Roles of Visual in Instruction1) Provide a concrete referent for ideas - iconic i.e. more easily to be remembered as compared to words. This visual image of an apple is the referent of the word ‘apple’
Role of Visuals in Instruction2. Motivate learners by attracting their attention, holding their attention and generating emotional responses.3. Simplify information that is difficult to understand.
SERIES OF DESIGN DECISIONVisual Design Element Visual Design Pattern Visual Design ArrangementVisual Element Verbal Element Add Appeals ProximityRealistic Letter style Surprise Directionals Alignment Number of style Texture Figure-groundAnalogic contrast Shape Capitals InteractionOrganization Consistency Balance Colour Style Size Colour scheme Spacing Colour appeal
Visual Literacy• refer to the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately to create such messages.2 visual approaches 1. Input Strategy 2. Output Strategy
Input Strategy• helping learners to “decode” (read), visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis Developmental Effects Cultural Effects Visual Preferences
Developmental Effect (Dwyer, 1978) “As a child gets older, he becomes more capable of attending selectively to those features of an instructional presentation that have the greatest potential for enhancing his learning of desired information.
Different cultural groups may perceive visual materials in different ways. • Usually thumbs up gesture means positive or okay. • But for Balinese the thumbs up is part of a ritual way of showing respect to someone of a higher caste.
Visual Preferences• Teacher should select between preferred visual and most effective visual.
Visual Literacy: Output Strategies1) Learners create their own visual presentation - using camera / camcorder etc. - sequencing – ability to arrange idea in logical order
Goals of Visual Design• Ensure legibility• Reduce the effort required to interpret the message• Increase the viewer‟s active engagement with the message• Focus attention on the most important part of the message
Process of Visual Design1) Elements – selecting the verbal/visual elements to be incorporated into display2) Pattern – choosing an underlying pattern for the elements of the display3) Arrangement – arranging the individual element within the underlying pattern
Elements : Visual Elements1) Realistic• Show the actual object under study ABSTRACT REALISTIC
Elements : Visual Elements2) Analogic visualsConvey topic by showing something else andimplying a similarityE.g. the function of human memory with thefunction of computer memory
Elements : Visual Elements3) Organizational visuals• Such as flowcharts, graphs, maps, classification charts
Elements : Verbal Elements1) Letter style• It should be consistent and harmonize with the other visual elements• Straightforward and plain style
Elements : Verbal Elements2) Number of lettering styles• Not more than 2 different type styles• Limit variations (bold, italic, underline, size changes) to four
Elements : Verbal Elements3) Capitals• Use lowercase letters• Adding capitals when it is necessary• Headlines can be in capitals but not more than 3 words
Elements : Verbal Elements4) Colour of lettering• The lettering colour should contrast with the background colour• Think about your audience..
Elements : Verbal Elements5) Size of lettering• Rule of thumb: make lower case letters ½ inch high for each 10 feet of viewer distance
Elements : Verbal Elements6) Spacing between letters• Consider „optical spacing‟• Estimating approximately equal amounts of with space between letters LABWORK
Elements : Verbal Elements7) Spacing between lines• Letters should be not too cramped or too widely separate• Text is most legible when separation is 11/2 times average letter height
Elements : Elements that add appeals• Surprise• Interaction
Process of Visual Design : PatternAlignment Shape Balance Style Color Scheme Color Appeal
Process of Visual Design : Pattern1) Alignment• Balance alignment• Same imaginary horizontal and vertical line• Viewer expend little effort making sense out of what they are seeing
Process of Visual Design : Pattern2) Shape• Put and arrange visual into shape that familiar to learner• Simple geometric figure – circle, rectangle• Consider of the „Rule Of Thirds‟
Rule of Thirds• Place your important elements where these linesintersect• Good places to put things; third of the way up, third ofthe way in from the left• Duff places to put things; right in the middle, right at thetop, right at the bottom, away in the corner
Process of Visual Design : Pattern3) Balance• The „weight‟ of the elements in a display is equally distributed either horizontally or vertically
Process of Visual Design : Pattern4) Style• Simple, uncluttered• Primary colour for children• Realistic colour for adult
Process of Visual Design : Pattern5) Colour scheme• Consider the harmoniousness of the colour – color wheel6) Colour appeal• Consider „warm‟ and „cool‟ colour• Warm colour – active learner, children• Cool colour – thoughtful learner, adult• Consider cultural basis
The Colour Wheel Complimentary colours: any two colours that lie directly opposite each other Analogous colours: colours that lie next to each other Complimentary and Analogous colours may form pleasing combinations when used together in a display
• Use cool colour forbackground• Highlight important cuesin warm colour such as redand orange