ML, Copyright and Fair Use


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Renee's presentation at ISTE-NECC in Washington, DC on June 28, 2009. Part of a 3-hour program featurinh Kristin Hokanson, Joyce Valenza, and Michael RobbGrieco.

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ML, Copyright and Fair Use

  1. 1. Best Practices for Fair Use for 21st Century Educators<br />Renee Hobbs, Kristin Hokanson, Joyce Valenza<br />and Michael RobbGrieco<br />Media Education Lab, Temple University<br />ISTE-NECC June 28, 2009 | Washington DC<br />
  2. 2. Multimedia Composition is Growing in American Classrooms <br />
  3. 3. …the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate messages in a wide variety of forms<br />…an expanded conceptualization of literacy that includes mass media, popular culture and digital technology<br />Critical Thinking<br />Communication Skills<br />What is Media Literacy?<br />
  4. 4. Technology makes it easy to…<br /><ul><li>Share
  5. 5. Use
  6. 6. Copy
  7. 7. Modify
  8. 8. Distribute
  9. 9. Excerpt/Quote from</li></li></ul><li>Owners forcefully assert their rights to:<br /><ul><li>Restrict
  10. 10. Limit
  11. 11. Charge high fees
  12. 12. Discourage use
  13. 13. Use scare tactics</li></li></ul><li>What is the purpose of <br />
  14. 14. To promote creativity, innovation and the spread of knowledge<br />Article 1 Section 8<br />U.S. Constitution<br />
  15. 15. Copyright Confusion<br />
  16. 16. How Teachers Cope<br />See no Evil<br />Close the Door<br />Hyper-Comply<br />
  17. 17. Problem:<br />Educational Use Guidelines are Confusing!<br />NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS BETWEEN MEDIA COMPANIES AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS<br />Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions<br />Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia<br />Guidelines for the Educational Use of Music<br />
  18. 18. Educational Use Guidelinesare NOT the Law!<br />
  19. 19. The documents created by these negotiated agreements give them “the appearance of positive law. These qualities are merely illusory, and consequently the guidelines have had a seriously detrimental effect. They interfere with an actual understanding of the law and erode confidence in the law as created by Congress and the courts” <br /> --Kenneth Crews, 2001<br />Educational Use Guidelinesare NOT the Law!<br />
  20. 20. It’s time to replace old knowledge<br />with<br />accurate knowledge<br />
  21. 21. The Doctrine of Fair Use<br /> The right to use copyrighted materials freely without payment or permission for purposes such as “criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.”<br /> --Section 107<br /> Copyright Act of 1976<br />
  22. 22. Finally the end to copyright confusion has arrived<br />Funded by the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation<br />
  23. 23.<br />
  24. 24. Organizations Supporting the Code of Best Practices<br />Association for College and Research Libraries (ACRL)<br />National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE)<br />Action Coalition for Media Education (ACME)<br />National Council of Teachers Of English (NCTE)<br />Visual Studies Division<br />International Communication Association (ICA)<br />
  25. 25. Fair Use Policy for NCTE <br />On November 11, 2008, NCTE adopted the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education as the official policy on fair use:<br /> <br />
  26. 26. Five Principles Code of Best Practices in Fair Use <br />Educators can:<br />make copies of newspaper articles, TV shows, and other copyrighted works and use them and keep them for educational use<br />create curriculum materials and scholarship with copyrighted materials embedded<br />share, sell and distribute curriculum materials with copyrighted materials embedded <br />Learners can:<br />use copyrighted works in creating new material<br />distribute their works digitally if they meet the transformativeness standard<br />
  27. 27. Transformative Use is Fair Use<br /> When a user of copyrighted materials adds value to, or repurposes materials for a use different from that for which it was originally intended, it will likely be considered transformative use; it will also likely be considered fair use. Fair use embraces the modifying of existing media content, placing it in new context.  <br />--Joyce Valenza, School Library Journal<br />
  28. 28. Bill Graham Archives vs. Dorling Kindersley, Ltd. (2006)<br />
  29. 29. An Example of Transformative Use<br /> The purpose of the original: To generate publicity for a concert.<br />The purpose of the new work: To document and illustrate the concert events in historical context.<br />
  30. 30. Video Case Studies <br />Elementary School Case Study:<br />P.S. 124, Brooklyn, NY<br />High School Case Study:<br />Upper Merion Area High School <br />King of Prussia, PA<br />College Case Study: <br />Project Look Sharp at Ithaca College<br />Ithaca, NY<br />
  31. 31. Is Your Use of Copyrighted Materials a Fair Use?<br />Did the unlicensed use “transform” the material taken from the copyrighted work by using it for a different purpose than that of the original, or did it just repeat the work for the same intent and value as the original?<br />Was the material taken appropriate in kind and amount, considering the nature of the copyrighted work and of the use?<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. The Code of Best Practices Helps<br /><ul><li> To educate educators themselves about how fair use applies to their work
  34. 34. To persuade gatekeepers, including school </li></ul> leaders, librarians, and publishers, to accept well-founded assertions of fair use<br /><ul><li> To promote revisions to school policies regarding the use of copyrighted materials that are used in education
  35. 35. To discourage copyright owners from threatening or bringing lawsuits
  36. 36. In the unlikely event that such suits were brought, to provide the defendant with a basis on which to show that her or his uses were both objectively reasonable and undertaken in good faith.</li></li></ul><li>
  37. 37. Continue Your Learning<br />Media Education Lab<br /><br />Online community for sharing: <br /><br />Contact: <br />Renee HobbsTemple UniversityMedia Education LabPhiladelphia, PAEmail: renee.hobbs@temple.eduPhone: 215 204-4291<br />
  38. 38. Users’ Rights, Section 107 <br /><br />