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Workplaces In Change 3 - Slide 2/3

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From the conference Competence 50+ 2007 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

From the conference Competence 50+ 2007 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

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  • 1. DFG SPP 1184 Kurt Landau Ralph Bruder Holger Rademacher Andrea Sinn-Behrendt Assistance System for Age-Differentiated Work Design and Employee Assignment
  • 2.
    • Preventing work-related disorders
    • Reducing early retirement rates
    • Improving achievement motivation and output of older employees
    • Developing an Assistance System to support:
    • age-differentiated design of workplaces with predominantly physical work
    • age-based assignment of employees
    Aims
  • 3.
    • Phase 1 (2 years):
    • cross-sectional study
    • Which design measures are necessary for ensuring an adequate assignment of the present employees (i.e. regarding both performance and strain)?
    • Phases 2 and 3 (2 + 2 years):
    • longitudinal study
    • Which design measures have to be carried out proactively for an ageing workforce before a new product model is introduced (= related to the whole workforce of an organization)?
    • Which design measures have to be conducted for specific workers to take apparent disorders into account or to avoid developing work-related disorders (= individual approach)?
    Main issues
  • 4. related to strain and injuries Approach related to workload and abilities Work-related subjective strain Tool I for ergonomic analysis Detection of workplace- related disorders Collection of subjective data Collection of objective data related to workload and abilities Tool II for ergonomic analysis bottlenecks design deficits data base age- differentiated work system and process design
  • 5. Study 1 variables: methods: sample: results (selection): detailed information in Landau/Meschke/Schaub et al. (under review)
    • physical workload
    • age
    • subjective disorders
    • questionnaires concerning work-related disorders and subjectively perceived strain
    • predecessor of Tool I module “Demands”
    • car manufacturer
    • one production site
    • 256 workers and 256 work stations
    • no or only marginal dependencies between age and MSDs
    • significant correlations between the ratings of the physical workload situation and disorders
    • high concurrent validity (r = 0.93)
  • 6. Study 2 variables: methods: sample: results (selection):
    • musculoskeletal capacity (8 + 16)
    • occupational field (5)
    • “ Bavaria Rehabilitanden Assessment” (BRA)
    • “ Functional Capacity Evaluation” (short version, SFL, according to Isernhagen Work Systems)
    • 4200 rehab-patients
    • 989 of them from the assembly sector
    • just very slightly decreasing capacity (in average) with growing age
    • differences between the industries and also (to some extent) between the items (capacities)
    • variable “age“ no fundamental predictor for changes of the industry-relevant capacities
    detailed information in Landau/Weißert-Horn/Rademacher et al. (2007)
  • 7. Conclusions from studies 1 and 2
    • identification of age- and workplace-related bottlenecks only possible after analysis of Tool I data
    • selection effects (e.g. healthy worker effects)  complication of the detection of bottlenecks  cross sectional studies probably insufficient
    • possibilities or options for “selection” limited in future  longitudinal studies necessary
  • 8. Thank you for your attention!
  • 9. Overview Phase I Literature analysis Test of the objectivity, reliability and validity of Tool I Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Study 4 Demands and abilities database (age- and workplace-related bottlenecks) Which design measures are necessary for ensuring an adequate (i.e. regarding both performance and strain) assignment of the present employees? Data collection/analysis (in particular with Tool I) Development of Tool I (macro-level-assessment of demands and abilities)
  • 10. Overview Phase II Age- and workplace-related bottlenecks Development of Tool II (micro-level age-differentiated assessment of demands) Detection of design deficits in work system clusters Definition of age-differentiated design rules (in terms of corrective ergonomics) Elimination of the design deficits Iterative development of Tool II and enlargement of the scope of application Documentation of changes and assessment from the point of view of ergonomics
  • 11.  
  • 12. Status quo Literature analysis Research Review Documentation Development/Validation of Tool I Development of module “Demands” Development of module “Abilities” Validation of module “Demands” Validation of module “Abilities” Data collection/analysis (in particular with Tool I) Sample 3 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 4 Development/Validation of Tool II Use of Tool II Development Validation Sample III Sample IV First instructions* *in Landau/Weißert-Horn/ Rademacher et al. 2007 Cooperation/Data exchange with Institute of Ergonomics of the University Kassel
  • 13. Results from studies 1 and 2
    • no or only marginal dependencies between age and musculoskeletal disorders
    • significant correlations between the ratings of the physical workload situation at the workplaces and the disorders of the employees
    • high concurrent validity for the predecessor of Tool I module “Demands” (r = 0.93)
    • car manufacturer
    • 1 site
    • 256 workers
    • 256 work stations
    • questionnaires concerning work-related disorders and subjectively perceived strain
    • predecessor of Tool I module “Demands” for the assessment of physical workload at the workplace
    • analysis of the relationships between physical workload, age and subjective disorders
    • test of validity
    1
    • differences between the industries and to some extent between the items (different capacities) too
    • in this sample the variable “age” was no fundamental predictor concerning changes of the industry-relevant capacities; that is when only sporadically occurring physical efforts are considered
    • 4200 rehab-patients
    • 989 of them from the assembly sector
    • “ Bavaria Rehabilitanden Assessment” (BRA)
    • Short version of “Functional Capacity Evaluation“ (SFL, Isernhagen Work Systems)
    • analysis of the musculoskeletal capacities of persons from different occupational fields undergoing rehabilitation
    2 Results (selection) Sample Methods Intention No.
  • 14. Ongoing studies 3 and 4 * values in brackets = amount of interview
    • the most critical as well as age-relevant physical work-loads result from manual materials handling and highly repetitive operations/ movements
    • additional and more precise information is expected from the multivariate data analysis (not finished)
    • automotive supplier
    • 1 site
    • approx. 120 (1200) work stations
    • approx. 50 (200) workers
    • Tool I for collection of demands and abilities (macro level)
    • questionnaire I “Detection of workplace-related disorders“
    • questionnaire II “Work-related subjective strain“
    • detection of age- and workplace related bottlenecks
    • test of objectivity and reliability
    3
    • data collection not finished
    • no conclusions possible at the moment
    • truck manufacturer
    • 3 sites
    • approx. 250 work stations
    • approx. 3 x 50 (3 x 200) workers
    • Tool I for collection of demands and abilities (macro level)
    • questionnaire I “Detection of workplace-related disorders“
    • questionnaire II “Work-related subjective strain“
    • detection of age- and workplace-related bottlenecks
    • ( test of objectivity and reliability )
    4 Results (excerpt) Sample* Methods Intention No.
  • 15.
    • Development and validation of Tool I for collection and assessment of:
      • physical demands/workloads at workplaces and
      • physical abilities of workers
    • Application of Tool I in companies of the automotive industry
    • Data analysis aimed at the detection of age- and workplace related bottlenecks
    • Identification of design deficits in work system clusters
    Contents of Phase 1
  • 16. Contents of first half of Phase 2
    • Development of Tool II for age differentiated ergonomic work system design and work process design taking into account age and workplace related bottlenecks
    • Use of Tool II in the companies involved
    • Identification of design deficits in work system clusters
    • Formulation of age differentiated design rules for workplaces in the automotive industry
  • 17. Body postures Action forces Tool I: Module “Demands“
  • 18. Short cyclic workloads Tool I: Module “Demands“
  • 19. Manual materials handling Specific workloads Tool I: Module “Demands“
  • 20. Body postures Action forces Furthermore assessment regarding: Short cyclic operations and manual materials handling Tool I: Module “Abilities“ (example)
  • 21. Instructions for age management Excerpt from checklist for spatial work(place) design Is the permitted time for reading tasks adapted to decreasing reading rate? Vision Are too small character sizes on displays/screens and paper avoided? Is the illuminance raised up to 200 % (depending on visual task)? Are there (if necessary) warning signals to enhance attention and recognition performance? Area of vision and lighting Is (if necessary) the corpulence of older workers taken into account by adequate spaces for movements? Are the age related changes in body dimensions with their effect on body flexibility taken into account? Body dimensions No Yes Checkpoint
  • 22. Study 1 – car manufacturer (nach Landau et al. n.n.e.) N = 254 overweight adipose normal underweight
  • 23. Study 1 – division of the body regions
    • Adapted division according to CORLETT and BISHOP (1976):
      • Head, neck and shoulder area (HNS)
      • Upper limbs (U)
      • Hands (H)
      • Thoracic spine (TS)
      • Lumbar spine (LS)
      • Pelvis (P)
      • Lower limbs (U)
    HNS HNS HNS HNS TS U U U U LS U U L L L L L L L L U U H H P
  • 24. moderate, unfavourable and very unfavourable favourable and very favourable very favourable favourable ≤ 50 years > 50 years Node 7 Node 6 Node 5 Node 4 (n = 138) (n = 90) (n = 9) (n = 19) Decision tree of the partition analysis for the target variable „lumbar spine disorders“ (N = 256) Age contributes little to the explanation of lumbar spine disorders (nach Landau et al. n.n.e.) Study 1 – Predictors of the disorders Expert rating p < 0,001 Node 1 Expert rating p = 0,038 Node 2 Age p = 0,063 Node 3 disorders no disorders
  • 25. Study 2 – Rehab-patients (according to Landau et al. 2007)
  • 26. Study 2 vs. Study 1 (according to Landau et al. 2007)
  • 27. (according to Landau et al. 2007) Study 2 – work-related capacities Industry group „assembly“ shows the best capacity assessments at nearly all materials handling-items
  • 28. (according to Landau et al. 2007) Study 2 – work-related capacities Mostly U-shaped run in the industry group „assembly“ concerning body postures: decrease until the age group “46-51 years”, then increase
  • 29. (according to Landau et al. 2007) Study 2 – work-related capacities Capacities of persons from the assembly area to perform specific body postures (frequency and endurance) Considerable differences between sitting respectively standing upright and bent
  • 30. Study 1 – car manufacturer
    • Analysis of demands/workloads at 256 workplaces of a car manufacturer (assembly of middle-class cars) with different methods (e.g. a predecessor of Tool I and an expert rating)
    • Collection of musculoskeletal disorders data of the employees working at these workplaces with a questionnaire according to the Body Part Discomfort Scale of CORLETT and BISHOP (1976)
  • 31. Study 1 – Conclusion
    • older workers have lumbar spine disorders despite of low workplace demands (> 50 years)  long-term cumulative effects
    • head-neck-shoulder-disorders occur more often with older workers (> 41 years) when there are unfavourable working conditions
    • workplaces with higher physical workloads are rated “monotonous” more often by the elderly (> 53 years) too
    • older workers (> 45 years) work preferably at assembly workplaces, which are assessed “very favourable” (expert rating); younger workers more often at “ (very) unfavourable“ workplaces
  • 32. Study 2 – rehab-patients
    • Assessment of the capacities with the Bavaria-Rehabilitanden-Assessment (BRA) done by physicians for occupational medicine or rehabilitation medicine
    • Basis of the assessments are measurements within the method „Functional Capacity Evaluation“ (according to ISERNHAGEN)
    • Division of the job descriptions in five classes:
      • Assembly (N = 989)
      • Trade (N = 1717)
      • Building (N = 840)
      • Service (N = 654)
      • Miscellaneous (N = 43)
  • 33. Study 2 – Rehab-patients
    • Examination of the assessments of capacities to perform:
      • 8 different material handlings:
        • Lifting (3),
        • Carrying (3),
        • Pulling (2) and
        • Pushing (2)
      • 16 different body postures:
        • Standing (4),
        • Sitting (3),
        • Kneeing (1),
        • Crouching (1),
        • Walking (4),
        • Forced postures (head, neck) (1),
        • Overhead work (1)
        • etc.
  • 34. Current publication
  • 35. Resume and outlook
    • Tool I allows the documentation and the assessment of different kinds of physical workloads at the workplaces in the automotive industry (in particular including „short cyclic workloads“) as well as the physical abilities of employees to meet the corresponding workplace demands
    • Identification of the age- and workplace-related bottlenecks takes place by the analysis of the data collected with Tool I and the questionnaires
  • 36. Resume and outlook
    • Tool II shall conduce to the age-differentiated assessment of physical workloads and thus allow for a corresponding work system and process design (in particular already in the planning phase)
    • Age-differentiated design rules for workplaces in the automotive industry
  • 37.
    • Publications:
    • Rademacher, H.; Sinn-Behrendt, A.; Schaub, Kh.; Landau, K.: Ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung altersbedingter Engpässe hinsichtlich muskuloskelettaler Belastungen , ZfA, Heft 4, 2006.
    • Landau, K.; Meschke, H.; Schaub, Kh. [u.a.]: Musculoskeletal disorders in assembly jobs in the automotive industry with special reference to age management aspects , Industrial Ergonomics, n.n.e.
    • Landau, K.; Weißert-Horn, M.; Rademacher, H. [u.a.]: Altersmanagement als betriebliche Herausforderung , Ergonomia, 2007.
    Publications and presentations
    • Presentations:
    • Sinn-Behrendt, A.; Schaub, Kh.; Mnich, H.-P.: Instrumente zum fähigkeitsgerechten Mitarbeitereinsatz: Methoden und Ansätze aus der Praxis , GfA-Frühjahrskonferenz, Stuttgart, 2006.
    • Sinn-Behrendt, A.; Schaub, Kh.; Landau, K.: Screening tool for the analysis and evaluation of predominantly physical work , IEA Conference, Maastricht, 2006.
    • Sinn-Behrendt, A.: Assistenzsystem zur altersdifferenzierten Arbeitsgestaltung und zum Mitarbeitereinsatz , DGPs-Kongress, Nürnberg, 2006.
  • 38. Makro-/Meso- modelling (profile analysis and design) of workplace demands and employee abilities Phase 1 (2 years) Phase 2 (2 years) Phase 3 (2 years) Development of tools for ergonomic analysis Mikro- modelling (workplace design based on single operations) Application of the tools for ergonomic analysis in automotive industry Database to detect age- and workplace- related bottlenecks between demands and abilities Cause analysis as precondition for the deduction of workplace design measures Design deficits in single work system clusters Redesigns including critical monitoring by operating working parties Elimination of the design deficits Implementation of efficiency analyses and again exemplary application of the design tools Documentation of possible changes and assessment for ergonomic purposes In case of apparent diseases of employees catamnestic evaluation Catalogue of recommendations for action for age-differentiated design of work (in terms of conceptive ergonomics) cross-study oriented longitudinal study oriented Components for an in-company early warning system in terms of age management Overview of the DFG-project of the IAD Age-differentiated design rules for assembly work systems in automotive industry (in terms of corrective ergonomics)
  • 39. Work packages Phase 1 (09/2005 – 08/2007) Literature research and documentation WP 1 Tool I for ergonomic analysis (development and validation) WP 2
    • Data survey and analysis:
    • Demands at assembly workplaces
    • in automotive industry and
    • Abilities of corresponding employees
    WP 3 Data exchange and database modification WP 4 Tool II for ergonomic analysis (development and validation) WP 5 Tool II for ergonomic analysis (application) WP 6 Literature database „ Age-differentiated design of work“ Tool for ergonomic analysis for survey of demands and abilities Demands and abilities database Design deficits in single work system clusters Extension of the demands and abilities database Tool for ergonomic analysis for age-differentiated design of work
  • 40. Aims Phase 1 (09/2005 – 08/2007)
    • Deficit analysis concerning existing tools for ergonomic analysis; state of research
    • Development of tools for ergonomic analysis
      • for macro-/meso-modelling (profile analysis and design) of workplace demands and employee abilities
      • for micro-modelling (design of work based on single operations)
    • Analysis of existing work systems in companies of automotive industry concerning their demands on employees
    • (  health risks)
    • Age-differentiated identification of (physical) abilities of employees who are working at corresponding workplaces
    • Comparison of demands and abilities  age-related bottlenecks
  • 41. Methodological bases Legal foundations Machinery Directive (2006/42/EG) Workloads/Abilities Method for analysis of manual materials handling: Leitmerkmalmethoden (LMM) National / international methods acknowledged IAD-methods Tool I for ergonomic analysis Framework Directive Health and safety at work (89/391/EWG) Methods used in work package 2 Workloads ISO-standards (e.g. ISO 11228-1) recommendatory EU-standards (e.g. EN 1005) mandatory
  • 42. Validation of Tool I for ergonomic analysis National / international methods Methods for determination of force limits: Siemens / Burandt / REFA / VDI Methods for determination of load limits: (multiple) NIOSH-method, Burandt, REFA(-FAC) Methods for analysis of body postures: Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) Methods for analysis of repetitive actions: Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Tool I for ergonomic analysis IAD-methods for analysis and assessment of physical workload Human Physical Performance Risk Assessment (HuPPRA) Automotive Assembly Worksheet (AAWS) IAD-Bewertung körperlicher Arbeit (IAD-BkA) New Production Worksheet (NPW)
  • 43.
    • Workplaces are assessed and depending on workload level risk points are assigned.
    • Assessed are in detail:
      • Body posture, trunk and arm postures (symmetrical)
      • Additional posture workloads (asymmetrical)
      • Forces and additional workloads (finger/hand…)
      • Manual materials handling
      • (Specific workloads)
    • Depending on sum of risk points an assessment is done after the “traffic light principle“ according to the Machinery Directive ( green / yellow / red ).
    Part 1 Assessment of physical workload
    • Additionally surveyed are:
    • - Work environment
    • e.g. hazardous materials, noise, rotating machines
    • - Mental workloads
    • e.g. driving and control operations, shift work, time pressure
    Tool I for ergonomic analysis: demands
  • 44.
    • Assessed is to what extent an employee is able to render the required performance. The assessment is done in percentage points of a “normal“ capability
    Part 2 Individual assessment of abilities
    • In detail the abilities are assessed analogous:
      • Body posture and arm postures
      • Additional posture workloads
      • Forces and additional workloads
      • Manual materials handling
      • Specific workloads
    • Correction of the sum of points and reassessment after the traffic light principle ( green / yellow / red ) according to the Machine Directive
    Tool I for ergonomic analysis: abilities risk points x 100 percentage of capability Correction factor:
  • 45. related to strain / injuries Methodological bases IAD-HAS-Checklist (HAS = Hand-Arm-System) (Wakula et al. 2004) (Parts of the) Nordic Questionnaire (Kuorinka et al. 1987) related to workloads / abilities Work-related subjective strain Tool I for ergonomic analysis Body Part Discomfort Scale (Corlett / Bishop 1976) Detection of workplace- related disorders Data collection (subjective) Data collection (objective) Analysis of correlation / contingency / variance Cluster analysis / Factor analysis Data analysis Methods used in work package 3
  • 46. 2. Workplace-related disorders Survey of subjective strain Personal data: Age, duration of employment in current job, individual behaviour pattern of health Disorders sensation: Time of incidence, frequency, (company) physician contacts
    • Questions referring to 10 (12) category groups
    • Education
    • Time pressure, shift work
    • Work environment
    • Wearing of protection clothes, glasses etc.
    • Manual materials handling
    • Body postures
    • Hand strength and dexterity
    • Handling of tools
    • Sense organs
    • Psychomental demands
    1. Work-related subjective strain Questionnaires