ISSUE #0 888888 Nov/98 88b Thanks to; 888 #### # # ##### # # ## # rOTTEN 888 # ## ## # ## # # # # ethercat 888 # ## ## ### ## ## Gateways 888 # ## # ##### # # # ###### # “Computing 4 The People” Digital Avatar 88P # ## # # # # ## # ## Kleptic 888 #### #### # ## ## # ###### .d88P d88P .d88P 'The people's choice for Net Terrorism' 888P
  42. 42. computer counter-culture “The fact is that a few of us saw what “We are still enthusiastic about the was happening and we wrestled the Net, Net the way Walt Whitman was about power of LSD away from CIA, and trains and the telegraph. He thought now the power of computers away they would unite us, make us all a from IBM, just as we rescued community. He couldn’t predict the psychology away from the doctors and trains would go to concentration analysts.” camps.” Timothy Leary Andrei Codresku
  43. 43. William Gibson Philip K. Dick / Ridley Scott Bruce Sterling Neil Stephenson
  44. 44. CYBERSPACE / VIRTUAL REALITY
  45. 45. cyberspace “ Program a map to display frequency data exchange exchange, every thousand megabytes a single pixel on a very large screen. Manhattan and Atlanta burn solid white. Then they start to pulse, the rate of traffic threatening to overload your simulation. Your map is about to go nova. Cool it down. Up your scale. Each pixel a million megabytes. At a hundred million megabytes p gy gy per second, you begin to make out certain blocks in midtown Manhattan, outlines of hundred-year-old parks ringing the old core of Atlanta.” William Gibson, Harper Collins, 1993 (1984), p. 57
  46. 46. cyberspace “A new universe, a parallel universe created and sustained by the world’s computers and communication lines A world in which the global traffic lines. of knowledge, secrets, measurements, indicators, entertainment, and alter-human agency takes on form: sights, sounds, presence never seen on the surface of g, ,p the earth blossoming in a vast electronic night.” Michael Benedikt, Cyberspace: First Steps, 1991
  47. 47. cyberspace “Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts… A graphical representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity Lines of light ranged in the complexity. non-space of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding...” (William Gibson, Neuromancer, 1984, p. 51)
  48. 48. cyberspace “Cyberspace is the ‘place’ where a telephone conversation appears to occur. Not inside your actual phone... Not inside the other person’s phone… The place between the phones. The indefinite place out there, where the two of you, two human beings, actually meet and communicate Although it is not communicate… exactly ‘real’, ‘cyberspace’ is a genuine place. Things happen there that have very genuine consequences. This ‘place’ is not ‘real’, but it is serious, it is earnest ” place real serious earnest. (Bruce Sterling, “The Hacker Crackdown, 1992, p. xi-xii)
  49. 49. cyberspace “It is the Broadway, the Champs Élyseés of the Metaverse. It i th b illi tl lit boulevard… Th Mt is the brilliantly b l d The dimensions of the Street are fixed by a protocol, hammered out by the computer graphics ninja overlords of the Association for Computing Machinery’s Machinery s Global Multimedia Group… Like any place in Reality, the Street is subject to development. Developers can build their own small streets feeding off the main one. They can build buildings, parks, signs, as well as things that do not exist is Reality, such as vast hovering overhead light shows and special neighborhoods g p g where the rules of three-dimensional spacetime are ignored. Put a sign or a building on the street and the hundred million richest, hippest, best-connected people on the earth will see it every day of their lives..” (Neil Stephenson, “Snow Crash, 1992, p. 24-25)
  50. 50. virtual reality “Artificially stimulated perception” – Marjan Kindersley “Virtual Reality won’t merely replace TV. It will eat it alive” – Arthur C. Clark. “This will represent the greatest event in human evolution. For the first time, mankind will be able to deny reality and substitute its own preferred version.” – J.G. Ballard “A VR is a computer world that tricks the sense or mind. A virtual glove might give you the feel of holding your hand in water or mud or honey. A VR cybersuit might make you f l as if you swam th b it i ht k feel through water or mud h t d or honey. VR grew out of cockpit simulators used to train pilots and may shape the home and office multimedia systems of the future. The idea of advanced VR systems as future substitutes for sex and drugs and classroom training is the stock and trade of modern science fiction or ‘cyberpunk’ writing.” – Bart Kosko “Used today in architecture, engineering and design, tomorrow in mass- market entertainment, surrogate travel, virtual surgery and cybersex, by the next century ‘VR’ will have transformed our lives.” – Howard Rheingold
  51. 51. Lawnmoverman2 Dark City
  52. 52. Videodrome
  53. 53. Matrix Johny The Mnemonic
  54. 54. Cube
  55. 55. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
  56. 56. a brief history of virtual communities •1975 – MSGGROUP Mailing List •1992 – “HTTP://” and “URL” HTTP://” URL” •1979 – SF-Lovers Mailing List •1992 – “Cypherpunk” (Crypto cultural group) •1980 – MUD (Multi User Dungeon) •1992 – Project Gutenberg •1981 – “Usenet” term used on ARPAnet •1993 – Wired Magazine •1982 – “Newsgroup” term used on ARPAnet •1993 – “Surf” term used for wander on the Net •1985 – Chain e-mails •1993 – AOL.com gives access to the newsgroups •1986 – The Well ( Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) •1993 – HTML •1986 – “Netiquette” 1986 Netiquette •1993 – “Netizen” 1993 Netizen •1988 – “@ ! Party” (Internet and Usenet party) •1993 – “Cybersex” term used for the first time •1989 – IRC (Internet Relay Chat) •1994 – Epic (Electronic Privacy Information Center) •1990 – EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) •1994 – “SPAM” •1991 – “CyberSpace” term applied to the Internet. •1994 – Yahoo! •1991 – TIN (Newsreader) •1995 – CDA (Communication Desency Act / S.314) •1992 – WWW •1995 – “Chat Room”
  57. 57. a brief history of virtual communities •1995 – Lycos •1995 – DejaNews •1996 – Compuserve.Com •1996 – WebTV •1996 – ICQ (I Seek You) •1998 – Google •1999 – Melissa Virus •1999 – Napster 1999 •1999 – FreeNet (Ian Clark) •2000 – Gnutella •2000 – Love Bug Virus •2001 – Yahoo! bought E-groups •2002-now- mobility & broadband – smartmobs…
  58. 58. “The words community and communication have the same root. Wherever you put a The communications network, you put a community as well. And whenever you take away that network – confiscate it, outlaw it, crash it, raise its price beyond affordability- then you hurt that community.” B. Strerling, The Hacker Crackdown
  59. 59. online games
  60. 60. Social Networks
  61. 61. and after after… • Web 2.0 Web3.0, 4.0, etc. • MARC MARCML (or Memo MemoML) • Search engine Semantic Web • Descritives FRBR (Functional Requirements for ( q Bibliographic Records - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FRBRoo ), Ontologies • User accounts Avatars • 217 millions users on neopet > Myspace; • Habbo users > Facebook; • There are more videos on CyWorld than YouTube; • “Target” is always “younger”… Source : FredCavazza : http://www.fredcavazza.net/2007/11/07/l%e2%80%99invasion- des-nouvelles-plateformes-sociales/
  62. 62. virtual communities “When you think of a title for a book, you are forced to think of something short and evocative, like well, ‘The Virtual Community,’ even th Vi t l C it ’ though a more accurate title h t titl might be: ‘People who use computers to communicate, form friendships that sometimes form the basis of communities, but you have to be careful to , y not mistake the tool for the task and think that just writing words on a screen is the same thing as real community.’”” Howard Rheingold
  63. 63. 2002 2009 2002-2009-…. Mobility … what’s next what s next…. ? Smart mobs emerge when communication and computing technologies amplify human talents for cooperation. The impacts of smart mob technology already appear to be both beneficial and destructive, used by some of its earliest adopters to support democracy and by others to coordinate terrorist attacks. The technologies that are beginning to make smart mobs possible are mobile communication devices and pervasive computing - inexpensive microprocessors embedded in everyday objects and environments. Already, governments have fallen, youth subcultures have blossomed from Asia to Scandinavia, new industries have been born and older industries have launched furious counterattacks counterattacks. Street demonstrators in the 1999 anti-WTO protests used dynamically updated websites, cell-phones, and swarming tactics in the battle of Seattle. A million Filipinos toppled President Estrada through public demonstrations organized through salvos of text messages. The people who make up smart mobs cooperate in ways never before possible because they carry devices that possess both communication and computing capabilities. Their mobile devices connect them with other information devices in the environment as well as with other people's pp telephones. Dirt-cheap microprocessors embedded in everything f from box tops to shoes are beginning to permeate furniture, buildings, neighborhoods, products with invisible intercommunicating smartifacts. When they connect the tangible objects and places of our daily lives with the Internet, handheld communication media mutate into wearable remote control devices for the physical world. Howard Rheingold, SmartMobs / The Next Social Revolution, Perseus Publishing, 2002
  64. 64. VRML chat
  65. 65. virtual agora “The most recent incarnation of the agora is neither The the shopping mall nor the closed electronic environment, but may just be the Internet itself. The agora does not necessarily provide a sense of place, rather it provides a sense of passage, t th id f translation and l ti d personal freedom. If the Internet can achieve the right balance of interaction, leisure and commerce it may in time develop into a g p genuine community space. While it yp continues to mirror the malls, theme parks and office buildings of the Cartesian world it will never become the mythical ‘place of meeting’ described by Homer in the Iliad ” Iliad. Michael Ostwald, “Virtual Urban Futures”, in The Cyberculture Readers, ed. By David Bell-Barbara M. Kennedy, 2000, p. 673
  66. 66. VIRTUAL BODY / POSTHUMAN
  67. 67. prosthesis
  68. 68. prosthesis
  69. 69. posthuman
  70. 70. Stelarc
  71. 71. Stelarc
  72. 72. Stelarc
  73. 73. Stelarc
  74. 74. Stelarc
  75. 75. Source: http://www.me.berkeley.edu/hel/bleex.htm Bionic legs give soldiers a boost: The exoskeleton allows people to carry heavy loads. US researchers have developed strap-on robotic legs to allow people to carry heavy loads over long distances.
  76. 76. From the movie “matrix matrix revolutions”
  77. 77. VIRTUAL LANGUAGES: html-dhtml-shtml-xml-vrml-java-flash-php-cgi etc... NETART
  78. 78. http://www.digicult.org
  79. 79. www.ctheory.net
  80. 80. VIRTUAL POWER / VIRTUAL OPPOSITION
  81. 81. virtual power – virtual war
  82. 82. virtual power / virtual citizen
  83. 83. virtual opposition / network guerillas
  84. 84. virtual opposition / network guerillas
  85. 85. virtual opposition / network guerillas Dennis Ritchie Kevin Mitnick Ken Thompson Analyser Richard Stallman Kevin Poulsen John Draper Mark Abene
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