Development Geography II Post-conflict countries in Africa Rwanda | Burundi | Liberia | Sierra Leone RaykeNelis | Wouke Oprel | René Vermeulen | Afke van der Woude
Aim of the paper: To answer question: Which of the countries Rwanda, Burundi, Liberia and Sierra Leone performed best in the period 1990-2010?
Problems: “Developed best” is very subjective! Different views on what is (and what brings) development. How to measure development? Is there sufficient data available?
Scoring scheme The number 1 of one index gets 4 points, number 2 gets 3 points, etcetera.
Approaches Classical-traditional, Historical Empirical, Alternative/bottom-up Not one approach selected, but combination made, because: For example: World Bank very important for the countries (think of PRSP!) Cl.-Trad. A country’s history (violent conflict!!) cannot be left out in analysis. hist.-emp. HDI takes basic needs into account. altern.
IndicatorsTo measuredevelopment and compare the countries HDI human development Health Education Standard of living GDP economic development Poverty indicators GINI-coefficient inequality Migration/refugees/remittances
Inequality GINI-coefficient in 2007: 52,6 = Very High Level of Social Inequality The richest 10% posses over 30% of the country’s income. The poorest 10% posses only 2,4% of the country’s income.
Poverty 83,7% below $1,25 a day line extreme poverty 94,8% below $2 a day.
Refugees “With the return of the remaining registered internally displaced people (IDPs) in December 2006, the process of resolving Liberia’s internal displacement crisis was considered complete. More than 326,000 IDPs returned to their areas of origin and the 35 camps that had hosted them were officially closed in April 2006, formally marking the end of a 17-year period during which much of Liberia’s population of three million had at some time been internally displaced.” International Displacement Monitoring Centre, 2007.
Concluding Back to comparing scheme: Off course, as mentioned before, this system of comparing is highly questionable! But it gives a small insight in the comparison between the countries.
Final comments Liberia has a long way to go from the conflict and as the figures show; recovery comes slow. Targets of the PRSP are to rebuild the country’s economy, decrease external debts and improve human living standards for all people. Development for all people in all layers of society. (Bottom up-approach)