Learning And Qualifications 2 - Slide 2/3

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From the conference Competence 50+ 2007 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

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Learning And Qualifications 2 - Slide 2/3

  1. 1. Learning and qualifications 2: Skills transfer Competence 50+ 18.-19.6.2007, Gothenburg, Sweden Tarja Tikkanen IRIS, Norway
  2. 2. “ Stearns (1977), in his study of industrialization between 1890-1919, reported that older workers were being threatened by the obsolescence of their skills and by work speed-up. British metal workers claimed that the latter caused premature ageing, and found that many of their employers judged them ‘ too old at forty ’.” - Parker (1987, 79)
  3. 3. Skills Transfer Issues <ul><li>Promising focus: Focus is what we make it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age as such has been focus for long: Hard to find the “how to”, methods. Can be stigmatizing too. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like mentoring, skills transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i) is positively related to the discussion on older workers, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ii) it is a more proactive focus, thus more promising in regards real action. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Another sign of ‘age-irrelevant’ or an ‘ageless’ society emerging? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Skills Transfer Issues… <ul><li>2. By now we know the ‘ what ’ and ‘ why ’ of older workers and lifelong learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much less progress has been made with the ‘how ’. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Skills Transfer Issues… <ul><li>3. A good deal been done already and important experiences and knowledge created in and from workplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation available from Cedefop/EU, OECD, ILO, The Dublin (European) Foundation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Time learn from what we preach, put this knowledge in use! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Time to tackle “the knowing-doing gap” (Pfeffer & Sutton) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(ii) Spreading knowledge and learning from it important. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We need a new mindset about ageing, learning and working. (Tikkanen & Nyhan, 2006)” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skills Transfer Issues… <ul><li>4. Workplaces are in the key locus... </li></ul><ul><li>The success of lifelong learning (LLL) lies in its success in workplaces – with skills transfer & attitudes, above all. </li></ul><ul><li>… but training institutions also need to develop new cooperative approaches with workplaces to assisting both workplaces with the challenge of skills transfer and development, as well as with the older workers. </li></ul>The success of LLL is by and large depending on its success in including older workers in the world of learning!
  7. 7. Participation in adult education (25-64 yrs) Source: Eurostat, Europe in figures, 2006. Lifelong learning (excluding self-learning) in 2000 and 2005 and the 5-year change. (%) * For Greece figure taken from Europe in figures 2005, reporting years 1999 and 2004. 8.7 5.6 Euro area 7.6 n.a. Latvia 10.8 7.9 EU-25 +4.8 7.6 2.8 France 8.0 n.a. Ireland +2.5(* 3.7 1.2 Greece +4.6 9.4 4.8 Luxembourg +1.1 4.2 3.1 Hungary +3.2 10.0 6.8 Belgium +1.2 4.6 3.4 Portugal +7.1 12.1 5.0 Spain 5.0 n.a. Slovakia +5.6 13.9 8.3 Austria 5.0 n.a. Poland +1.0 16.6 15.6 Netherlands +2.5 5.6 3.1 Cyprus 17.8 n.a. Slovenia +1.3 5.8 4.5 Malta +6.1 19.4 13.3 Norway 5.9 n.a. Czech Republic +5.2 24.8 19.6 Finland -0.1 5.9 6.0 Estonia +3.1 26.6 23.5 Iceland +0.7 6.2 5.5 Italy +7.2 27.6 20.8 Denmark +3.5 6.3 2.8 Lithuania +8.7 29.7 21.0 UK +2.2 7.4 5.2 Germany +13.1 34.7 21.6 Sweden Change 2005 2000 Country Change 2005 2000 Country
  8. 8. Older workers (45+) and LLL Older workers’ participation in education and training . Trends 2000-2005 (%) Source: European Commission, 2006. Indicators for monitoring the Employment Guidelines. - - - - - - NMS10 5.9 5.4 5.4 3.3 3.0 3.0 EU15 5.1 4.8 3.9 3.1 2.8 2.8 EU25 55-64 years 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.0 NMS10 9.8 9.2 8.0 6.3 6.3 6.3 EU15 8.5 8.1 7.1 5.6 5.7 5.7 EU25 45-54 years 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
  9. 9. Lifelong learning by level of education Source: European Commission, 2006. Indicators for monitoring the Employment Guidelines. Participation trends in lifelong learning (25-64 years) by educational level (%) 14.2 22.1 21.1 4.4 12.5 10.6 - 4.6 3.4 2005 -0.7 16.0 15.4 14.4 15.7 14.9 NMS10 +6.2 20.8 18.6 15.6 15.4 15.9 EU15 +5.3 20.2 18.2 15.4 15.4 15.8 EU25 High education 0 4.9 4.7 4.2 4.4 4.4 NMS10 +2.7 12.2 11.0 9.8 9.7 9.8 EU15 +2.1 10.4 9.5 8.5 8.4 8.5 EU25 Medium education - - - - - - NMS10 +2.1 3.1 2.9 2.3 2.4 2.5 EU15 +1.1 2.9 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 EU25 Low education Change %-units 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
  10. 10. Older workers & skills transfer in workplaces <ul><li>Little research , although started to pick up during last years. </li></ul><ul><li>Little practice - the learning needs of older workers rarely specifically focused upon. Mentoring/teaching the less experienced by older workers more common. </li></ul><ul><li>Workplaces and managers can (should) play a key role in promoting LLL for older workers. Older people are familiar with working, but often not with training/systematic learning. </li></ul><ul><li>For current older generations specific preventive measures are needed in addition (culture gap) to avoid competence obsolescence . Good workplace practice and policies promoting learning in general is supportive to older workers, too, but not enough. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Older workers & skills transfer in workplaces <ul><li>Learning and competence development for and among older workers should be an essential part of a more holistic approach to workplace wellbeing - and not seen as a separate issue (‘competence-in-use is a relative issue’). </li></ul><ul><li>Important to promote broad-based skills development - The narrow, job-specific competence development should be complemented by more general type of skills and knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even a plenty of task-specific training undertaken during one’s career does not necessarily help older workers facing redundancy! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal and incidental learning in workplaces should be supported by external (formal) competence actors. Local learning cooperation between training/competence providers (CVET) and workplaces should be promoted. </li></ul>
  12. 12. More on older workers & LLL in workplaces… <ul><li>Training to promote inclusion in working life . Network-based, dialogue driven but action focused learning arrangements are effective and motivating for older workers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual approach to learning needs and competence development, which require often tailor-made training, should be supported by more social forms of learning . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support to development of basic learning skills among older workers important. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting LLL in workplaces should also mean better visibility and higher appreciation of the particular strengths of competence of older workers . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Strengths in older workers’ competence Employers’ views <ul><li>77% agreed that older workers have a higher level of commitment to the organisation than younger workers (only 5% disagreed) </li></ul><ul><li>68% concluded training older workers costs less or the same as training their younger counterparts (6% disagreed) </li></ul><ul><li>57% reported that age does not affect the amount of time required to train an employee (14% disagreed) </li></ul><ul><li>49% determined that older workers grasped new concepts as well as younger workers (18% disagreed) SHRM, 1998 – quoted in McIntosh, 2001 </li></ul>A survey by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) targeted to nearly 400 HR-professionals
  14. 14. <ul><li>Despite myths circulated when companies were trying to justify trimming older adults from their payrolls, employers affirmed that, in general, older workers: </li></ul><ul><li>had low turnover rates </li></ul><ul><li>were flexible and open to change </li></ul><ul><li>possessed up-to-date skills </li></ul><ul><li>were interested in learning new tasks </li></ul><ul><li>did not experience transportation problems </li></ul><ul><li>were willing to take on challenging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>had low absentee rates </li></ul><ul><li>had few on-the-job accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Source: “Additional Resources,” 1998 – quoted in McIntosh, 2001 </li></ul>Strengths in older workers’ competence Employers’ views A study by the National Council on the Ageing (NCOA) and the McDonald’s Corporation

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