CONFLICT MANAGEMENTStructure1. Objectives2. Introduction3. Nature and Types of Conflict4. The Conflict Process5. Impact of Conflict6. Levels of Conflict (1) Intra-Personal Conflict (2) Inter-Personal Conflict (3) Inter-Group and Organisational Conflict
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT• 1. Management of Conflict• 2. Conflict Resolution Strategies• 3. Let us Sum Up• 4. Key Words• 5. Terminal Questions
INTRODUCTION• Fundamentals of Conflict• When people, groups or organisations diagree over significant issues, conflict may arise. Particularly, conflict occurs when a person or a group believes its attempts to achieve its goal are being blocked by another person or a group• Conflict can and does create such situations that it makes it nearly impossible for people to work together.
Nature and Types of Conflict• Robbins defines conflict “as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. The definition encompasses a wide range of conlicts that people experience in organisations.• There is increasing evidence that not all conflicts are bad for performance and productivity. Some conflicts do support the goals of the group and improve the group’s performance. These have been labeled functional constructive forms of conflict.
Functional and Dysfunctional ConflictImpact on Performance• 1. Positive• 2. Neutral• 3. NegativeModerate Levels of Conflict are constructiveToo much or too littleConflict is destructive
TYPES OF CONFLICT• In organisation, there are three types of conflicts :• 1. Task Conflict• 2. Relationship Conflict• 3. Process Conflict
THE CONFLICT PROCESS• 1. The process consists of four stages whch is presented.• Stage 1• Antecedent Conditions• Stage 2• 1. Perceived Conflict• 2. Felt Conflict
Conflict Process• 1. Conflict exist at the interpersonal level. One party plans to block the attempts of another party from achieving a goal. In organisations some potential danger and harm threaten the hormonious functioning and their existence.• 2. Scarcity of resources, heterogeneity of members and diversity of goals, values, perception; also the degree of dependence between groups and insufficient exchange of information.
The Conflict Process• The antecedent conditions must be perceived as threatening for conflict to develop.• Perceives the harm that might be done to him and feels/realizes the potential damage.• A party blocks the other party’s attempts in attainment of goals.• The conflict finally results in an outcome that may be functional or dysfunctional.
IMPACT OF CONFLICT• Conflict can have both positive and negative impact on individuals, groups and organisations.• Intergroup conflict may produce some changes within the group which are :• (1) Group cohesiveness increases• (2) Group becomes task-oriented• (3) Leadership becomes more directive
• Rigidification of organisation structure• Group unity is stressedProlonged conflict is likely to affect therelationship between groups in the followingmanner:• Groups become antagonistic toward each other• Perceptual distortion
• Ineffective or absence of communication• Group apply a double standardThe potential benefits or intergroup conflicts are:• Conflict clarifies the real issue• Conflict increases innovation• Intergroup conflict produces cohesiveness within the group
• Conflict serves as a catharsis• Conflict resolution solidifies intergroup relationships
LEVELS OF CONFLICT• We can distinguish three levels of conflict :• Intra-Personal Conflict• Inter-Personal Conflict• Inter-Group and Organisational ConflictIntra-Personal ConflictGoal Conflict :a) Approach-approach conflictb) Approach-avoidance conflictc) Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Inter-Personal Conflict• Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individual in an organisation.• Personal Differences• Information Deficiency• Role Incompatibility• Environmental Stress
Inter-Group and Organisational Conflict• Organisational conflict, refers to conflict between two groups, departments or sections in an organisation• Task Inter-Dependence :• Task Ambiguity• Goal Incompatibility• Competition for Limited Resources• Competitive Reward Systems• Line and Staff
MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT• When a potentially harmful conflict situation exists a manager needs to engage in conflict resolution. Managers should first attempt to determine the source of the conflict.• The manager can help groups view their goals as part of a super ordinate goal to which the goals of both conflicting parties can contribute.
Stimulating Functional ConflictSituations where conflict is needed for enhancedperformance:• The organisation is filled with “yes” men• Employees are afraid to admit ignorance• Compromise is emphasized in decision-making• Managers stress on harmony and peace• Popularity is given more importance than technical competence• People show great resistance to change• There is unusually low rate of employee turnover.
Stimulating Functional Conflict• May adopt one or more of the following techniques• Manipulate Communication Channels• Deviate messages from traditional channels• Suppress information• Transmit too much information• Transmit ambiguous or threatening information
Management of Conflict• Organisational Restructure (Redefine jobs/tasks, reforms units/activities)• Increase a unit’s size• Increase specialisation/standardisation• Include, exclude or transfer members• Increase interdependence between units
Management of Conflict• Alter Behaviour Patterns• Attempt to change personality characteristics• Create role conflict• Develop role incongruence
Conflict Resolution Strategies• When the level of conflict is too high, conflict needs to be resolved.• A comprehensive package of conflict resolution strategies has been suggested byh Feldman. These may be classified as follows:• 1) Conflict-avoidance strategies• 2) Conflict-diffusion strategies• 3) Conflict-containment strategies• 4) Conflict-confrontation strategies
Strategies for Resolving Conflicts• Frustration• Removal of barriers that evoke frustration• Diversion into competitive channels• Goal conflict• Approach-approach conflict may be tackled by applying concepts from the theory of Cognitive Dissonance• Approach-avoidance conflict can be resolved by examining and solving the problems causing the conflict• Role conflict can be resolved by minimizing the number of roles and fixing priorities for them.
Strategies for Resolving Conflicts• Most of the intrapersonal conflict can be resolved by developing compatibility between the conflictee’s personal and organisation goals.• Inter-Personal Conflict• (1) Lose-Lose• (2) Win-Lose• (3) Win-Win• (4) Transactional Analysis
Inter-Group and Organisational Conflict• Problem Solving• Oranisation Redesign• Super ordinate goals• Expansion of Resources• Avoidance• Smoothening
CONCEPT OF TEAMMost of the activities of the organisationachieve its goals. The most prevalent type offormal group is the command team.• Another type of formal team is the committee.• A quality circle is a kind of team.• When a team has completed its investigationand identified a solution, it makes a formalpresentation to the plant management and staff.•Some formal teams are temporary.
CONCEPT OF TEAM• They may be called task forces or project teams.• Informal teams or groups emerge whenever people come together and interact.
TEAM DEVELOPMENT• The team is formed as a result of interaction and influence of members who strive for the achievement of common goal. In this process, the team members try to understand others behaviour, realise the appropriateness of the behaviour and the role of the team memebrs.• Forming : In this stage the members try to explore and understand the behaviour of the team members.• Storming : In the second stage, members start competing for status, leadership and control in the group. Individuals understand other behaviour and assert their role in the group.
Team Development• Norming : The members start moving in a cohesive manner. They establish a balance among various conflicting forces. They develop group norms and consensus for the achievement of the group goal.• Performing : In this stage, the team makes effort for the performance of task and accomplishment of objectives. The established pattern of relationships improves co-ordination and helps in resolving conflicts.
Team Development• Adjourning : When this purpose if fulfilled, the team may be adjourned.
TEAM BUILDING• The Johari Window Approach• The Role Negotiation Approach• The team Roles Approach• The Behaviour Modification Approach• The Simulation Approach• The Action Research Approach• The Appreciative Inquiry Approach• Projection into Future
Team Building• Linkage with Individual Goals• Force-Field Analysis• Strengthening Positive Forces• Reducing Negative Forces• Monitoring
TEAM EFFECTIVENESS• Effective team has following parameters:-The degree to which objectives of the team areachieved.• The degree to which the team achieves the needs and well being of its members; and• The ability of the team to survive.
TEAM EFFECTIVENESSOrganisational and team environment relates to thefollowing elements:-• Reward System• Communication• Systems• Physical Space• Organisational Environment• Organisational Structure, and• Organisational Leadership
Team Design• It involves following elements : It involves following elements:• *Task Characteristics• *Team Size; and• * Team Composition• 3. Team Processes: It includes• * Team Development, Team Norms, Team Roles, and Team Cohesiveness
Concept of Leadership• Leadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. The leader is a part of the group that he leads, but he is distinct from the rest of the group. Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. Leadership naturally implies the existence of a leader and followers as well as their mutual interaction.
• It involves inter-personal relation which sustains the followers accepting the leader’s guidance for accomplishment of specified goals.• Managers have to guide and lead their subordinates towards the achievement of group goals. Therefore, a manager can be more effective if he is good leader. He does not depend only on his positional power or formal authority to secure group performance but exercises leadership influence for the purpose. As a leader he influences the conduct and behaviour of the members of work team in the interest.
• It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.• The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinates behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as leader.• The purpose of managerial leadership is to get willing cooperation of the work group in the achievement of specified goals.• The success of a manager as leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.
Concept of Leadership• Managerial leadership requires that while group goals are pursued, individual goals are also achieved.
IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP• Management is based on the formal authority of managers. Whereas, being leaders of work group enables managers to achieve results on the basis of inter-personal relations. The enables managers to achieve results on the basis of inter-personal relations. The leader manager identifies himself with the work group.
Behavioural Theory• The behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that leaders can be identified by reference to their behaviour in relating to the followers. They are described as ‘employee-centred’ leaders. On the other hand, leaders who are ‘production-centred’ emphasize job performance in conformity with prescribed standards.
Behavioural Theory• Leader followers relations, that is the degree of follower’s trust, confidence and respect for the leader.• The extent to which the task performed by subordinates is routine or non-routine (known as task structure).• The position power of the leader, that is , the power associated with the rank and position of the leader in the organisation.
Behavioural Theory• He defined favourableness of a situation as the degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert his influence over his group.• Another situational theory is the Path-Goal Theory. According to this theory, leaders are effective due to their influence on followers’ motivation, ability to perform, and their satisfaction. Subordinates are motivated by the leader to the extent he is able to influence their expectancies relating to the performance and attractiveness of the goal.
Leardership Styles• There are three basic styles of leadership as follows:• (i) Autocratic or Authoritative Style• (ii) Democratic or Participative Style, and• (iii) Laissez-faire or Free-rein Style
Autocratic or Authoritative Style• An autocratic leader centralises power and decision making in himself and exercises complete control over the subordinates.
Limitations• Several limitations of the autocratic style of leadership.• It results in low morale due to the ineer dissatisfaction of employees.• Efficiency of production goes down in the long run.• It does not permit development of future managers from among capable subordinates.
Democratic or Participative Style• The democratic style is also known as participative style. In this style , decisions are taken by the leader in consultation with the subordinates and with their participation in the decision-making process.
Laissez Faire Leadership StyleLaissez faire leadership style is just the oppositeof autocratic style. A manager, who adopts thisstyle, completely gives up his leadership role.The subordinate group is allowed to makedecisions and it is left to the members of thegroup to do as they like.
Functions of LeadershipThe more important to these functions are givenbelow:-• The develop team work• To act as a representative of the work-group• To act as a counsellor of the people at work• Time management• Proper use of power• Secure effectiveness of group-effort
Effective and Ineffective StylesThe following are regarded as more effectivestyles:-•Executive•Developer•Benevolent Autocrat•Bureaucrat•Compromiser•Missionary•Autocrat•Deserter
Factors Influencing Leadership Effectiveness• The leader’s own personality, past experience and expectations.• The expectations and behaviour of his superiors.• The subordinates’ characteristics, expectations and behaviour.• The requirements of tasks to be performed by subordinates.• Expectations and behaviour of fellow managers(peers).• Organisational culture(climate) and policies.
Qualities of an Effective Leader• Mental and physical health• Empathy• Self-confidence• Awareness of others’ opinion about himself• Objectivity• Knowledge and Intelligence• Decisiveness• Ability to Communicate• Sense of purpose and responsibility• Other qualities