Kohlberg’s Stagesof Moral Development Created by Reni Prastiwi Andayani
Lawrence Kohlberg Born in 1927, grew up in Bronxville, New York and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts. In 1948, enrolled at the Kohelberg is a close University of Chicagofollower of Piaget. and has taught at theAccordingly, Kohlbergs University of Chicagotheoretical positions, (1962-1968) and, sinceincluding that on 1968, has been atdevelopmental change, Harvard University.reflect those of his mentor.
The Stage ConceptKohlberg criterias :1. Qualitatively different ways of thinking2. Structured wholes3. Progress in an invariant sequence4. Can be characterized as hierarchic integrations5. Cross-cultural universals
Kohlberg’s stages Kohlberg have three levels and six stages of moral developmentLevel 1. PreconventionMorality Level III. Post conventional Level II. Conventional Morality Morality
Level 1. Preconvention Morality Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation At this stage, childrenthink of what is right as thatwhich authority says is right.Doing the right thing isobeying authority andavoiding punishment
Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange Children are no longer soimpressed by any singleauthority, they see that thereare different sides to any issue.Since everything is relative, oneis free to pursue ones owninterests, although it is oftenuseful to make deals andexchange favors with others.
Level II. Conventional MoralityIn this level at stage 3 and 4,Young people think as membersof the conventional society withits values, norms, andexpectations
Stage 3. Good InterpersonalRelationshipsThey emphasize being agood person, which Stage 4.basically means having Maintaining thehelpful motives toward Social Orderpeople close to one The concern shifts toward obeying laws to maintain society as a whole.
Level III. Post conventional Morality In this level at stages 5 and 6 people are less concerned with maintaining society for it ownsake, and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society.
Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual RightsThey emphasizebasic rights and Stage 5. Social Contractthe democratic and Individual Rightsprocesses thatgive everyone a They define thesay. principles by which agreement will be most just.
Kohlberg has also tried to relate his moral stages toother forms of cognition. He has first analyzed hisstages in terms of their underlying cognitive structuresand has then looked for parallels in purely logical andsocial thought. For this purpose, he has analyzed hisown stages in terms of implicit role-taking capacities,capacities to consider others viewpoints (Kohlberg,1976; see also Selman, 1976, and Rest, 1983).
THANK YOUSource:W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development.Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136.