Oracle OCP 考试系列培训                 之          1Z0-007 Lesson4                          www.OracleOnLinux.cn4-1   Copyright ...
4              Reporting Aggregated Data              Using the Group Functions4-2   Copyright © 2012,   www.OracleOnLinux...
Objectives      After completing this lesson, you should be able to do      the following:       • Identify the available ...
What Are Group Functions?      Group functions operate on sets of rows to give one      result per group.        EMPLOYEES...
Types of Group Functions      •   AVG      •   COUNT      •   MAX                                                    Group...
Group Functions: Syntax      SELECT    [column,] group_function(column), ...      FROM      table      [WHERE    condition...
Using the AVG and SUM Functions      You can use AVG and SUM for numeric data.      SELECT AVG(salary), MAX(salary),      ...
Using the MIN and MAX Functions      You can use MIN and MAX for numeric, character, and      date data types.      SELECT...
Using the COUNT Function      COUNT(*) returns the number of rows in a table:      COUNT(*      SELECT COUNT(*)           ...
Using the DISTINCT Keyword       •   COUNT(DISTINCT expr) returns the number of           distinct non-null values of the ...
Group Functions and Null Values           Group functions ignore null values in the column :                              ...
Creating Groups of Data       EMPLOYEES                                         4400                                      ...
Creating Groups of Data:                      GROUP BY Clause Syntax       SELECT    column, group_function(column)       ...
Using the GROUP BY Clause       All columns in the SELECT list that are not in group       functions must be in the GROUP ...
Using the GROUP BY Clause       The GROUP BY column does not have to be in the       SELECT list.        SELECT   AVG(sala...
Grouping by More Than One Column       EMPLOYEES                                         Add the                          ...
Using the GROUP BY Clause                       on Multiple Columns       SELECT   department_id dept_id, job_id, SUM(sala...
Illegal Queries                        Using Group Functions       Any column or expression in the SELECT list that is not...
Illegal Queries                        Using Group Functions       •   You cannot use the WHERE clause to restrict groups....
Restricting Group Results       EMPLOYEES                                      The maximum                                ...
Restricting Group Results                      with the HAVING Clause       When you use the HAVING clause, the Oracle ser...
Using the HAVING Clause       SELECT      department_id, MAX(salary)       FROM        employees       GROUP BY    departm...
Using the HAVING Clause       SELECT      job_id, SUM(salary) PAYROLL       FROM        employees       WHERE       job_id...
Nesting Group Functions       Display the maximum average salary:       SELECT      MAX(AVG(salary))       FROM        emp...
Summary       In this lesson, you should have learned how to:        • Use the group functions COUNT, MAX, MIN, and AVG   ...
Practice 4: Overview       This practice covers the following topics:        • Writing queries that use the group function...
Practice 4       Q1:The CUSTOMERS table has these columns:       Q1:The       CUSTOMER_ID        NUMBER(4)         NOT NUL...
Practice 4       Q1:       You need to determine how dispersed your customer       base is. Which expression finds the num...
Practice 4       Q2:       Which clause should you use to exclude group       results?       A.   WHERE       B.   HAVING ...
Practice 4       Q3: Which two are true about aggregate functions?       (Choose two.)       A. You can use aggregate func...
Practice 4       Q3:       D. You can pass column names, expressions,       constants, or functions as parameters to an   ...
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Lesson04 学会使用分组函数

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Oracle OCP考试之007第4章,学会使用分组函数

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Lesson04 学会使用分组函数

  1. 1. Oracle OCP 考试系列培训 之 1Z0-007 Lesson4 www.OracleOnLinux.cn4-1 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  2. 2. 4 Reporting Aggregated Data Using the Group Functions4-2 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  3. 3. Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: • Identify the available group functions • Describe the use of group functions • Group data by using the GROUP BY clause • Include or exclude grouped rows by using the HAVING clause4-3 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  4. 4. What Are Group Functions? Group functions operate on sets of rows to give one result per group. EMPLOYEES Maximum salary in EMPLOYEES table …4-4 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  5. 5. Types of Group Functions • AVG • COUNT • MAX Group • MIN functions • STDDEV • SUM • VARIANCE4-5 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  6. 6. Group Functions: Syntax SELECT [column,] group_function(column), ... FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY column] [ORDER BY column];4-6 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  7. 7. Using the AVG and SUM Functions You can use AVG and SUM for numeric data. SELECT AVG(salary), MAX(salary), MIN(salary), SUM(salary) FROM employees WHERE job_id LIKE %REP%;4-7 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  8. 8. Using the MIN and MAX Functions You can use MIN and MAX for numeric, character, and date data types. SELECT MIN(hire_date), MAX(hire_date) FROM employees;4-8 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  9. 9. Using the COUNT Function COUNT(*) returns the number of rows in a table: COUNT(* SELECT COUNT(*) COUNT(*1 FROM employees WHERE department_id = 50; COUNT(expr) returns the number of rows with non- null values for the expr: SELECT COUNT(commission_pct),COUNT(salary),COUNT(*) COUNT(commission_pct),COUNT(salary),COUNT( ,COUNT(salary),COUNT(*2 FROM employees; employees;4-9 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  10. 10. Using the DISTINCT Keyword • COUNT(DISTINCT expr) returns the number of distinct non-null values of the expr. • To display the number of distinct department values in the EMPLOYEES table: SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT department_id) FROM employees;4-10 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  11. 11. Group Functions and Null Values Group functions ignore null values in the column : column: SELECT AVG(commission_pct)1 FROM employees; The NVL function forces group functions to include null values: SELECT SUM(commission_pct)/COUNT(*) SUM(commission_pct)/COUNT(* (commission_pct)/COUNT(2 FROM employees; SELECT SUM(commission_pct)/COUNT(commission_pct)3 FROM employees; SELECT AVG(NVL(commission_pct, 0))4 FROM employees; 4-11 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  12. 12. Creating Groups of Data EMPLOYEES 4400 9500 3500 Average salary in EMPLOYEES 6400 table for each department 10033 …4-12 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  13. 13. Creating Groups of Data: GROUP BY Clause Syntax SELECT column, group_function(column) FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY group_by_expression] [ORDER BY column]; You can divide rows in a table into smaller groups by using the GROUP BY clause.4-13 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  14. 14. Using the GROUP BY Clause All columns in the SELECT list that are not in group functions must be in the GROUP BY clause. SELECT department_id, AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id ;4-14 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  15. 15. Using the GROUP BY Clause The GROUP BY column does not have to be in the SELECT list. SELECT AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id ;4-15 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  16. 16. Grouping by More Than One Column EMPLOYEES Add the salaries in the EMPLOYEES table for each job, grouped by department …4-16 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  17. 17. Using the GROUP BY Clause on Multiple Columns SELECT department_id dept_id, job_id, SUM(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id, job_id ;4-17 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  18. 18. Illegal Queries Using Group Functions Any column or expression in the SELECT list that is not an aggregate function must be in the GROUP BY clause: clause: SELECT department_id, COUNT(last_name) FROM employees; SELECT department_id, COUNT(last_name) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00937: not a single-group group function Column missing in the GROUP BY clause4-18 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  19. 19. Illegal Queries Using Group Functions • You cannot use the WHERE clause to restrict groups. • You use the HAVING clause to restrict groups. • You cannot use group functions in the WHERE clause. SELECT department_id, AVG(salary) FROM employees WHERE AVG(salary) > 8000 GROUP BY department_id; WHERE AVG(salary) > 8000 * ERROR at line 3: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here Cannot use the WHERE clause to restrict groups4-19 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  20. 20. Restricting Group Results EMPLOYEES The maximum salary per department when it is greater than $10,000 …4-20 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  21. 21. Restricting Group Results with the HAVING Clause When you use the HAVING clause, the Oracle server restricts groups as follows: 1. Rows are grouped. 2. The group function is applied. 3. Groups matching the HAVING clause are displayed. SELECT column, group_function FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY group_by_expression] [HAVING group_condition] [ORDER BY column];4-21 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  22. 22. Using the HAVING Clause SELECT department_id, MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id HAVING MAX(salary)>10000 ;4-22 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  23. 23. Using the HAVING Clause SELECT job_id, SUM(salary) PAYROLL FROM employees WHERE job_id NOT LIKE %REP% GROUP BY job_id HAVING SUM(salary) > 13000 ORDER BY SUM(salary);4-23 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  24. 24. Nesting Group Functions Display the maximum average salary: SELECT MAX(AVG(salary)) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id;4-24 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  25. 25. Summary In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Use the group functions COUNT, MAX, MIN, and AVG • Write queries that use the GROUP BY clause • Write queries that use the HAVING clause SELECT column, group_function FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY group_by_expression] [HAVING group_condition] [ORDER BY column];4-25 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  26. 26. Practice 4: Overview This practice covers the following topics: • Writing queries that use the group functions • Grouping by rows to achieve more than one result • Restricting groups by using the HAVING clause4-26 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  27. 27. Practice 4 Q1:The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: Q1:The CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_NAME VARCHAR2(100) NOT NULL STREET_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(150) CITY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) STATE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) PROVINCE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) COUNTRY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) POSTAL_CODE VARCHAR2(12) CUSTOMER_PHONE VARCHAR2(20) The CUSTOMER_ID column is the primary key for the table.4-27 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  28. 28. Practice 4 Q1: You need to determine how dispersed your customer base is. Which expression finds the number of different countries represented in the CUSTOMERS table? A. COUNT(UPPER(country_address)) B. COUNT(DIFF(UPPER(country_address))) C. COUNT(UNIQUE(UPPER(country_address))) D. COUNT DISTINCT UPPER(country_address) E. COUNT(DISTINCT (UPPER(country_address)))4-28 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  29. 29. Practice 4 Q2: Which clause should you use to exclude group results? A. WHERE B. HAVING C. RESTRICT D. GROUP BY E. ORDER BY4-29 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  30. 30. Practice 4 Q3: Which two are true about aggregate functions? (Choose two.) A. You can use aggregate functions in any clause of a SELECT statement. B. You can use aggregate functions only in the column list of the SELECT clause and in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. C. You can mix single row columns with aggregate functions in the column list of a SELECT statement by grouping on the single row columns.4-30 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
  31. 31. Practice 4 Q3: D. You can pass column names, expressions, constants, or functions as parameters to an aggregate function. E. You can use aggregate functions on a table, only by grouping the whole table as one single group. F. You cannot group the rows of a table by more than one column while using aggregate functions.4-31 Copyright © 2012, www.OracleOnLinux . All rights reserved. OracleOnLinux OracleOnLinux.cn
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