2. Czar Nicholas II ! Last Czar of Russia ! Exhausted nation’s economy by involving Russia in WWI ! This left the Russian people poor and starving, but the Czar and his family lived comfortably. ! The people were angry with this, so they decided to REVOLT!
3. Karl Marx(1818 – 1883) • He died long before Revolution began, but his political ideas of communism lived on. • Considered father of communism • People of Russia who revolted adopted his ideas
4. Karl Marx! Karl Marx - 1848 published the Communist Manifesto with Fredrich Engels! This document advertised Marx’s belief that pure communism would be the inevitable outcome of human history! “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his need.”
5. Communism• Form of governmentthat has a classlesssociety• Everyone is equal; norich and no poor• The Bolsheviks, orrevolutionaries, adoptedthis idea.
6. Bolsheviks• The Bolsheviks - an organization formed by therevolting people, or revolutionaries, of Russia.• Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin.
7. Vladimir Lenin • A revolutionary who led the Bolsheviks (working class) to freedom. • They eventually were able to overthrow the Czar.
8. Czar is Overthrown…• With the rise of the Bolsheviks, the Czar was forced to giveup thrown• In 1918, the Czar and his entire family, wife and 5 children,were assassinated by an execution squad set up by therevolutionaries• The entire family was killed because they feared one of themcould rise to power again.
9. Lenin’s Death• Lenin died in 1924,leaving the Bolsheviksleaderless.• This caused a powerstruggle between two otherrevolutionaries, LeonTrotsky and Joseph Stalin.
10. Leon Trotsky • A revolutionary who was popular with the people • Wanted to make life better for all by industrializing Russia
11. Josef Stalin• Lied to people to gainsupport• People believed his liesand promises, so he beatTrotsky in the powerstruggle• Stalin had Trotsky exiledfrom Russia. He fearedTrotsky would try to regainpower, so he eventuallyhad him killed.
12. Stalin, cont’d… • Stalin grew more and more powerful over the years. • He began eliminating anyone who opposed him. • He set up a secret police to carry out his deadly orders.
13. NKVD (KGB)• Stalin’s secret police• Killed, tortured, starved,intimidated anyone Stalinordered• Completely loyal to Stalin
14. TotalitarianismForm of government with a strong central rule that attempts to control individuals by means of coercion and repression.
15. Examples of Totalitarian governments and their leaders! Nazi Germany - Adolf Hitler! Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin! Italy - (Facist) Benito Mussolini! Spain - Gen. Francisco Franco
16. Propaganda-Propaganda: is a form of communicationthat is aimed at influencing the attitude of acommunity toward some cause or position.-Stalin used this to keep his image in thepublic eye positive-He had a bureau dedicated to coming upwith new propaganda on a regular basiscreating pictures, statues, continuous praiseand applause for him.
17. Stalin’s Rule• Stalin became so greedy, helost the original vision of therevolutionaries• Millions of innocent peoplewere killed under his rule• Ironically, he made Russiaworse off than it had beenbefore the Czar• Stalin became known asone of the most ruthlessdictators in history,comparable to Hitler