FREUDIANISM THEORYReynier A. OlivaresIV – 9 BSE - English
Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) He was born as Sigismund Schlomo Freud on May 6, 1856 at Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia His parents are Jacob Freud, 41, and Amalié, 21. He married Martha Bernays and had 6 children namely Mathilde, Jean- Martin, Oliver, Ernst, Sophie, a nd Anna.
Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis He loved literature and was proficient in German, French, Italian, Spanish, English, He brew, Latin and Greek. Carl Jung initiated the rumor that a romantic relationship may have developed between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays. He suggested to Fliess in 1897 that addictions, including that to tobacco, are substitutes for masturbation, "the one great habit"
FREUDIANISM- is mainly based on the Psychoanalytic Theory developed by Sigmund Feud. His work concerning the structure and the functioning of the human mind had far reaching significance, both practically and scientifically, and it continues to influence contemporary thought.
DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Freud greatly admired his philosophy tutor Theodor Lipps, who was one of the main contemporary theorists of the concepts of the unconscious and empathy. He adopted the approach of his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuer, in a use of hypnosis. By 1896 Freud had abandoned hypnosis and was using the term "psychoanalysis" to refer to his new clinical method and the theories on which it was based.
He formulated the “Freud’s Seduction Theory” which soon was developed to “Oedipus Complex Theory”. This theory was initiated after his father’s death when he faced medical problems and realized the hostility towards his father and his sexual feelings towards his mother through his dreams. (Oedipal or Castration complex)
PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse". He further argued that, as humans develop, they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development.
Freud stated explicitly that the concept of the unconscious was based on the theory of repression. He postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed, but remain in the mind, removed from consciousness yet operative, then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances.
EROGENOUSSTAGE AGE RANGE CONSEQUENCES ZONEOral Birth to 1 year Mouth Orally old aggressive Orally passive: Smoking, eating, kissing, oral sexual practices Passive, gullible, immature, manipulative
Anal 1 to 3 years old Bowel and Anal retentive: bladder Obsessively elimination organized or excessively neat Anal expulsive: reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized
Phallic 3 to 6 years Genitalia Oedipus old complex Electra complexLatency 6 years old to Dormant Sexual puberty sexual feelings unfulfillmen t if fixation occurs in this stage
Genital Puberty to Sexual Frigidity, death interests impotence, mature unsatisfactory relationship
ID, EGO, and SUPER EGO The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, child-like portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it seeks immediate pleasure and gratification. The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche, which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for a given situation.
The rational ego attempts to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical morality of the super-ego.
FAMOUS FOLLOWERS Julie Andrews - singer, actress Bernardo Bertolucci - Italian movie director (The Last Emperor; Last Tango in Paris; The Little Buddha; etc.) Sergei Eisenstein - influential Russian film director, pioneer of montage film editing Marie Bonaparte - princess, French psychoanalysist Anna Freud - daughter of the founder; helped establish child psychoanalysis Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson - Sanskrit specialist who embraced Freudianism; important writer about history of Freudian psychoanalysis; wrote about emotional life of animals and sexual abuse Otto Rank - Austrian psychologist who extended Freudian/psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth, art Jean-Paul Sartre - French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic Wilhelm Reich - founder of Reichianism, also known as Orgonomy, a belief system centered on sexual climax
FREUDIANISM IN MYTHOLOGY (Oedipus Rex by Sophocles) Oedipus, in Greek mythology, king of Thebes, is the son ofLaius and Jocasta King and Queen of Thebes. Laius waswarned by the oracle of Apollo at Dephi that he would bekilled by his own son. Determined to avert his fate, Laiuspierced and bound together the feet of his newborn child andleft him to die on a lonely mountain. The infant was rescued bya shepherd, however, and given to Polybus, king ofCorinth, who named the child Oedipus (swollen foot) andraised him as his own son. The boy did not know that he wasadopted, and when an oracle proclaimed that he would kill hisfather, he left Corinth. In the course of his wanderings he metand killed Laius, believing that the king and his followers werea band of robbers, and thus unwittingly fulfilled the prophecy.
Lonely and homeless, Oedipus arrived at Thebes, whichwas beset by a dreadful monster called the Sphinx. Thefrightful creature frequented the roads to the city, killingand devouring all travelers who could not answer theriddle that she put to them: What walks on four legs in themorning, on two legs at noon, and on three legs in theevening? The answer was a human being, who in infancycrawls on all fours, in adulthood walks upright on two legsand in old age uses a cane. When Oedipus solved herriddle, the Sphinx killed herself. Believing that King Laiushad been slain by unknown robbers, and grateful toOedipus for ridding them of the Spinx, the Thebansrewarded Oedipus by making him their king and givinghim Queen Jocasta as his wife. For many years the couplelived in happiness, not knowing that they were reallymother and son.
Then a terrible plague descended on the land, and theoracle proclaimed that Laius’ murderer must bepunished. Oedipus soon discovered that he hadunknowingly killed his father. In grief and despair at herincestuous life, Jocasta killed herself, and when Oedipusrealized that she was dead and that their children wereaccursed, he put out his eyes and relinquished the throne.He live in Thebes for several years but was finallybanished. Accompanied by his daughter Antigone, hewandered for many years. He finally arrived at Colonus, ashrine near Athens sacred to the powerful goddessescalled the Eumenides. Oedipus died at this shrine, afterthe god Apollo had promised him that the place of hisdeath would remain sacred and would bring great benefitto the city of Athens, which had given shelter to thewanderer.