Plasma gasification - - breaking down matterat the atomic level by exposing it to very high temperature plasma arcs
Raw biomass has relatively low-energy density, too much moisture, is too hygroscopic, can rot during storage and difficult to grind into small particles. Numerous pre-treatment methods have been suggested, key being torrefactionTorrefaction results in:Increased energy densityDecreased volumeof biomassDecreased amount of volatilesIncreased amount of fixed carbon
Biomass Power Generation : Recent Trends in Technology and Future Possibilities NarasimhanSanthanam Energy Alternatives India, www.eai.in
Imperatives Environmentally sustainable electricity production Electricity for rural and remote areas Socially beneficial electricity production More reliable electricity production from renewable sources
Prospective Solutions Distributed electricity generation Electricity generation with less GHG emissions Combining synergistic revenue streams for economically sustainable power production Combining different renewable energy sources for power generation to ensure stability and reliability
Role of Biomass in the Solutions Wide range of biomass feedstock Waste biomass and energy crops available in a distributed manner Biomass as a feedstock instead of fossil fuels at power plants Possibility of useful products such as biofertilizers and biofuels along with electricity Flexibility to integrate biomass with other renewable sources such as solar and wind.
Biomass-based Power Gen Processes and Technologies Gasification and pyrolysis Use of biomass as partial feedstock in power plants for co-firing Anaerobic digestion
Tech, Processes & Solutions Combining different renewable energy sources for power generation to ensure stability and reliability Gasification and pyrolysis Combining synergistic revenue streams for economically sustainable power production Anaerobic digestion Distributed electricity generation Use of biomass as partial feedstock in power plants for co-firing Electricity generation with less GHG emissions
Gasification and Pyrolysis Scalable Biomass agnostic Distributed electricity generation Production of valuable co-products such as biochar An established technology with potential for innovations
Gasification/Pyrolysis – Current Trends Current Types of gasifiers - Updraft; downdraft; Fluidized bed; Entrained flow. Also: One stage and two stage gasifiers High temperature treatment for easy removal of ash contaning heavy metals. Electric power generated in engines and gas turbines, which are cheaper and more efficient than the steam cycle used in incineration
Use of Biomass for Co-firing in Power Plants Less net GHG emissions compared to 100% coal power plants Over 200 power plants worldwide using it Could be a critical route used by power plants in the short and medium term as an important GHG reduction strategy
Biomass Cofiring – Current Trends Current Max 20% biomass used Process and material improvements for increased efficiency and decrease costs Many technical bottlenecks in biomass co-firing are ash related; dedicated toolboxes are being developed to tackle these
Torrefaction - thermal treatment of raw biomass materials in temperature range 200-300 C under inert atmosphere with aim of partial decomposition. A charcoal-like fuel is the result.
Anaerobic Digestion Can use waste biomass that present disposal problems Can be a distributed avenue for power generation Suitable for industrial and domestic waste biomass
AD – Current and Future Trends Current Modifications in reactor designs and processes for higher efficiency of digestion Newer and more efficient gas engines Future Using the AD effluent to grow biofuel feedstock such as algae
Other Trends and Innovations Use of renewable energy such as solar thermal to produce syngas New technologies and processes for biomass harvesting, processing and handling. Dedicated energy crops for power production Innovations in biomass logistics and transportation.
Inference Biomass has the potential to be a more significant contributor to the world’s “green” electricity For this to happen, significant advances in technology and processes are required The pace at which advances are taking place are less than satisfactory; higher governmental and industry support for R&D and incentives required
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