Lecture 5 Willingness to change
Today <ul><li>Self-determination theory </li></ul><ul><li>Reactance </li></ul><ul><li>Forced compliance </li></ul><ul><li>...
SDT and (sustainable) health behavior
Sustainable health behavior <ul><li>According to SDT, maintenance of behaviours over time requires that patients internali...
Autonomy Intrinsic Motivation <ul><li>Dental hygiene (motivation continuum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not brush your teeth </l...
Induced (forced) compliance <ul><li>Let’s asume you have to do boring task for 1 hour (e.g. take part in health screening ...
Forced compliance experiment: Results Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)
So, undermining effect of extrinsic rewards?
SDT and Obese <ul><li>Intervention for obese children showed that a focus on intrinsic goals of health rather than extrins...
Competence (ability) <ul><li>For internalization to occur a person has to experience the confidence and competence to chan...
Relatedness <ul><li>A sense of being respected, understood, and cared for is essential to forming the experiences of conne...
Competence and Relatedness?
Bench stepping experiment (Chatzisarantis, 2007) <ul><li>Four conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral: participants were ...
Results stepping experiment (Catzisarantis, 2007) <ul><li>Immediately after manipulation attitudes and intentions were mea...
Thou shalt not …
Psychological Reactance  If freedom to engage or not engage in a behavior is threatened or denied, motivational arousal is...
Threat to freedom <ul><li>Motivation to maintain personal freedom creates resistance to persuasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Peop...
Threatened freedom experiment (Silvia, 2006) <ul><li>Message: “Physical exercise is good for you!” followed by several arg...
Results (Silvia, 2006) Source derogation Restoring threatened freedom
Source derogation  Has long term implications for ongoing influence attempts, because the sources of a reactance producing...
Implicit and explicit (anti & pro) smoking messages  Higher score = More negative
Implicit and explicit smoking messages  <ul><li>So when middle and high school-aged students are confronted with explicit ...
Lexical concreteness  <ul><li>Messages stated in concrete terms tend to provide specific details (e.g. “sugar causes obesi...
Effects of controlling and concreteness
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Willingness to change

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Health communication lecture about people\'s willingness to change behavior

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  • Willingness to change

    1. 1. Lecture 5 Willingness to change
    2. 2. Today <ul><li>Self-determination theory </li></ul><ul><li>Reactance </li></ul><ul><li>Forced compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>What do these concepts have in common? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control issue (internal or external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation issue (intrinsic or extrinsic) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. SDT and (sustainable) health behavior
    4. 4. Sustainable health behavior <ul><li>According to SDT, maintenance of behaviours over time requires that patients internalize values and skills for change, and experience self-determination. </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan et al., 2008 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Autonomy Intrinsic Motivation <ul><li>Dental hygiene (motivation continuum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not brush your teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush your teeth because your parents force you to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush your teeth because you feel you have to (guilt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush your teeth because you do not want to have cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush your teeth because you like to do it (self-determined) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Induced (forced) compliance <ul><li>Let’s asume you have to do boring task for 1 hour (e.g. take part in health screening test) </li></ul><ul><li>You are offered either 1 euro or 20 euro to tell others that this is enjoyable and intriguing (so, you have to ‘lie’) </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, you are asked how enjoyable this task was, and if you would do a similar task again ( on a scale from -5 to 5 ). </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think increases the enjoyment of the task and your intention to do this again (offer of 1 euro or 20 euro )? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Forced compliance experiment: Results Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)
    8. 8. So, undermining effect of extrinsic rewards?
    9. 9. SDT and Obese <ul><li>Intervention for obese children showed that a focus on intrinsic goals of health rather than extrinsic goal of attractiveness as reasons for change resulted not only in greater initial weight loss, but also better maintenance over a two-year period (Vansteenkiste, et al., 2007) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Competence (ability) <ul><li>For internalization to occur a person has to experience the confidence and competence to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of competence is facilitated by autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence alone is not sufficient to ensure adherence: it must be accompanied by volition or control </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Relatedness <ul><li>A sense of being respected, understood, and cared for is essential to forming the experiences of connection and trust for internalization to occur </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of relatedness on people’s openness to information and likelihood of complying with recommendations is thus high </li></ul>
    12. 12. Competence and Relatedness?
    13. 13. Bench stepping experiment (Chatzisarantis, 2007) <ul><li>Four conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral: participants were (simply) asked to practice bench-stepping, 3 days per week, for at least 20 minutes each time, over the next 2 months, during their leisure time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete autonomy support: participants read txt about decision to practice bench-stepping (“the choice is up to you”) and signed consent form (“I truly choose to’” ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete autonomy support: same as above with addition of rationale (“doing this activity has been shown to be useful …”) and acknowledgement of feelings (“I know doing this activity is not much fun …”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling: Participants read txt “Now you do not have much choice and you should practice… </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Results stepping experiment (Catzisarantis, 2007) <ul><li>Immediately after manipulation attitudes and intentions were measured </li></ul>
    15. 15. Thou shalt not …
    16. 16. Psychological Reactance If freedom to engage or not engage in a behavior is threatened or denied, motivational arousal is prompted to restore lost freedom (Brehm & Brehm, 1981)
    17. 17. Threat to freedom <ul><li>Motivation to maintain personal freedom creates resistance to persuasion. </li></ul><ul><li>People feel free to hold particular attitudes, to change their attitudes, or to avoid committing to any position </li></ul><ul><li>If a communicator threatens one’s freedom to disagree (“What I am going to tell you now, is very important and you must agree! Smoking is bad for your health!”) , then the ‘freedom to disagree’ can be reasserted by disagreeing (“I will listen but I will decide for myself whether I disagree or not! Smoking is not that bad!”) </li></ul><ul><li>Known as ‘boomerang effect’… </li></ul>
    18. 18. Threatened freedom experiment (Silvia, 2006) <ul><li>Message: “Physical exercise is good for you!” followed by several arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 1 ‘Threat at start’: “Here are my reasons… They’re good reasons, so I know you completely agree with all of them. Because when you think about it you are really forced to agree with me because this is a health issue” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 2 ‘Threat at end’: “So those are my reasons… etc..” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 3 ‘No threat’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect??? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Results (Silvia, 2006) Source derogation Restoring threatened freedom
    20. 20. Source derogation Has long term implications for ongoing influence attempts, because the sources of a reactance producing messages may lose referent power and credibility and thus suffer diminished future influence over their reactant audiences (Miller et al., 2007)
    21. 21. Implicit and explicit (anti & pro) smoking messages Higher score = More negative
    22. 22. Implicit and explicit smoking messages <ul><li>So when middle and high school-aged students are confronted with explicit (overtly persuasive) antismoking messages they are less likely to comply and more likely to engage in smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover (!) when students are confronted with an explicit ‘ prosmoking ’ message they are more likely to reject smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Think about differences in ‘tone of voice’ (implicitness and explicitness) of health ads and commercial ads </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lexical concreteness <ul><li>Messages stated in concrete terms tend to provide specific details (e.g. “sugar causes obesity and tooth decay”) as opposed to abstract vague generalities (“Sugar is bad for you”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See similarity with ‘single action’ or ‘goal’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In contrast to the heated emotive responses as a consequence of controlling language, higher levels of concreteness should pose no threat to self-determination or autonomy </li></ul>
    24. 24. Effects of controlling and concreteness

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