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Development Geography II

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Winning presentation about the development of Liberia and 3 other countries compared.

Winning presentation about the development of Liberia and 3 other countries compared.

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  • 1. Development Geography II
    Post-conflict countries in Africa
    Rwanda | Burundi | Liberia | Sierra Leone
    RaykeNelis | Wouke Oprel | René Vermeulen | Afke van der Woude
  • 2. Aim of the paper:
    To answer question:
    Which of the countries Rwanda, Burundi, Liberia and Sierra Leone performed best in the period 1990-2010?
  • 3. Problems:
    “Developed best” is very subjective!
    Different views on what is (and what brings) development.
    How to measure development?
    Is there sufficient data available?
  • 4. Scoring scheme
    The number 1 of one index gets 4 points, number 2 gets 3 points, etcetera.
  • 5. Approaches
    Classical-traditional, Historical Empirical, Alternative/bottom-up
    Not one approach selected, but combination made, because:
    For example:
    World Bank very important for the countries (think of PRSP!) Cl.-Trad.
    A country’s history (violent conflict!!) cannot be left out in analysis. hist.-emp.
    HDI takes basic needs into account.  altern.
  • 6. IndicatorsTo measuredevelopment and compare the countries
    HDI human development
    Health
    Education
    Standard of living
    GDP economic development
    Poverty indicators
    GINI-coefficient inequality
    Migration/refugees/remittances
  • 7. One country as example:
    Liberia
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Early history
    • From 1816 American Colonization Society (ASC) resettled slaves to Africa.
    • 15. 1822 Settlement in Liberia.
    • 16. 1838 Commonwealth of Liberia.
    • 17. 1848 Recognition by other countries  20.000 former slaves migrate from USA.
    • 18. Americo-Liberian elite unequal relation between returned slaves and indigenous groups.
  • History of conflict
    • 1980 Coup d’état by Samuel Doe violent rule
    • 19. 1989/1990 Charles Taylor rebellion “First Round of Liberian Civil War”
    • 20. 1997 peace restored by ECOWAS – Economic Community of West African States
    • 21. 2000 fights resume “Round 2”
    • 22. 2003 peace restored again (ECOWAS & UNMIL – United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia)
    • 23. 2005 first female head of state in Africa; Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
  • Two tracks for analysis:
    Economic Indicators
    “Human” (social) Indicators
  • 24. Economic Indicators 1
    GDP
    GDP per capita (in HDI)
    Sectors change
    Import/export
    Trade balance
  • 25. Economic indicators 2
    Evolution of GDP per capita, 1960 – 2007 (constant 2004 US$).
  • 26. Economic Indicators 3
    Share of different sectors of the GDP in Liberia from 1987 to 2005
    Mind the gap
  • 27. Economic Indicators 4
    Imports and exports in Liberia from 1978 to 2004.
    Mind the gap
  • 28. Economic Indicators 5
    Trade balance of Liberia from 1978 to 2004 in millions US$.
    Trade balance in 2008  -500 million US$
  • 29. Economic Indicators 6
    Real GDP and inflation in Liberia (outlook)
    Recently: influence World’s Credit Crisis.
  • 30. Human Development Index
    HDI trend
  • 31. HDI 2007
  • 32. Inequality
    GINI-coefficient in 2007: 52,6 =
    Very High Level of Social Inequality
    The richest 10% posses over 30% of the country’s income.
    The poorest 10% posses only 2,4% of the country’s income.
  • 33. Poverty
    83,7% below $1,25 a day line extreme poverty
    94,8% below $2 a day.
  • 34. Refugees
    “With the return of the remaining registered internally displaced people (IDPs) in December 2006, the process of resolving Liberia’s internal displacement crisis was considered complete. More than 326,000 IDPs returned to their areas of origin and the 35 camps that had hosted them were officially closed in April 2006, formally marking the end of a 17-year period during which much of Liberia’s population of three million had at some time been internally displaced.”
    International Displacement Monitoring Centre, 2007.
  • 35. Concluding
    Back to comparing scheme:
    Off course, as mentioned before, this system of comparing is highly questionable!
    But it gives a small insight in the comparison between the countries.
  • 36. Final comments
    Liberia has a long way to go from the conflict and as the figures show; recovery comes slow.
    Targets of the PRSP are to rebuild the country’s economy, decrease external debts and improve human living standards for all people.
    Development for all people in all layers of society. (Bottom up-approach)