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September 2009 Journal Of The Dma Nonprofit Federation
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September 2009 Journal Of The Dma Nonprofit Federation


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  • 1. Volume 12: Issue 3 | September 2009 Charitable Giving Should not be Punished United States Senator John Thune, South Dakota I t is a remarkable statement on the character of the American people that in difficult economic times, individuals give gener- ously to those who are less fortunate than themselves. President Kennedy once said, “The raising of extraordinarily large sums of money, given voluntarily and freely by millions of our fellow Amer- icans, is a unique American tradition.” This spirit of generosity is something we should celebrate and promote, not discourage. Unfor- tunately, the Obama Administration has proposed reducing the tax deduction for charitable giving, which would discourage individu- als from giving money at a time when many are struggling. Charities provide invaluable public services to those in need, es- pecially during difficult economic times. The services provided by charitable organizations are frequently more targeted, more effec- tive, and more sustainable than comparable government services. cont. on page 6 9 Premium Fundraising: Where Art Meets Science Also in 11 State Charity Registration Laws this Issue 16 The Way We Write Is All Wrong 23 New Leadership, New Century: NAACP Case Study 26 Cutting Your Print Newsletter? Think Again! And MORE...
  • 2. 2009 Leadership Following are the members of the DMA Nonprofit Federation’s Advisory Council: Diana Estremera Chris Ragusa ChAIr May Development Services Estee Marketing Group, Inc. Susan M. Loth Disabled American Veterans (DAV) Karen Gleason Kyla Shawyer American Cancer Society Operation Smile VICe ChAIr Jeanne Harris David Strauss SCA Direct National Wildlife Federation Geoffrey W. Peters CDR Fundraising Group Tom Harrison Atul Tandon Russ Reid Company United Way MeMbers Beth Isikoff Kim Walker Merkle Memorial Sloan-Kettering Mary Arnold Cancer Center ChildFund International Karin Kirchoff Defenders of Wildlife Kathy Ward Vinay Bhagat American Institute for Cancer Convio Mimi LeClair Research Mercy Home for Boys & Girls Jennifer Bielat Easter Seals Steve Maggio sTAFF DaVinci Direct Mary Bogucki Christopher Quinn Amergent Kristin McCurry Executive Director MINDset Direct Brian Cowart Helen Lee ALSAC/St. Jude Matt Panos Senior Director Food for the Hungry Ken Dawson Alicia Osgood InfoCision Management Corporation Chris Paradysz Membership Manager ParadyszMatera News Update Nonprofit Only News & Information Delivered to Your Inbox Each Thursday Contact Alicia Osgood @ to sign-up! MAnAgIng edITor: Alicia Osgood PubLICATIon desIgn: Andy Farkas, SCA Direct
  • 3. Letter from the Executive Director Christopher M. Quinn, Executive Director Much has transpired in the nonprofit and charitable sector since our last issue. Before delv- ing into those matters, however, I want to thank everyone who attended our 2009 New York Nonprofit Conference. It was a stellar program and truly wonderful to see so many people from around the country. Our speakers received overwhelmingly positive reviews and the networking event at Papillon Bistro made for a terrific time. None of these good times would have been possible without the extraordinary work of the con- ference co-chairs, Lynn Edmonds of LW Robbins Associates, Independent Fundraising Consul- tant Margaret Carter and Craig Zeltsar of NNE Marketing. Lynn, Margaret and Craig were sup- ported by an extraordinarily dedicated Planning Committee who overcame any obstacle in their way. Everyone involved brought their A game to the table and for that we are most grateful. In the midst of the conference, the Federation formally welcomed our new Advisory Council leadership into their roles. Susan Loth of Disabled American Veterans is now Chair of the Advisory Council and Geoffrey Peters of CDR Fundraising Group is now Vice Chair. We also welcomed three new members to the Advisory Council: Ken Dawson of InfoCision Management Corporation, Karen Gleason of American Cancer Society and Kyla Shawyer of Operation Smile. With such an immensely talented and accomplished group of people behind us, there is no limit to what the Federation will achieve in the coming year. We also said farewell to outgoing Ad- visory Council Chair Jo Sullivan of ASPCA as well as another long time menber of the Council, Joan Wheatley of Special Olympics. They will be missed. Technology is something that has changed here as well. The DMA Nonprofit Federation has em- braced the times and expanded our reach by entering the world of social networking. The Federa- tion has its very own LinkedIn group and Twitter account. Links to sign-up for both our LinkedIn group and to follow us on Twitter are available on our website Be on the lookout for new and improved communications as we refine our methods to keep you informed in the most efficient and effective way. You will find this Journal a bit thicker than past issues. Look for expert advice on acquisition, harvesting the power of online and the brave new world of fundraising via social networking. A hallmark of each issue will be a Legislative and Regulatory section. Coverage will include pending legislation and articles by elected of- ficials, such as this issue’s cover article by United States Senator John Thune of South Dakota. I hope you enjoy this edition of the Journal. We welcome any feedback you have on this or any future issue. Yours truly, Christopher M. Quinn Executive Director 3
  • 4. Friends for Life A Partnership That Creates Lasting Relationships Our experts in direct response fundraising strategy and database analysis help you turn prospects into donors and turn donors into Friends for Life. • Strategic Direct Marketing • Flexible Database Management • Insightful Analytics • Award-Winning Creative 9 Centennial Drive, Peabody, MA 01960-7927 • If you are looking for new fundraising solutions, please call Jack Doyle at 1-800-370-7500. 4
  • 5. PubLIC PoLICy sCoreCArd unITed sTATes tax rates increase to 36% or 39.6%. The modified version would then keep authority to pursue those who assist others in violating the FTC act. Our PosTAL serVICe: the deduction rates at 33% and 35% staff continues to monitor this legisla- instead of rising with the tax rates. tion as it moves forward and will keep The United States Postal Service con- Our staff and the DMANF-lead Coali- you apprised of further developments. tinues to experience unprecedented tion continue to monitor this issue declines in mail volume and revenue and meet with members of Congress and projects a net loss of $7 billion stating our firm opposition to any onLIne behAVIorAL this fiscal year. The Government Ac- disincentive to give. AdVerTIsIng: countability Office has again placed the financial condition of the Postal Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA) Service on its High-Risk List. Faced ConsuMer is the collection of information for with such daunting challenges, the FInAnCIAL the marketing of offers or charitable Postal Service has launched programs solicitations based on a user’s pref- with incentive pricing for increased ProTeCTIon erences while online. Privacy and volume including the current Summer AgenCy ACT: other interest groups are advocating Sale. Congress has also examined for increased regulation of behavioral several options to ease the financial The Administration has proposed a advertising. In response to calls from burden including a restructuring of bill, the Consumer Financial Protec- the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) payments to the Retiree Health Ben- tion Agency Act (CFPA), which would to develop more far-reaching self- efit Fund (introduced as HR 22 and S give sweeping authority to a newly regulatory guidelines for behavioral 1507) as well as studying the impact created agency to protect consumers advertising, DMA and a coalition of reducing the number of days of in the financial services and products of key trade groups have released delivery to five days a week from the area by transferring authority from a comprehensive privacy principles for current six. number of existing federal agencies, the use and collection of behavioral including the FTC, to the new agency. data in online advertising. The new As currently written, the CFPA is too principles are the result of an unprec- ChArITAbLe broad and goes beyond consolidating edented collaboration of representa- deduCTIon: the actions of the financial regulators tives from the entire marketing-media in one agency, and includes broad community.  These principles will As the debate continues on Health authority over the advertising and be incorporated into DMA Member Care Reform through its August marketing of a wide range of financial Guidelines. recess, Congress searches for a way products and services, which could to provide adequate financing for this potentially include many nonprofit For questions or concerns, please legislation. Although currently not organizations. CFPA would also give contact Chris Quinn at 202.861.2410 found in any legislation, reducing the the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or via email CQuinn@the-dma. charitable deduction rate for those greater rulemaking powers in these org. Also contact Alicia Osgood at who make over $250,000 from 35% to areas, as well as expand the scope 202.861.2427 or via email AOsgood@ 28% remains an option. There is also of the FTC’s remaining enforcement if you are not already a modified version of this proposal authority over non-financial activ- receiving our weekly News Update. which would take effect in 2011 when ity. CFPA would also give the FTC 5
  • 6. Charitable giving Protecting the full tax deduction for should not be Punished charitable giving should be a top continued from cover legislative priority for the nonprofit I am not suggesting that people make sector. President Obama’s Fiscal charitable donations solely in the Year 2010 Budget proposed reduc- interest of receiving a tax break. In- ing the deduction, and the President stead, Congress has long used the tax and administration budget officials code as a means to facilitate charita- have continually defended the pro- Nonprofit Day at ble giving. While the charitable dona- posal. Earlier this year, I offered a DMa09 tion deduction is not the primary mo- “Sense of the Senate” resolution as an tivation for generosity, any decrease amendment to the National Service October 19, 2009 | San Diego, CA Bill that expressed support for the in the deduction will limit potential philanthropy, with the beneficiaries preservation of the full deduction for of charitable organizations suffering charitable giving. Unfortunately, the What’s for the most. amendment failed in the Senate by a single vote. you at DMa09? In 2007, Americans gave more than The issue was again debated in the $300 billion, roughly two percent of how about a whole day our gross domestic product, to chari- Senate when the FY2010 budget was designed with your issues table causes. Roughly three-fourths of considered. I again offered an amend- and concerns in mind. these donations came from individu- ment to preserve the full tax deduc- als. This scale of generosity is un- tion for charitable giving, and this Experience sessions designed for time the amendment was successful nonprofit direct marketers and matched in the world. It is estimated fundraisers such as: that 70 percent of American house- by an overwhelming, bipartisan 94 to holds make charitable contributions 3 vote. Unfortunately, my amendment Creating Loyalty Through was not included in the final budget Experience on an annual basis. resolution. Advanced Fundraising: Studies of the reduction of the What’s Next for Direct The issue of tax deductions for chari- charitable tax deduction proposed Marketing table giving is not likely to go away. A by President Obama earlier this year struggling economy means more fami- You’ll also get your creative juices indicate a reduction in charitable giv- flowing while walking the exhibit lies and individuals will need extra ing by as much as $8 to $16 billion hall floor and collaborating with assistance, which will lead to further your colleagues in an exclusive annually. To impose these losses on strain on the budgets of charitable nonprofit networking reception. charities at a time when the troubled organizations. I am confident that economy is already costing charitable Americans will continue to be gener- To RSVP for this event, contact organizations billions of dollars would Helen Lee at 202.861.2496 or ous with charitable donations and vol- be disastrous. via email at unteer work to help the less fortunate, and I believe the federal government The Foundation Center, a leading should remain dedicated to facilitat- authority on American philanthropy, ing private acts of charity and com- recently released a report detailing passion. Together, we must continue the severe impact of the economic October 17 -- 22, 2009 to raise awareness of this issue in the downturn on charitable organizations. San Diego Convention Center United States Congress to ensure that According to the report, foundations San Diego, California the unique American tradition of giv- lost over $150 billion in assets in ing continues.   for more information visit, 2008. A recent survey of 900 non- profit organizations found that only John Thune represents the state of South 12 percent of surveyed organizations Dakota in the United States Senate. expected to finish 2009 with an op- Thune serves on the Agriculture, Nutrition Mention Keycode NPJ & Forestry Committee, the Armed Services erating surplus, compared to the 40 when signing up. Committee, the Commerce, Science & percent that ended the year with an Transportation Committee, and the Small operating surplus in 2008. Business Committee. DMA09_NonProfit Ad_Journal.indd 1 8/18/09 3:36:53 PM 6
  • 7. The shortest distance between you and your next donor. Direct Mail Insert & Print Media Marketing Analytics 7
  • 8. Mark your Calendars! ook the key to g reat fundra Messages ising Friends Search Settings Enter your status: The Integr ated Futur e is NOW Friends (v iew all) uture Direct Mail Social Networking Print Publication E-Mail s he limit!” 2010 Washington Nonprofit Conference Television Fundraising , Events SMS Telemarketi ation, The Integrated Future is NOW n g Message B January 28 oa29, 2010 – rd it Renaissance Washington DC Hotel | Washington, DC it. Social Netw orking wrote : Welcome a uis b oard! t. DMA_Wash_Ad_NPF AD.indd 1 8/7/09 3:12:08 PM bus 8
  • 9. Premium Fundraising Where ArT MeeTs sCIenCe By Megan Gibeau and Andrea Manseau, PEP Direct U sing premiums in fundraising makes sense. As mailboxes become increasingly crowded, adding some bulk to a fundraising package that is well designed may be what gets your mail piece opened. Sometimes, the desire to see what gift lies within is enough motivation to open the envelope. As numerous nonprofit organizations would agree, choosing the right premium for your donors is not always easy. This is where art and science come together. Whether you’re choosing a premium to illustrate your mission, the season, or your donors’ interests, effectively using them throughout your program will allow you to increase and retain your donor base more rapidly. To create the right combination, you need a mix of eye-catching art, compelling copy and a premium that relates to your donors. Knowing why your donors identify with and give to your organization is important. This will help you determine what your particular constituents identify with, since the premiums that work for one organization might not work for yours. Or, what previously didn’t work might work now. The Guideposts Foundation learned this when they retested a greeting card package against the longstanding stacked premium control. By replacing the notepad, labels and bookmark package with five all occasion cards, the organization saw a lift in response of 84 percent. With the results of previous mailings as your guide, the trick is to continually test and retest. If you have a control that is showing signs of fatigue, there are several ways to reinvigorate that campaign, such as testing a backend premium against the control. A small sports membership organization did that with success. Their backend offer of a T-shirt at the $35 gift level raised both response and average gift. The offer, which mailed in conjunction with a name label package, beat their existing control name label package without the backend offer. Before moving forward with a back end offer, however, it is imperative that you work all of the fulfillment details out in advance. Fulfilling an offer within the promised timeframe will build trust with your donors, and in turn strengthen their relationship with your organization. Another way to strengthen a donor’s relationship with your organization is to offer premiums as a way of saying “thank you.” For major or frequent givers, it is important to recognize their continued and future support. As it is less expensive to renew a donor than it is to acquire 9
  • 10. one, creating loyal donors through mind. The format you choose noticed and opened, the first step sending a high velocity or logo- may bump you into another mail towards creating a donor for life. treated premium is beneficial to your class, resulting in higher postage organization. than you have budgeted for the Megan Gibeau is Vice President, program. Strategic and Client Services, Some other things you should do • Ignoring what other fundraisers and Andrea Manseau is Sales & when selecting a premium for your are mailing. Remember that Marketing Specialist for PEP Direct, program are: what is working for them might a full-service direct marketing agency not work for you, but they can specializing in strategic premium • Try different types of premiums. serve as a reference and be the fundraising.  They can be reached Usable premiums, such as inspiration for your next strategic at and notepads and name & address breakthrough. labels will work for some • Assuming that the premium that programs, while response works for one donor segment will enhancers like decals and work for all. Maybe men and LET US HELP GROW photo cards will work in others. YOUR PROGRAM SO YOU CAN Remember, though, that finding You need a mix of the premium with the right fit will SLEEP BETTER take some testing and time. eye-catching art, AT NIGHT • Capitalize on holiday-related premiums or significant compelling copy and a times of year with ties to your organization. National awareness premium that relates days and months connected to to your donors. your mission are great times to reach out to your donors. women respond differently to • Be objective when choosing your calendars or greeting cards, or premiums. Sometimes the most different age groups respond to Your organization depends on you effective programs don’t resonate different art. Keep testing until for the membership growth and with you or your agency, but they you find the right mix. fundraising results that power its work with your donors. • Expecting the premium to single- mission. That’s a lot of pressure. • Test a premium in a weaker handedly improve your results. It You need an agency that takes that appeal slot. It might be the extra needs to work in concert with the responsibility as seriously as you something needed to make that rest of the elements. do—one that has the cross-channel appeal more successful. • Disregarding the advice of your marketing knowledge and creativity • Test and retest! A premium that agency. They have experience to deliver those results. works for another organization working across different types of might not work for yours. Also organizations and their insights Maybe that’s why our clients’ remember to test other elements may prove invaluable. programs are growing by leaps and of the package, such as gift ask bounds—and their bottom lines are strings, copy and art. Using premiums has worked for growing even faster. many large, established nonprofits, as Sleep better tonight—call Ned While all of the above points will well as many smaller, regional ones. Shannon today at 1-800-965-0577. get you on the path toward a thriving Approaching the process of choosing We’re ready to stay awake nights so premium program, there are many the premiums for your fundraising you don’t have to. factors that could derail your program with both art – a beautifully success: and aptly designed package with gripping copy – and science – results • Forgetting to keep postal and testing – in mind is the best requirements and costs in thing you can do to get your mail An Inc. 500/5000 Marketing Services Agency 10 Contact: Jen Parker, Director of Customer Relations Bleed: no Client: Nexus Direct Nexus Direct, 2101 Parks Ave., Suite 600 Trim: 2.25” x 7” Job: DMA Journal Ad Sept. 2009 Virginia Beach, VA 23451
  • 11. 990 9 Program principal officer: OMB No. 1545-004710 Investment income (Part F Name and address ofservice revenue (Part VIII, line 2g) Reven Re Activities & Governan Return of Organization Exempt From (A), lines 3, 4,Tax 7d) H(b) Are all affiliatesOther revenue (Part No 10 Investment income (Part VIII, column Income and Application pending H(a) Is this a group return for affiliates? Yes 08 Form 11 VIII, 2 Check this box Tax-exempt status:501(c),501(c) Other revenue (Part VIII, columnmoreCode 25%6d,its assets. 10c, and 11e) attach a list. (see instructions) lines 8 if the organization 11 (or 4947(a)(1) no.) the or 4947(a)(1) or (A), than (except 8c, 9c, Under section 527, its operations Internal Revenue lines 5, of black lung discontinued (insert of disposed of 12 Total revenue—add No included? Yes I ) 527 If “No,” 3 Number ofJvoting members of the 12 Total revenue—add lines 81a) Website: governing body (Part VI, line through 11 (must equal Part VIII, column (A), line 1213 number benefit trust or private foundation) 3 ) Open exemption Grants and similar amou H(c) Group to Public Department of the Treasury Internal4 The organization may13 Revenue Service of independent votingCorporation Grants and similar amounts paid (Part1b) column (A),formation: Number K Type of organization: memberstoTrust a governing body (Part VI, line IX, have ofuse copy of this return to satisfy state reporting requirements. the Association 4 14 L Year of lines 1–3) Inspection of legal domicile: to or for m M State Benefits paid Other Expenses 5 Total number of employees (Part beginning A For the 2008 calendar I Part Summary 14 Benefits paid to or for members (Part IX, column (A), line 5 year, or tax year V, line 2a) , 2008, and ending 4) , 20 15 Salaries, other compensat sTATe ChArITy Expenses 15 necessary) 6 ifTotal number of volunteers (estimate if Salaries, other compensation, employee benefits (Part IX, column (A), lines 5–10) number Please C Name of organization 6 D Employer identification 16a Professional fundraising f B Check applicable: 1 Briefly describe the organization’s mission or most significant activities: 7a Total gross unrelated business revenueProfessional fundraisingcolumn (C)IX, column (A), line 11e)7a Address change use IRS label or Doing Business As 16a from Part VIII, line 12, fees (Part b Total fundraising expense b Net unrelated business taxable income Total fundraising expenses (Part IX,Room/suite line 25) E Telephone number Number and street (or P.O.b from Form 990-T, street 34 box if mail is not delivered to line address) column (D), 7b 17 Other expenses (Part IX, Activities & Governance print or Name change type. 17 Other expenses (Part IX, column (A), lines 11a–11d, 11f–24f)) Prior Year Current Year Total expenses. Add line 18 Initial return See ( regIsTrATIon 8 Contributions and grantstown, state orline Total expenses. Add lines 13–17 (must equal Part IX, column (A), line 25) 19 Revenue less expenses. S Specific City or (Part VIII,18 1h) and ZIP + 4 country, Termination Instruc- 2 Check this box if the organization discontinued its operations or disposed of more than 25% of its assets. Revenue Fund Balances 9 Program service revenue (Part VIII,19 Revenue less expenses. Subtract line 18 from line 12 G Gross receipts $ Net Assets or tions. line 2g) 3 Amended return 3 Number of voting members of the governing body (Part VI, line 1a) Fund Balances Beginning of Year Net Assets or 10 Investment F Name and address of principal(A), lines 3, 4, and 7d) income (Part VIII, column officer: 20 Total assets (Part X, line Application pending 4 Number of independent voting members of the governing body (Part H(a) IsVI, a group return for affiliates? Yes 4 this line 1b) No 11 Other revenue (Part VIII, column (A), lines 5, 6d, 8c, (Part10c, and 11e) 20 Total assets 9c, X, line 16) H(b) Are all affiliates included? 21 Total liabilities (Part X, lin Yes 5 No 5 lines number 11employees (Part V, line 2a) 12 Total revenue—add Total 8) throughof21 Total liabilitiesVIII, column (A), line 12 ) LAWs: I Tax-exempt status: 501(c) ( (insert no.) (must4947(a)(1) or (Part X, line 26) equal Part 527 22 Net assets or fund balan 6 Total number of22 Net assets or volunteers (estimate if necessary) If “No,” attach a list. (see instructions) 6 13 Grants and similar amounts paid (Part IX, column (A),fund balances. Subtract line 21 from line 20 number J Website: lines 1–3) Part II Signature Block 7a Total gross unrelated business revenue from Part VIII, line 12, column (C) H(c) Group exemption 7a Under penalties of perjury, I d Part II Signature Block 14 Benefits paid to or Net members (Part IX, column (A), line 4) K Type of organization: for unrelated business Other Corporation b Trust Association What Direct Marketers L Year of formation: taxable income from Form 990-T, line 34 M State of legal domicile: 7b and belief, it is true, correct, Activities & Governance Expenses Under penalties of perjury, I declare that I have examined this return, including accompanying schedules and statements, and to the 15 Part I Salaries, other compensation, employee benefits (Part is true, correct, and complete. Declaration of preparer (other than officer)Year Summary and belief, it IX, column (A), lines 5–10) Prior is based on all information of which prepare Current Year 16a Professional fundraising fees (Part IX, columnor most significant activities: 1 Briefly describe the organization’s mission (A), line 11e) 1h) 8 Contributions and grants (Part VIII, line Sign b Total fundraising expenses (Part IX, column (D), line 25) shoulD tell their clients Sign Here Signature of officer Revenue 9 Program service revenue Signature of officer Here (Part VIII, line 2g) Date 17 Other expenses (Part IX, column (A), lines 11a–11d, 11f–24f) Tony Martignetti, 10 Managing Director (Part VIII, column (A), lines 3, 4, and 7d) LLC Investment income of Martignetti Planned Giving Advisors, Type or print name and t 18 Total expenses. Add lines 13–17 (must equal Part IX, column (A), line 25) 11 Other revenue (Part VIII, column (A), lines 5, 6d, 8c, 9c, 10c, and 11e) 19 Revenue less expenses. Subtract line 18 from line 12 print name and title Type or Preparer’s 2 Check this box 12 Total revenue—add lines 8 through 11 (must disposed of more column (A), lineassets. if the organization discontinued its operations or equal Part VIII, than 25% of its 12 ) A Date of Year Check if signature Fund Balances Beginning of Year End Preparer’s identi Net Assets or prepare your of the governing paid (Part Preparer’s 3 Number s you 13 Grants and similar amountsbody (Part VI, line 1a) (A), lines 1–3) of voting members direct mail, signature website IX, column means different things across the states, but self- email, tation’ 3 Paid the (see instructions) 20 Total assets independent 16) Paid employed of (Part X, line voting to or nonprofit clients, of the governing body (Part VI, line 1b) fall into a few 4 4 Number or other solicitation formembers members (Part IX, column (A), line 4) 14 Benefits paid your for various definitions categories. Preparer’s Firm’s name (or yours 21 Total liabilities of employees (Part V, line 2a) (Part X, line 26)Preparer’s 5 Total number 15 add considerable value to your work benefits (Part IX, column (A), lines 5–10) 5 Use Only if self-employed), Expenses you will Salaries, other compensation,from (or yours 22 Net assets or fund balances. Subtract lineself-employed), employee Firm’s name line 20 Use Only if 21 EIN address, and ZIP + 4 6 Total number 16a Professional fundraising fees (Part IRS of volunteers the implications of new IX, column (A), line 11e) like Arizona, Florida, Illinois, New (estimate if necessary) 6 Part II if you alert your clients to Signature Block address, and ZIP + 4 In many states, 7a May the IRS discuss this ( return) w Phone no. 7a Total gross unrelated business revenue from(Part IX, column (D), line 25)(C) requirementsof perjury, I declare thatincome from laws. VIII, including Jersey and New York, the mere and to the best ofa website Act and Paperwork Red b state charity registration Part thisline 12, with the preparer shown above? (see instructions) b Net unrelatedtrue, correct, taxable Mayhave IRS discuss 990-T, line 34 business expenses Declaration of preparer (other than officer) is based on Form column Under penalties andTotal fundraising theexamined this return, return accompanying schedules and statements, existence of Forknowledge I expenses All 7b my Privacy and belief, it is 17 Otherand complete.(Part IX, column (A), lines 11a–11d, 11f–24f) all information of which preparer has any knowledge. states have laws that require For Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice, seePrioraseparate instructions. Year charities to register with that accepts donations the Year is solicitation. Do your cli- Current Cat. No. 11282Y Sign officials when18 Total expenses.clients cannot stop 18 froments 12 IX, their donorsline 25) giving options? If so, they solicit. Your Add lines 13–17 (must equal Part 8 Contributions 19 Revenue less VIII, line 1h) and grants (Part expenses. Subtract line line offer column (A), online Here Signature of officer they must register in theDate listed states as Year as Revenue fundraising—it’s their lifeblood. Yet they should know above Beginning of well Fund Balances 9 Program service revenue (Part VIII, line 2g) End of Year Net Assets or Investment print name (Part VIII, columnX, line 16) with the 7d) others. how to operate their programs (Part (A), lines 3, 4, and Type or 10 income and title 20 Total assets in compliance laws. Other revenue21 Total liabilities (A), linesline 6d, 8c, 9c, 10c, and 11e) (Part VIII, column (Part X, 5, 26) 11 Check if Date Total revenue—addNet assets or fund(must equal Subtract column from line 20self- Utah to Preparer’s identifying clients send Preparer’s 12 22 lines 8 through 11 balances. Part VIII, line 21 (A), line 12 ) and Add California the list if your (see instructions) number signature employed Paid 13 Grants and similar amounts paid (Partbeen ignored for Part II Signature Block State charity registration laws have IX, column (A), lines 1–3) emails or otherwise encourage donors to go to a web- Preparer’s Benefits paid yours for members of perjury, I column (A), line 4) site where they can make a donation.and statements, and to the best of my knowledge 14 decades. Until or Underthis year, I wouldn’t have Ibeenexamined this return, including accompanying schedules Add in Texas Firm’s name (or to earlier penalties (Part IX, declare that have and belief, it is true, correct, and complete. Declaration of preparer (other than officer) is based on all information of which preparer has any knowledge. EIN Expenses Use Only Salaries, other compensation, employee There is(Partpenalty if your clients encourage online giving through direct 15 allotted space to write about them. benefits no IX, column (A), lines 5–10) if self-employed), address, and ZIP + 4 Phone no. ( ) Sign 16a Professional fundraising feesand the few for breaking most of with (Part IX, column (A), above? (see instructions)phone. line 11e) May the IRS discuss this returnthem the of officer states that have preparer shown mail or by Yes No Here Signature b Total fundraising expenses (Part IX, column (D), line 25) Date penalties Paperwork Reduction Act Notice,has been no For Privacy Act and rarely enforce them, so there see the separate instructions. Cat. No. 11282Y Form 990 (2008) 17 Other expenses (Part IX, column (A), lines 11a–11d, 11f–24f) incentive to comply. lines 13–17 (must and title stepped column Email that requests a gift irrespective of a website is a 18 Total expenses. Add That or print name equal Part IX, in. Type is, until the IRS (A), line 25) 19 Revenue less expenses. Subtract line 18 from line 12 solicitation that triggers registration in all of the above Date Check if Preparer’s identifying number Preparer’s self- This year, the Service’s vastly revised Form 990 comes states plus Massachusetts, Oregon and Washington. (see instructions) Fund Balances signature Beginning of Year employed End of Year Net Assets or Paid 20 Totaleffect, with aX, line 16) into assets (Part few hundred new questions and a Preparer’s 21 Total liabilitiesschedules. name (or 990 is the information score of newOnly Firm’s Form yours Direct mail requesting a donation is a solicitation in Use (Part if self-employed), X, line 26) EIN 22 Net assets or fund balances. Subtract line 21 from line 20 all states and that may have the most significance( for ) return filed annually by nearly all4nonprofits. With address, and ZIP + Phone no. Part II thisSignature Block discussyearsreturn with the preparer shown company’s nonprofit clients. first May thein about 30 this come two questions update IRS your above? (see instructions) Yes No Under penalties of perjury, I declare that I have examined this return, including accompanying schedules and statements, and to the best of my knowledge asking explicitly correct, and complete. Declaration of preparerNotice, see the separateon all information of which preparer has any knowledge. and belief, it is true, about your clients’ compliance with For Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act (other than officer) is based instructions. Cat. No. 11282Y Form 990 (2008) laws where they must register. In order to answer those Form 990 questions, chari- Sign Here Signature of officer ties must research the requirements in every state in Date While it is just two questions, there is a great deal of which they solicit donations. In Part VI of the 990 work Type or print into answering them completely. Do that goes name and title charities are asked for a list of states where they must your clients know where their organizations must reg- Preparer’s fileDate 990. It’s a part of the registration requirements the Check if Preparer’s identifying number self- (see instructions) Paid ister or seek exemption? signature in nearly everyemployed Schedule G asks in which states state. Preparer’s Firm’s name (or yours the charity is registered or if the states have notified Use Only The state registration laws—different in every state them of exemption from registration. EIN if self-employed), and the address, District of Columbia—agree on one thing: and ZIP + 4 Phone no. ( ) May the IRS discuss this returnstatesthe preparer shown above? (see All this brings us to an interesting point. Exemptions nonprofits register in with where they solicit. ‘Solici- instructions) Yes No For Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice, see the separate instructions. Cat. No. 11282Y Form 990 (2008) 11
  • 12. exist in close to all the states; some are quite broad required to register unless they are a government body while others are rather narrow. In many of the states or fundraising for a political cause. But that’s not the that offer exemption, the organization must apply for it most onerous state—or should I say ‘comprehensive?’ and receive a decree that they qualify. In others, the Some jurisdictions, including D.C., Idaho and Indiana, institution decides it is exempt and moves on to the offer no exemptions at all. next state. The federal Form 990 exemptions will shrink over the Where you sit usually determines where you stand in next few years. Currently, every nonprofit with gross these areas. If you are a state or federal regulator, you receipts of at least $1 million or total assets of $2.5 would most likely see narrow exemptions in the best million or more must file the 990. In two years, those interest of the public. Narrow exemptions provide the thresholds will be down to $200,000 and $500,000. broadest protection from charity fraud, but then you If it’s not already there, the Form 990 is coming to a would have to process more registrations. Registration nonprofit near you. Those exempt from the 990 are not is typically processed through a state’s attorney gener- forgotten. There’s a 990EZ, with one registration-lite al or secretary of state. Florida is an exception, where inquiry. registration is processed through the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. In D.C., charities The nonprofit 990 filing requirement is an impetus for work with the Department of Consumer & Regulatory ‘getting right’ with state registration laws where your Affairs and the Office of Tax and Revenue. nonprofit clients solicit donations. The 990 is filed four-and-a-half months after the close of the fiscal year and one of your client’s officers signs it under penalty of perjury. Your clients should Your clients should also want to operate on the right also want to operate side of the law. It’s the right way to do business. on the right side of And while enforcement at the state level is near non- existent, do they want to take the chance that they will end up a test case? Do their board members know the law. It’s the right they are asking them to take that chance? If their charity is not registered where they solicit, it is break- way to do business. ing the law. Under the principles of fiduciary duty, the charity’s board members can be held individually liable. Regulators and legislators alike might favor limited Most states don’t have penalties but some do. Further- exemptions because they increase revenue. There are more, in some states the penalty is part of the criminal fees for registration, which, for the largest nonprof- code. In Florida you are looking at a 3rd degree felony its, can run as high as $400 in Florida and $300 in and an up to $5,000 fine. There is the potential for California. Like many others, fees in those states are jail time as well—it’s a felony. And Florida offers very graduated based on gross revenue in a year. A few limited exemptions: soliciting for a named individual thoughtful states base the fee on revenue from within (think child’s cancer treatment fund) or only from the their borders. Surprisingly, New York’s price tag is a organization’s members. That’s it. Likewise, in Ari- low $25 for all comers, plus another $25 for the larg- zona, Pennsylvania and Washington, noncompliance est. Perhaps I shouldn’t publicize that… is criminal. In most states the penalties are civil, so while there will be no perp walk for your clients’ CEOs Not surprisingly, nonprofits are looking for the widest and CFOs, the fines can be hefty. For instance, fines exemptions. Nonprofits come in all stripes and in- run as high as $25,000 in Georgia. clude broad charitable missions like education, health care and religion. In Arizona, though, your clients are To stay on the right side of these laws requires more 12
  • 13. than initial registration. Notice that I slipped an ad- I suggest a government source for population ranking jective in to introduce the foreboding new phrase ‘ini- for greater reliability. I would look to the U.S. Census tial registration.’ In the majority of states, an organiza- Bureau ( as the source. tion will have to renew registration annually, and file a financial report as well. Renewal isn’t typically as memorable as their first time, but they do have to remember the anniversaries As soon as your and spend some time together. nonprofit clients have a There is a long-term, less palpable consequence of be- ing outside the laws. Your clients risk a gift challenge website with a donation down the road from a family member or heir who has some (probably pecuniary) motive for making trouble page or email a request over a solicitation. An attorney will look for any way to invalidate a gift and by having it ruled illegal—be- for a gift they are in the cause the nonprofit was not registered at the time— will go pretty far in that endeavor. There is no end to thick of it. the mischief that can be made when a disgruntled heir hires an enterprising attorney. If the solicitations are not primarily through a website State charity registration laws are a messy web with then I would presume they are mostly using email or which to tangle. They are not complex, but they are direct mail. Rather than relying on an outside source, time consuming and cost some money. As soon as they should start with their own database. Select those your nonprofit clients have a website with a donation they solicit and query for state of primary residence, page, or email a request for a gift, or mail a solicita- getting output ranked in descending order by state tion, they are in the thick of it. frequency. Start the registrations at the top, with the state where they (or you) send the most solicitations. Here is a plan for how your clients can get started. Charity begins at home, so they should register first With time devoted to taking on a few new states every in their home state. I trust by now you recognize this month, your clients will achieve compliance. And re- does not mean incorporating in the state. This is also member, they might enjoy exemption in some places. not registering a Charitable Gift Annuity program, for Remember too, there are some exemptions for which your clients that have one and if their state requires it. they must apply. Those having been completed, your clients must com- ply with this additional layer of home-state regulation. Whether or not your clients adopt my plan or proceed down another path, they must get started. In order to Then I recommend the charity look at where they (or protect their organization’s good name, their board and you) send the largest number of solicitations. If their their officers, your nonprofit clients need to operate on fundraising is mostly from online giving, I am talking the right side of state charity registration laws. They about web based solicitations. Rank the states in de- cannot ignore them any longer. scending order of population and start at the top, work- ing through the states where the website is considered Tony has been supporting the fundraising needs of a solicitation. California is the most populous state. I nonprofits since 1997. He is the author of Charity described their definition of ‘solicitation’ above. (I am Registration: State-by-State Guidelines for Compliance sorry, but I cannot go into detail state-by-state because and Managing Director of Martignetti Planned Giving if I apply the law to direct a specific action then I am Advisors, LLC. His two websites are www.StateCharity- giving legal advice. In an article, I can only go so far and as to tell you what the law says.) To contact Tony, email him at 13
  • 14. scenes from the 2009 new york nonprofit Conference 14
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  • 16. The Way we write * A Profile of and Prescription for Fixing The broken discourse of Fundraising Frank C. Dickerson Ph.D. A new kind of data mining from the scholarship of linguistics and rhetoric has uncov- ered disturbing artifacts in the discourse of fundraising. These discoveries are the product of my doctoral studies at The Peter Drucker School of Management and Claremont Graduate University School of Educational Studies. I Found ThAT The dIsCourse oF FundrAIsIng Is broKen. Like a linguistic MRI, my computer-based corpus analysis revealed surprising linguistic and rhetorical patterns in fundraising texts. These underlying patterns profiled a discourse focused more on transferring information than creating interpersonal involvement. Fund- raising texts sounded cold and detached like doctoral dissertations rather than warm and friendly like personal conversations. Rather than gaining reader attention with emotionally rich human-interest stories, these texts contained less narrative than academic prose. They contained even less narrative than official documents! A seVere judgMenT? ProbAbLy. ACCurATe? unForTunATeLy, yes. These counterintuitive conclusions grew out of research that mined 1.5 million words of on- line and printed fundraising texts from America’s largest charities. Of the 880 organizations represented, 735 reported direct support of $20 million or more on IRS form 990, line 1a or 1b. I analyzed 2,412 web- and print-based documents across nine philanthropic sectors. The largest study of its kind to date, my research offers insights that can help improve com- munication among fundraisers at all levels—from direct mail to major gifts. The method- ology was patterned after research Ulla Connor and Thomas Upton of Indiana University conducted that examined 316 fundraising letters (2003). 16 *is all wrong
  • 17. My sTudy WAs bAsed high involvement and high informa- While the analogy of a ruler is tion. Conversely, on the high infor- helpful, Biber’s analytic framework on A MuLTIVArIATe mation pole of the same continuum, measures texts on seven dimensions FACTor AnALysIs. long words and nominalizations that of variation, a procedure he calls transform verbs and adjectives into multi-dimensional analysis. So to be Douglas Biber (1988) performed a nouns by adding ion or ity (e.g. eval- adequate my analogy would need to factor analysis that profiled approxi- uate becoming evaluation or intense stretch and include an ensemble of mately 960,000 words contained in becoming intensity) co-occurred in measures like those a doctor makes three corpora (bodies) of texts. The order to serve the communicative aim when he or she draws blood for a bat- first was the LOB (Lancaster-Oslo/ of creating an informational focus in tery of tests, weighs you on a scale, Bergen) corpus that represented a genres like academic prose. measures your blood pressure, etc. wide range of published documents. The second was the London-Lund I MeAsured And My study measured fundraising texts corpus, comprised of spoken English on five of Biber’s seven dimensions that included panel discussions, CoMPAred The of variation. I summarize and bench- private conversations, interviews, LInguIsTIC ConTenT mark scores on two of those dimen- sions in Tables 2 and 4. The analysis telephone conversations, radio oF FundrAIsIng TexTs broadcasts, spontaneous and public included four steps: 1.) first I tagged speeches. The third corpus was a col- To bIber’s 23 genres. and tallied counts of linguistic lection of personal and professional letters. Analysis of these corpora   Table 1. yielded profiles for 23 text types (al- The Twenty-eight Salient Linguistic Features Whose Co-Occurrence Defines Dimension 1 ternatively referred to as genres or Positive Features: DO as pro-verb BE as main verb Sentence relatives Negative Features: Private verbs Analytic negation Causative subordination WH-questions Nouns registers). Biber’s seminal work laid THAT-deletion Demonstrative pronouns Discourse particles Possibility modals Word length the foundation for follow-up studies Contractions General emphatics Indefinite pronouns Non-phrasal coordination Prepositions that measured and compared the Present tense verbs 1st person pronouns General hedges WH-clauses Type/token ratio linguistic content of new text types 2nd person pronouns Pronoun IT Amplifiers Final prepositions Attributive adjectives against the linguistic benchmarks Note. Adapted from Biber, (1988). his groundbreaking factor analysis    Dimension 1 – Interpersonal Involvement versus Informational Content calibrated for spoken and written Sum of Z- Connor & Upton Dickerson IRS 880 English. Scores Biber Corpus 316 Corpus INTERPERSONAL INVOLVEMENT FOCUS Corpus 35 Face-to-face conversations As A ruLer desCrIbes 30 LengTh, LInguIsTIC 25 20 Personal letters sCALes reFLeCT A TexT’s 15 Public conversations Interviews CoMMunICATIVe AIM. 10 5 Romantic Fiction Biber’s factor analysis measured 0 Prepared speeches General Fiction 67 linguistic features in texts, and -5 Professional letters Science Fiction discovered that certain groups of Religion -10 Popular Lore features occurred together to achieve Academic Prose -11.9 -12.8 specific communicative aims. Per- -15 Press Reportage Official Documents sonal pronouns, contractions and -20 INFORMATIONAL CONTENT FOCUS private verbs (e.g. I think, I feel) Table 2. Scores on Dimension One Positioning Texts on the Continuum Contrasting Those Focused on co-occurred to create interpersonal Interpersonal Involvement with Those Focused on Creating Informational Content. involvement in personal letters and Note: Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), both the Connor & Upton 316 Direct Mail Corpus and the Dickerson IRS 880 Corpus were compared to the scores of 14 of the 23 genres in the Biber Corpus. Dimensional scores represent the conversation — two genres located summed frequencies of the linguistic features that make up the dimension. Before summing the occurrence of these features, their raw scores were normalized to a per-thousand-word ratio in order to eliminate skewing based on text- on one pole of a continuum between length. Then these scores were converted to units of standard deviation (z-scores, with means of zero). Adapted from Biber (1988, 1995) 17
  • 18. features in my corpus of texts; 2.) to In fundraising, narrative has long nor and Upton 316 Corpus. avoid text-length skewing, I normal- been championed by practitioners ized these counts to their occurrence like Jerry Huntsinger and Mal In AddITIon To per 1,000 words; 3.) then I translated Warwick. In fact, one of Huntsinger’s averages to units of standard devia- letters scored highest among those ProFILIng TexTs, I tion; finally, 4.) I compared my texts’ studied. This remarkable letter surVeyed Those Who dimensional scores to those of Biber’s featured the narrative account of a 23 common genres. The frequency young girl who was rescued by Cov- WroTe TheM. counts of 28 linguistic features made enant House workers from slavery to it possible to locate and compare sex traffickers. It put a human face My goal was to learn what factors my corpus against Biber’s genres on the appeal. Most of us know a these executives believe make a on a continuum between two poles: good story when we see it. But seeing fundraising text effective. To this interpersonally focused on one end what makes a story good—well . . . end, I asked respondents to score the and interpersonally focused on the that’s another story. Table 3 lists the importance of using an argument- other. Table 1 lists linguistic features ten linguistic features which indicate centric (expository) writing style on a measured and Table 2 shows how the presence of narrative content 1 to 5 scale (with 5 being high). Only fundraising texts in the Dickerson in a text. Then Table 4 shows how 5.04 percent rated exposition high. IRS 880 corpus compare to Biber’s fundraising texts in the Dickerson corpus and the Connor and Upton IRS 880 corpus compare to those in I then asked them to score emotional, 316 Corpus. Biber’s corpus and those in the Con- human-interest narrative writing. Those rating narrative high grew by a ratio of nine-to-one over those rat-   Table 3 The Ten Salient Linguistic Features Whose Co-Occurrence Defines Dimension 2 ing exposition high. But despite the Positive Features: Synthetic negation Negative Features: Past tense verbs Present participial clauses Present tense verbs increase of those favoring narrative to Third-person pronouns Attributive adjectives 45.21 percent, the linguistic evidence Perfect aspect verbs Past participial WHIZ deletions of their writing revealed a wide gap Public verbs Word length Note. Adapted from Biber, (1988). between what they believed about   good writing, and what they actually Sum of Z- Dimension 2 – Narrative Versus Non-Narrative Connor & Upton Dickerson IRS 880 wrote. Belief did not match practice. Scores Biber Corpus 316 Corpus Corpus The root of the disparity is that we all NARRATIVE 7 Romantic Fiction tend to take writing for granted. 6 General Fiction Adventure Fiction We all can write. And we all think 5 we can write well. Yet the evidence 4 of linguistics analysis refutes this 3 assumption. The problem is that few 2 Biographies of us critically consider the rhetorical 1 Spontaneous Speeches Prepared Speeches and linguistic substructure of what Personal Letters we write. We don’t critically consider 0 Popular Lore Face-to-Face Conversation the language. -1 Religion Press Editorials -2 Telephone Conversations Stephen King drove this point home Academic Prose -3 Official Documents -3.1 -3.0 in explaining what motivated him -4 Broadcasts to write On Writing, his book about NON-NARRATIVE composition principles and tech- Table 4. Scores on Dimension Two Positioning Texts on the Continuum Contrasting Those Containing Narrative with Those Containing No Narrative. niques. King’s motivation came Note: Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), both the Connor & Upton 316 Direct Mail Corpus and the Dickerson IRS from a conversation with author of 880 Corpus were compared to the scores of 15 of the 23 genres in the Biber Corpus. Dimensional scores represent the summed frequencies of the linguistic features that make up the dimension. Before summing the occurrence of these The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan. He features, their raw scores were normalized to a per-thousand-word ratio in order to eliminate skewing based on text- had asked her “if there was any one length. Then these scores were converted to units of standard deviation (z-scores, with means of zero). Adapted from Biber (1988, 1995) question she was never asked dur-     18
  • 19. ing the Q-and-A that follows almost but they seem to be living in another tion and finally of speech” (1998, p. every writer’s talk . . . . Amy paused, place, at another time, writing for a 190). They write: thinking it over carefully, and then professor who is no longer there. said: ‘No one ever asks about the We provide a unifying neural hypoth- language’” (2000, p. 8). esis on how individuals understand Fundraisers, of all people, should Our educational the actions and emotions of others. Our main claim is that the funda- care passionately about the art and craft of telling stories on paper. In upbringing mental mechanism at the basis of the experiential understanding of others’ fundraising, language is everything. teaches us to actions is the activation of the mirror Someone selling a service or product neuron system. A similar mecha- creates an exchange based on the use an abstract nism, but involving the activation of value of what is being offered. And viscero-motor centers, underlies the before buying, a prospect is able to impersonal experiential understanding of the kick the tires or thump the melon. But for a fundraiser, the weight of writing style that emotions of others (2004, p. 396). raising money rests squarely on the power of words. Yes, there are those is diametrically At the core of the Gallese, Keysers, and Rizzolatti discovery is evidence occasions when a person visits a charity, or sees a video about its opposed to the from fMRI scans of human subjects for what was only suggested in their work. But most potential donors de- expert advice experiments with monkeys—that the cide to give based on what they read. human brain contains “. . . neural And unfortunately, what they read is of fundraising mechanisms (mirror mechanisms) usually not that good. practitioners. that allow us to directly understand the meaning of the actions and emo- tions of others by internally replicat- WhAT hAPPened? ing (‘simulating’) them without any explicit reflective mediation” (2004, One explanation may be the way we are raised to write. Our educational neurosCIenTIsTs AT p. 396). upbringing teaches us to use an ab- ITALy’s unIVersITy oF stract impersonal writing style that is PArMA shed LIghT on uCLA And usC diametrically opposed to the expert hoW We ProCess reseArChers Found advice of fundraising practitioners. The persistence of this kind of fund- LAnguAge. ThAT nArrATIVe TexTs raising discourse is consistent with re- CreATe PoWerFuL search by Peters and Wolfred (2001), An important source of insight on who found that 58 percent of nonprofit effective writing comes from the neurAL resPonses. executive directors hold Master’s University of Parma, led by the degrees or doctorates. They write what Lisa Aziz-Zadeh from USC’s Brain seminal research of neuroscientist I call discourse de facto (Latin for as if and Creativity Institute and Marco Giacomo Rizzolatti and his research or as a matter of practice). Iacoboni, director of UCLA’s Tran- team, which identified a special class scranial Magnetic Stimulation Lab of neurons that fired in the brains of They write as if they were still gradu- at the Ahmanson Lovelace Brain macaque monkeys during specific ate students. They continue to pro- Mapping Center in the David Geffen grasping activities. The researchers duce a style of discourse appropriate School of Medicine, found evidence linked the discovery of this me- to a past-bound setting, dedicated that the triggers of mirror neuron re- canism to understanding language to a past-bound task, created for a sponse are not limited to visual input processing. This “mechanism was the past-bound audience. Fundraising alone. Evidence suggests that just neural prerequisite for the develop- requires a different style of writing, reading or hearing about an action ment of inter-individual communica- 19
  • 20. can produce the same response as and sobbed. Her mascara-stained direct mail and also heads up a new seeing the action firsthand. cheeks were wet and blotchy. Her research organization, The Written eyes were red. Her shoulders shook. Voice. To discuss having your fund- The research team found that among She was hopeless, completely forlorn. raising discourse analyzed, Frank 12 volunteers studied, the premotor When I got off the F-train, I stood can be reached at 909.864.2798 or at cortex of their brains indicated the on the platform, paralyzed by emo- presence of the same neural activity tions. Hers. I’d taken them with me. when they heard words describing an I stood there, tears streaming down reFerenCes action as when they saw it. “In sum” my cheeks. But I had no death in the Aziz-Zabeh writes, “these results family. No breakup. No terminal di- Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Wilson, Stephen M.; support a key role of premotor areas agnosis. And I didn’t even know her Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Iacoboni, Marco. with mirror neuron properties for (2006). Congruent embodied representa- tions for visually presented actions and embodied semantic representations of actions, whether they are delivered fundraisers linguistic phrases describing actions. Cur- rent Biology, 16(18), 1818-1823. through visual or linguistic modali- ties” (Aziz-Zadeh, Wilson, Rizzolatti should not Biber, Douglas. (1988). Variation across & Iacoboni, 2006, p. 1521). Their research explains why it’s hard to put shy away from speech and writing. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press. down a novel, but easy to fall asleep emotion, they Biber, Douglas. (1995). Dimensions reading a textbook. should tell stories, of register variation: A cross-linguistic comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The evidence of neuroscience sug- gests that the current style of writing and they should Connor, Ulla & Upton, Thomas A. dominant among fundraisers actually circumvents the way the human brain not over-edit and (2003). Linguistic dimensions of direct mail letters. In Pepi Leistyna & Charles F. is hard-wired to process language. The implications: fundraisers should formalize texts. Meyer (Eds). Corpus analysis: Language structure and language use (pp. 71-86). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2003. not shy away from emotion, they should tell stories, and they should or why she cried. But the emotional Gallese, Vittorio; Keysers, Christian; Riz- not over-edit and formalize texts. pain, her pain, now my pain, was as zolatti, Giacomo. (2004). A unifying view real as day. (2007, p. 1) of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Science writer Gordy Slack sum- Cognitive Sciences, 8(9), 396-403. marizes the implications of mirror The data in my research confirms King, Stephen. (2000). On writing: A neurons to creating, processing, that linguistic features like those memoir of the craft. New York: Scribner. and interpreting language. He not Slack used above—features that only states, but also artfully illus- involve readers and paint connect- Peters, Jeanne & Wolfred, Timothy. trates implications in a brief text ing narrative moments—are woefully (2001). Daring to Lead: Nonprofit Execu- tive Directors and Their Work Experience. that marshals linguistic features to absent in fundraising discourse. San Francisco: CompassPoint Nonprofit paint a narrative scene (note his use Services. of past tense to report past actions Frank Dickerson has been involved and move the reader sequentially in fundraising since 1969. He holds Rizzolatti, Giacomo & Arbib, Michael through time), intensify interpersonal a BA from The Ohio State University, A. (1998). Language within our grasp. Trends in Neurosciences 21(5), 188-194. involvement (note his use of contrac- a Masters from the International tions, first person pronouns, private School of Theology, an MBA from Slack, Gordy. (2007, November 5), I feel verbs, and conversational style), and Pepperdine, and a PhD from Clare- your pain. Retrieved April 23, produce empathy (note how he makes mont Graduate University, where he 2008, from you feel, thus achieving his rhetorical studied under Peter F. Drucker. He is feature/2007/11/05/mirror_neurons/print. html. aim—to make you care). president of High Touch Direct Mail, a California direct mail company A young woman sat on the subway specializing in hand-personalized 20
  • 21. ACquISITION BudgETINg A ChALLENgE? sIgns PoInT To yes Britt Fouks, Director of Account Management at ParadyszMatera I t’s autumn, and you know what done that... Do not sell this upcoming Review trends across mailings, that means; you have either year’s acquisition budget short as you isolate the factors, volumes, and just started your fiscal year or will pay for it when 2012 budgets roll packages that unite them vs. isolate are planning for the upcoming one. around. So where do you start… them. One such method is reviewing And, if you are like most of us, the top performing lists across mailings budgeting process has to somehow Leverage What You Know: to gauge their seasonality against squeeze in amongst your other daily Despite what you may think, your past the bottom tiers of your mailings. responsibilities. results yield much information about What can these lists tell you about the future. So often, past results are leveraging seasonality or opportunity Are your crystal balls, magic 8-balls, cast off for being affected by factors for expansion? Another example of and other fortune telling toys, tools, ranging from deliverability issues to isolating data is by way of package and devices handy? Or did you package changes and deemed useless results. How are your packages smash, burn, or throw them out the as a result. In fact, they are the faring against one another or across window when 2009 results didn’t most underrated piece of information mailings? Don’t have this information turn out the way you envisioned? Is in budgeting. Within these results handy from 2009? Set up panels it the latter? Good. There is enough are trends to help project future for 2010 mailings to gauge the uncertainty in this environment and performance. Unless your list mix changes over time. Plant the seeds there are better ways than a “game of changes dramatically from month to for 2011 and reap the performance darts” to project your organization’s month, there is built in consistency you can leverage in 2010. Either future acquisition. Many of the same to the names and behaviors affecting way, organizations often have more considerations and tools to manage your plans. Additionally, most reliable data than they realize. When risk can also be used to capitalize on mailers have main control offers leveraged appropriately, one can opportunities. that are mailed often throughout the avoid making assumptions for the year. By combining list and package coming year. There may not be a more important trending together you have a stable budget in the organization than set of results and trends to review. Manage Program Needs: When acquisition. Renewals may get the building your budgeted volumes, star treatment, but what might those The idea is to remove the “clutter” consider the impact your acquisition revenues look like had you invested from your history and avoid looking budget has on the renewal budget. 10% more in acquisition two years at individual campaigns within the Evaluate the optimal mix of volume ago? Bet you wish you could have context in which they were mailed. and seasonality that will drive in more 21
  • 22. donors and revenue earlier in the fiscal the year when you’re in the midst of How long have you been mailing the year, manage risk in investments, and managing it daily? Most pertinent to budgeted creative? Was 2009 the first allow your team to be more reactive to 2010 budgets are the management year you mailed it? What can old re- possible changes that need to be made of three key risk variables that affect sults tell you about package fatigue of with time to make changes and adjust most organizations in varying degrees. a new creative? Implement this into expectations and plans. your budgets. It is better to set an Economic Impact. How do you expectation up front that a package’s Plan for Change: As much as we weigh last year’s economy against lift will not hold at the levels of the may be in denial about factors such the projections for the coming year? previous year. as postal hikes, paper expenses and One way to judge the impact of last so forth, plan for what changes seem year against the coming year is to As it pertains to fatigue, not all mail- the most likely. Change will occur; understand the trends in first quarter ers will see fatigue. Many of our it’s inevitable. Therefore, manage 2009 mailings against second or third clients have weathered this latest the amount of change that comes as a quarter trends. In other words, was economic storm by way of having surprise and factor in adjustments to there less of a year-over-year drop in multiple controls that they’ve rotated include costs hikes. response in later mailings that can be throughout their acquisition program, attributed to an improved economic prolonging the life of each control and Another area of potential change to environment? This should help you keeping the audience engaged. This consider is how your renewal strategy understand how much each mailing brings me to the third risk factor… will impact acquisition efforts. We was impacted. Back out the assumed have seen mailers change the way 2009 economic impact to response and Testing. More than ever, nonprofits they treat deeply lapsed names start with a fresh baseline by mailing cannot afford to cut testing. With by putting those names into their for 2010. From there, one can more limited budget dollars and more focus acquisition program, yet they did not easily add in further fatigue (if you are on ROI, what gets tested and at what adjust for the inevitable decreased more pessimistic about the coming risk level is under greater scrutiny output from outside lists that will year) or a boost for an improved econ- by boards and donors alike. What occur when those lapsed pools take omy (if you believe the worst is behind are your organization’s goals? Do you priority over outside list universes. us) without the worry of overstating the need to bring in higher gift amounts to Make sure you consider how these impact of the 2009 economy. feed better performing renewal pools? two pieces of your direct mail program Then make sure you budget for ask interact with each other. Package Fatigue. This is another array testing. If package fatigue is a risk variable organizations may need big factor for you, then package test- Another plausible change some to factor into their budgets. This is ing needs to be budgeted for early in organizations had to deal with in 2009 especially pertinent to building bud- your fiscal year. Evaluate what you dealt with cuts in funding (end of year gets if the organization has a single need to learn over the course of the vs. beginning of the year). Is this a premium-focused mail piece. When year, so that you’re set up for success possibility in 2010? Incorporate what evaluating how much fatigue to layer in the following fiscal year. you know about past cuts and how into budgets there are a number of to thwart them in the coming year. variables to consider. Although it is By seeking out some of the informa- Acquisition is often the first place easy to view your budgets in reference tion outlined above and ensuring that organizations turn to in an effort to cut only to your own mailing trends and you weigh potential risk factors, you costs during the year, but it can have results the competitive landscape is should be able to build an acquisi- devastating effects on revenues and something to consider. How many tion budget that your program results donor counts in just a year or two. If other mailers in your category and adhere to with minimal tweaking forced to make cuts, make sure the beyond are using your same offer and throughout the year. board understands what 2011 and creative? If the answer is “most” 2012 will look like. or “many” or there are reported in- Britt Fouks, Director of Account creases in premium use this should be Management, ParadyszMatera, Evaluate Risk: Risk, risk, risk… weighted into your budgets as a nega- Minneapolis Office 763.647.5134 or how does one evaluate it throughout tive variable. 22
  • 23. A CAse sTudy neW LeAdershIP neW CenTury dIreCT MArKeTIng suCCess For The nAACP By Beth McConnell, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) A new president and a new blueprint for action are helping to invigorate its fund- raising efforts as the nation’s oldest and largest civil rights organization, the Na- tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), enters its second century. While the economic recession is pulling down nonprofit fundraising in many organizations, the NAACP is bucking that trend with sizeable growth in retention and acquisition in its direct mail program. Certainly a lot of the excitement in the NAACP’s program stems from the fresh face who has just taken over the helm of the 100-year-old organization: 36-year-old Benjamin Todd Jealous. Despite his youth, Jealous comes to the organization with a strong and diverse back- ground in working to advance social justice and some history with the organization he now heads. Educated at Columbia University, the Rhodes Scholar, a fifth-generation member of the NAACP, interned for the group during college and also served as a community organizer who helped stop the closing of a hospital in Harlem. He served as director of domestic programs for New York-based Amnesty International. As a former journalist he also headed the National Newspaper Publishers Association, a trade group that represents the interests of African-American journalists. His most recent position was as president of the Rosenberg Foundation, a San Francisco- 23
  • 24. based organization that establishes tional Director of Annual Funds, said provide a steady, fairly predictable grants to provide opportunities to acquisition response was exceptionally stream of revenue and many donors those in need. strong in 2008 and is remaining steady appreciate that they will rarely be this year. That’s certainly more than a called upon to make additional contri- It’s likely this combination of activ- lot of nonprofit organizations can say. butions. The NAACP has had mixed ist and foundation experience is what The NAACP is averaging a response results in the past with monthly giving attracted the executive committee of rate of between 0.85% and 0.95% with programs but they are off to a good the NAACP to unanimously endorse an average gift of $24. start for 2009 and are currently ex- him as president over more traditional ploring a number of different options candidates with backgrounds in busi- Last year the acquisition volume was for acquiring monthly donors. ness or the clergy. 4.2 million, which was more than had been budgeted. Melton said The NAACP has obviously fared bet- Ben Jealous entered an organization ter than many organizations through- with some significant financial chal- out the recession. It has not drastical- lenges, acutely illustrated by the deci- sion in 2007 to lay off half of the staff emphasis on ly changed its message but continues to focus on its core goals to provide due to accumulating deficits. And he began fundraising months before as- foundation justice and equality for everyone. suming office in September 2008 in order to eliminate a debt of over $2 support and Fundraising has benefited enormously from the energy surrounding the Cen- million. increased tennial Action Plan that kicked off the 100 year celebration. It has been With new leadership, came the oppor- a huge factor in keeping donors and tunity for foundations to take a fresh investment by members engaged in contributing. look at the NAACP. In fact, emphasis on foundation support and increased investment by individuals has been a individuals has The Centennial Action Plan, which has been liberally shared with donors major change in direction, with Jeal- ous trying to steer away from too much been a major and members, highlights 100 years of change, marks the great progress dependence on corporate dollars. change. that has been made on many fronts and reminds supporters that the long To this end, the NAACP has instituted march toward justice and equality has a new major gift and planned giving that although the organization has not reached the finish line. program. battled with concerns over the cur- rent economy they ultimately decided From the ballot box to the classroom, It also means increased investments to increase their acquisition level the NAACP and its supporters and in direct response. The vast majority for 2009. Results have been strong leaders have championed social of NAACP’s direct response efforts, or enough that the group is planning to justice and fought long and hard to 94%, are direct mail. Another six per- be more aggressive as it finishes out ensure that the voices of African cent in is telemarketing and right now the year. Americans would be heard. The talent there is a new investment in online and tenacity of this organization and fundraising. Retention has also been trending its members have truly saved lives strong. It hovered around the 40% and changed many negative aspects of Direct response is a critical and grow- mark for several years and then fell American society. ing contributor to NAACP resources, to 34% in 2007. But it jumped all the covering around 21% of the annual way to 55% in 2008. Formed in 1909, NAACP began a budget. multi-decade struggle to stop the There has also been a heavy push lynch mobs that killed thousands of Direct mail response has been exceed- for monthly giving in the direct mail African-Americans and other racial, ing expectations. Scott Melton, Na- program. Monthly giving programs ethnic and religious minorities. In 24
  • 25. 1932, the organization took up the Hand in hand with these goals is the without health insurance, more than 5 mantle to reverse Jim Crow laws. Two NAACP’s overarching centennial million are children of color. decades later, segregation was de- goal: a fair chance for all Americans. clared illegal. It’s an audacious dream, the group The NAACP says that correcting admits, but it is represents the core of these and other persistent inequities In 1960, the NAACP initiated a what engages NAACP supporters. is the key to providing every Ameri- sustained effort for political inclu- can with a fair chance at achieving sion. That effort reached a dramatic Despite the great progress made over economic stability and providing a and celebratory climax in November the past 100 years, here are some better future for their children. 2008, with the election of an African- quick facts that put the problem in American president and the highest perspective, organization leaders say: This message is resonating with its number of African-American elected The economic recession is difficult for members and with an expanding officials since Reconstruction. everyone, but the African-American universe of contributors who want to unemployment rate is higher than build now on the historic political While celebrating these achieve- for any other group, at 12.6%. In events of the past 12 months. ments, the NAACP’s Action Plan is these tough times people of color are igniting supporters to work with it on impacted when they borrow money, An invigorated organization, with unfinished business. In its new cen- paying higher annual percentage rates new leadership, clear goals and an tury, the NAACP is focusing on safe than their white counterparts with engaged and enthusiastic base of sup- communities and good schools – fun- equal incomes and credit risks. At port, the NAACP is entering its new damental desires that all Americans the same time foreclosure rates for century inspired and determined to share but that are disproportionately African-Americans and Latino home- forge a future with greater opportu- out of reach for African Americans as owners are almost three times that for nities and freedoms for everyone in well as other minority populations. whites. And perhaps most concerning America. of all, of the 9 million U.S. children 25
  • 26. CuTTIng your PrInT neWsLeTTer? ThInK AgAIn! how We Transformed ours Into a Moneymaker Angela Lindell, Publications Writer, Gillette Children’s Specialty Healthcare Andrew Olsen, CFRE, Senior Annual Giving Officer, Gillette Children’s Specialty Healthcare I s the economic slump forcing your nonprofit 91 responses. (We mail to 20,000 people.) to cut costs? Before you make the mistake of eliminating your print newsletter, consider this: IdenTIFy The ProbLeM (IT’s ALWAys The At Gillette Children’s Specialty Healthcare, we sAMe ProbLeM) recently transformed our 20-year-old donor news- letter into a moneymaker. And with the right strat- Despite these less-than-stellar results, we didn’t egies, you can do the same. give up on newsletters entirely. A thorough review of Momentum quickly revealed a fundamental FACe The FACTs problem. Don’t get us wrong. We sympathize with the im- We were telling the stories that made our organiza- pulse to cut and run. Print newsletters can be tion look important — not the stories that made cumbersome. They’re expensive, they require a our donors feel important. We helped children significant amount of staff time, and — worst of all walk. We opened new clinics. We conducted suc- — they can be hugely ineffective. cessful fundraising programs. We did amazing things! After reviewing results from the past 20 years, we discovered that our quarterly newsletter, Momen- But all of our incredible accomplishments left the tum, was producing an annual net loss of almost reader with a nagging question: “If you’re doing $40,000. A 2004 readership survey yielded only so great, why do you need me?” 26
  • 27. readers that their investments The perception is that a cost-effective will yield long-term gains. (“Your newsletter must be an unsegmented Gillette Investment Will Always self-mailer that’s printed in one or Yield Returns.”) two colors. Our former newsletter fit • We still need you! Build long- this description. Momentum was an term relationships by letting your 8-page, 11- by 17-inch self-mailer donors know just how much they printed in black plus one color. A can still accomplish through your reply envelope was stapled into partnership. Share new needs, the publication, and the newsletter mailed at the nonprofit bulk rate. We spent approximately $15,000 per quarterly issue ($60,000 per year) to We were telling mail 20,000 pieces. the stories CoPy WhAT WorKs gIVe donors WhAT They CrAVe that made our Improving performance required us to make significant changes to the We set out to create a new publication organization format. But we also wanted to avoid that spoke to our audience in a way that makes them feel essential. Con- look important increasing costs. Using the same ex- pense budget of $15,000 per issue, we nections, our new donor publication, gives our readers the information they — not the found we could make several smart and effective changes. crave. With the right messages, your newsletter can do the same. stories that made • Newsletter Format: We cut the Donors want to hear a few simple — our donors feel format from eight 11- by 17-inch pages to four 8.5- by 11-inch but incredibly, important — things from you. Effective newsletters must important. pages. As a result, we slashed word counts by more than 50 include the following messages to percent. For example, our lead donors: story went from more than 1,200 words to just 500. We replaced opportunities and goals. Even • You matter. Show your donors the long, comprehensive features when telling an amazing success why they are essential to your with shorter, more compelling story, leave your donors crav- mission. Speak directly to read- ing another interaction with you. ers using a personal tone that (“Help Us Change More Lives!”) relies heavily on the word “you.” Reframe your accomplishments If you fail to communicate these as their accomplishments. (“Be- things, you’ll lose your donor to a non- cause of You, Douglas Can Visit profit that does. an Imaging Center Without Cry- ing!”) • You have invested wisely. Prove QuesTIon your that your organization is worthy AssuMPTIons of an investment. No one likes to back a loser. Be transparent, Once you’ve hooked your readers, you sharing facts about your organiza- want to make it as easy as possible for tion’s financial health and future them to make a gift. It sounds simple, plans. Instill confidence in your but many nonprofits get this wrong. 27
  • 28. 0 0 1 stories. Now, powerful headlines, captions and pull quotes facilitate stamp, resulting in only a marginal increase in postage costs. About Gillette Children’s Specialty Healthcare: Gillette, an independent, 0 easy skimming. • Personalized Letter and Reply not-for-profit hospital and clinics, 0 1 is internationally recognized for its Device: Cutting the size and page TrACK your resuLTs work in the diagnosis and treatment count allowed us to spend more of our budget on personaliza- Without spending any more money on our newsletter program, we developed of children and young adults who have disabilities or complex medical 0 tion. We include a personalized cover letter and reply device (an a smarter and more effective publica- tion. Momentum generated a net loss needs, such as cerebral palsy, complex orthopaedic conditions, craniofacial 0 8.5- by 11-inch double buckslip) with language that corresponds of $39,549 in 2007. By comparison, the first four issues of Connections anomalies, neurological conditions, brain and spinal-cord injuries, spina 1 to a donor’s past giving behavior. Now, we can segment our news- have generated a positive net return of bifida and juvenile arthritis. 0 0 $56,705. letter mailings for more effective Since 1897, Gillette has been at the delivery and measurement. For us, the results are clear. Our forefront of medical treatment, tech- • Outer Envelope and Live Stamp: donor-focused newsletter is building nology, education and research for By reducing its size, we could still lasting relationships with donors and children with disabilities. Gillette’s send our newsletter at the non- inspiring them to invest more of their mission is to help children, adults and profit rate, even with the inclusion charitable gifts with Gillette. And their families improve their health, of a cover letter and reply device. that means we can provide care for achieve greater well-being, and enjoy Now it now fits in a standard no. even more kids at our hospital and life. For more information, visit www. 10 envelope. We went from us- clinics across Minnesota! ing an indicia to using a nonprofit TSM DMA Journal half pg Ad OL.indd 1 8/12/09 10:12:28 AM 28
  • 29. 00101001011010111011010001010101011101010111010 01010110101010101011101010100001110101100010101 10001010101100110101010101010101010010110101010 00101001011010111011010001010101011101010111010 01010110101010101011101010100001110101100010101 10001010101100110101010101010101010010110101010 00101001011010111011010001010101011101010111010 01010110101010101011101010100001110101100010101 The Power oF data 10001010101100110101010101010101010010110101010 00101001011010111011010001010101011101010111010 using information on your donors to fuel growth in your program 01010110101010101011101010100001110101100010101 By Jonathon Grapsas, Regional Director for Pareto Fundraising in North America W hat’s different over there? simple question: why do you need more money? Secondly, what are the organization’s growth plans? I’m asked this almost daily. As an Aus- Invariably I get blank stares to both questions – and sie who has fundraised in Australia, the often not for lack of asking on the fundraiser’s part. UK and now North America, I feel I can answer When I go on to probe them about the makeup of this question reasonably well. So grab a coffee, arm their fundraising program, income levels, number of yourself with pencil and notepad and prepare for donors etc, again I get lots of confused and embar- some real gems, the answers to all your fundraising rassed murmurs and a raft of reasons why they don’t prayers from across the pond, the ‘next big thing’ have the information with them. that will revolutionize your organization. Put simply: we need this data to make informed You can probably sense my sarcasm, for the answer and sensible decisions about where we are headed is ‘not bloody much.’ and how we are going to get there. These things In reality, donors behave the same, lots of people are intrinsically linked. It’s no wonder we struggle (and I include fundraisers) don’t like face to face to articulate why we need more money if we aren’t fundraising (also known as direct dialogue – basi- even sure how much money we raise and how many cally signing up monthly donors on the street and people support us! door to door), despite its enormous impact on the Can you imagine a lawyer trying to defend a client sector. I also hear the same myths, barriers, and without the evidence (data) and precedents to sup- excuses and, as I have found several times recently, port their case, or a surgeon about to operate on a fundraisers generally aren’t sure why they need patient without their medical history and summary more money and what direction their organization is of previous operations of that kind? planning to take. The answer is they wouldn’t. And why should we, Though fundraisers worldwide seem to have an as fundraisers, allow ourselves to make decisions energetic passion for their cause, they are often the affecting our beneficiaries without having access to poor cousin in the charity family. In my eighteen this information? This is not a North American is- months in North America, I met with hundreds of sue, it is an international one. So let’s stop making fundraisers in different situations: in new business excuses and start arming ourselves with real data meetings, when delivering training and at confer- that allows us to take stock of where we are, under- ences. stand where we want to go and how we are going to When I meet with a fundraiser for the first time, I get there. ask two key questions. Firstly, what seems a fairly 29
  • 30. Data should be at the heart of what By analyzing the information held on and commercial agencies, like the we do. I want you to become data their donors, we helped the National one I work for, that run benchmark- led, even data obsessed. Remember Heart Foundation develop a much ing studies. though that being data led ultimately more profitable conversion strategy means being donor led. for monthly giving – new donors It can provide you with insights into were now contacted within one overall trends, such as how much Quite frankly, in the work that I do month following their first gift. people are giving or whether face- data is the backbone of every suc- There are three specific types of data to-face fundraising is growing. But cessful campaign we develop, and you must be armed with when devel- while environmental data can be a is the difference between achieving oping your fundraising strategy and good additional guide, it’s analytical mediocre campaign results and out- tactics: environmental, analytical data that really sits at the top of the standing campaign results. and personal. hierarchy enabling you to uncover ’the truth’ about your donors behav- A donor led strategy simply means ior. using the data you have available on your donors as part of your fundrais- Data is the Now for the icing on the cake: per- ing strategy. By incorporating a true donor led approach into your strat- difference sonal data. For one-to-one personal- ized communication, personal data egy, you’ll be amazed at how much more money you will raise. between is absolutely essential. Every charity holds basic personal data on its do- It still surprises me that so many achieving nors (i.e. transactional information such as when they made their last charities rely on gut instinct, an- ecdotal evidence, or just personal mediocre gift/how much their last gift was and biographical data such as name and taste when deciding how to spend address). By incorporating these their fundraising dollars – when, in campaign results donor details into your communica- actuality, their data does not back up tions, you’ll raise more net income, these decisions. and outstanding and be able to help more of your beneficiaries. Here is a recent example to illus- trate the importance of data in push- campaign The brilliant part about personal data ing your program forward. results. is you can dig even deeper and find out the real reasons why your donors The National Heart Foundation of support you, what they think your Australia, one of the biggest chari- Let me explain how these differ. work and what makes them tick. ties in the country, approached us about converting cash donors into Firstly, analytical data. This is the As you get to the end of your latte, monthly givers. They wanted to chal- kind of information used in my pre- ask yourself how well are you using lenge their prevailing belief that vious example. You can obtain this donor information in your efforts to you should wait a few months (some information simply by looking at get closer to those who support even suggested one year) before ask- your own charity, your own donors you? ing new donors to make a regular and how they behave as a group monthly gift. (overall and/or by segment). Jonathon Grapsas is the Regional Director for Pareto Fundraising in It was only by having a thorough Environmental data is information North America. look at their data, that we found out obtained by external sources. Every that the right time to ask new donors charity and not-for-profit organiza- If you would like more information to make a monthly gift was just two tion has access to a wealth of data on this topic please contact Jonathon to three weeks after they made their from sources including governments, at jonathon.grapsas@paretofundrais- first gift. research institutes, annual reports or 416.915.4114. 30
  • 31. goIng Big onLIne What’s next and how can first movers monetize online in down markets? Michael H. Duley, Senior Director e-Commerce Strategy Contributor: Alicia Osgood, DMA Nonprofit Federation You may assess your organization’s effectiveness on- challenging economy will provide the impetus for a line as the following: yes, we are online but my busi- new look and focus toward online fundraising. It’s a ness is about relationships. I never really bought into new day. Make the most of it. the Internet hype of 2001. Fast forward 8-9 years down the road and we now take donations online and There are two areas in particular that should be ex- add everything we produce to the Web. Online rev- plored by the corporate Internet strategist who seeks enue, however, is currently only about five percent of to monetize and dominate the Web with your brand our total revenue. message. Where online fundraising works well is by procuring First, consider a partnership with a high quality online new and younger donors and higher average gifts. One content provider like Hulu. Develop an interactive particularly strong area is event fundraising online. advertising platform to facilitate audience engage- It allows your donors to maintain personal fundrais- ment. Hulu characterizes itself as “the web’s leading ing pages that have been a veritable rainmaker for a premium content library to effectively reach millions number of organizations in terms of acquisition and of consumers whenever they watch online. Serving monetization. hundreds of millions of streams per month, Hulu is a Top 10 online video property featuring an immense The Internet is still in its infancy and should be recog- collection of premium entertainment across all genres nized as such. Think of the recent ubiquity of broad- and formats — television shows, feature films, clips band (high speed) access and high quality content. By and more, regardless of network or studio.”1 this standard the Internet is only about 1-3 years old. So if you are just beginning to understand this Inter- To help you visualize this concept, first imagine net stuff, do not give up. The best is yet to come and watching a sporting event. As you watch the event, the time is right for further investment. The Internet alongside is an interactive advertisement that allows is truly the lowest cost strategy out there and offers a complete customization of a running shoe right down highly interactive experience with your brand 24/7. to size, color and graphics. A few clicks later and you The online market hype is beginning to converge with check out with a purchase of your customized running reality; creating solutions and opportunities that are shoes. This model could easily extend to the automo- delighting constituents. tive and social entrepreneurship arenas. You can see how these advertisements would become an attraction All strategies need a compelling sense of urgency to to rival that of the program content itself. propel them from strategy to execution. Perhaps the 31
  • 32. A partnership with a high quality that requires imagination and much an interactive experience -- think online content provider like Hulu more development, but as with many about the Web at the beginning, produces a triple win. Your prospect things those who start early make out middle, and end of a creative wins by having a highly interactive better in the long run. project experience with your brand, your • Partner with high quality Internet content provider wins with a lucra- To glimpse what the future could be, content providers and interactive tive business model for premium ads, enter “Project Natal” in your search gamers and go on a journey and your nonprofit wins by mining engine. “Introducing Project Natal, together -- it’s measurable, and previously untapped or underutilized a revolutionary new way to play: cost effective sources of income. Simply put, your no controller required. See a ball? • Make an investment in nonprofit will attract a high income, Kick it, hit it, trap it or catch it. If interactive content creation online demographic to your file that I you know how to move your hands, -- there is no better platform to refer to as ‘Urban Barons.’ shake your hips or speak, you and build relationships your friends can jump into the fun • Go big online and gain first For the partnership itself, I recom- -- the only experience needed is life mover advantage by taking your mend negotiating a cost per acquisi- experience.”3 According to Steven brand to the high value online tion, revenue share pricing model Spielberg, “This is a pivotal mo- demographic; it’s a differential until performance meets your expec- ment that will carry with it a wave competitive advantage; it’s your tations. Know that you will receive of change, the ripples of which will future, lead significant brand exposure along the reach far beyond video games.” 4 Can • Leverage your social network way in the premier frontier where you imagine your brand at the heart communities to test run these the ‘Urban Baron’ resides. Online of this amazing interaction? The pos- experiences before you buy/ content providers like Hulu may wel- sibilities are endless. launch. These communities come the opportunity to help a few are vocal and active groups in nonprofit partners reach the next lev- For those of you looking for the next which to assess usability and el and reap the public relations ben- big thing and to achieve the biggest engagement. Share with them efit of working for the greater good in pop on the Web, go for quality online. early and often the midst of a down economy. Revenue follows quality. While not • Start now, catch the wave and go perfected yet, interactive advertising bigger than you ever imagined The second area for your strategist platforms hold the promise of desir- to explore is interactive video gam- able demographics and higher gifts. 1 COM score and Hulu website ing. Interactive entertainment is not I do not recommend exploring the 2 Informationweek, July 18, 2008 a fad and is exploding in popularity world of interactive advertising with- 3 Xbox website across all segments, including young out a partnership in place. It would 4 Xbox website women. Every major gaming plat- prove to be cost prohibitive for most, form now includes Internet access, if not all, nonprofits. So get out there Michael leads an international which is a new frontier for interactive and share the value of social entre- online business delivering 10 million experiences. According to tracking preneurship with online content pro- plus pages of content per month firm NPD analyst Anita Frazier, the viders and the video gaming industry. across the portfolio with revenues industry was poised to achieve record exceeding $35 million annually. breaking revenues of over $22 billion Beyond the Basics -- What are He has achieved academically in 2008.2 some actionable takeaways to gain an an undergraduate degree in advantage online now? Electrical Engineering (EE) and a By launching interactive advertising Master of Business Administration campaigns and exploring embed- • Place an Internet strategist at the (MBA) from Vanderbilt University, ded advertising, nonprofits are able helm of your interactive and Web Owen Graduate School of to connect their brand messages to teams Management.  Michael’s passion is wholesome games and create the sort • Make your messages interactive, building high performance teams of interactive experience donors want engaging and entertaining as well that use the Internet in new ways to with their brand. This is an area as ensure your creative brief lists change the world. 32
  • 33. building and updating your email database: best practices for establishing online relationships with your donors and advocates Rita Allen, Manager/Nonprofit Group, FreshAddress, Inc. If you are responsible for maintaining is a frank look at ten critical issues to organization’s behalf (with the look your well deserved and valued rela- be considered by savvy marketers try- and feel of coming from your organi- tionships with your donors and advo- ing to grow and update their lists. zation) to confirm deliverability. In cates, you should step into the waters approximately twenty business days, a of building your email files with seri- dIreCT LIsT-buILdIng reputable vendor will provide to your ous caution. With the available social organization guaranteed deliverable networking opportunities exploding oPTIons email addresses for 10% to 20+% of daily, it’s difficult to know how best to Before you even consider other op- your donor/advocate postal records so develop online relationships with your tions, are you already asking every- that you can begin to build an online constituents without alienating them where for email addresses? On your relationship with them. in the process. website or landing pages? At all points of sale? Through your call cen- Email Change of Address (ECOA) can ACCordIng To M&r ters? Via social networks? Have you help you reconnect with those with sTrATegIC serVICes attempted to request an email address whom you have lost contact due to a or reconnect via direct mail? bouncing or inactive email address. “enonProFIT benCh- Re-engaging with your valued constit- MArK sTudy”, Organically-grown email addresses uents online is typically a welcomed are the least costly to obtain and will reconnection, by matching volun- • While social media gets most of provide you with the low-hanging teered updates to your bouncing and the buzz lately, email clearly is fruit. But even doing everything inactive records. An ECOA process still king, at least for now. right will probably only yield email will provide matches from one unique addresses for approximately 25% of electronic identifier (i.e. bouncing/ • The number of online gifts and your constituent or donor base, and inactive email address) to another total dollars raised online con- your growth rate, while steady, might unique electronic identifier (current tinue to increase;  the increase in not meet your marketing goals. preferred email address), thereby pro- number of gifts helped to offset a viding you with greater assurance that decline in average gift from $86 Once you have optimized your web- the updated email address is the right to $71 site and constituent contact points for email address for your existing donor/ • Email lists continue to grow, the above, here are a couple of other advocate. but at slower rates than in past time-tested methods for building your email address database. studies; almost 20% of email ad- doIng your dresses go bad every year due to bounces or unsubscribes Email appending is a quick and ef- hoMeWorK When fective way to build an email database eVALuATIng Vendors Fortunately, there are proven means by utilizing a vendor who will match of building and updating your email opt-in email addresses to your donor/ Before you decide on a service part- databases and keeping your organiza- advocate postal records. An email ner, take time for a little sleuthing. tion’s brand in the forefront of your appending vendor will match your Find out who they are, what their in- valued donors’ attention. Each can be input file to opt-in email addresses dustry reputation is, who their clients a brilliant marketing tactic or a cus- from licensing websites and then are, and where they’re located. Ask tomer relations debacle. This article send a permission message on your for references. Be wary of vendors 33
  • 34. with incomplete contact information, Yikes! Watch out! Building or updat- suPPressIons As match rates that seem too good to be ing a third-party or prospect list is true, or unverified clients, employees, not recommended unless you want a PArT oF your or testimonials on their website. high spam complaint rate. And a high dATAbAse ProCess spam compliant rate will ruin your Knowledge, expertise, and hands-on email reputation and result in your Your vendor should automatically experience may sometimes be dif- emails getting blocked or blacklisted. perform robust hygiene services on ficult to determine so it’s best to use When utilizing email database ser- your list—scrubbing and eliminating reputation and integrity as your initial vices, be sure you only use only your typos, errors, and other problematic screens. Ask the vendor how long donor or member lists (i.e. individuals addresses from their raw matches—to they’ve been in business, which pro- with whom you have a relationship ensure your results are clean and fessional associations they belong to, that never got around to giving you deliverable. In addition, your vendor what kind of industry presence they their email addresses for one reason should adhere to all CAN-SPAM regu- have, who their partners and clients or another or have forgotten to update lations and run all required suppres- are, and what other services they of- their email address with your organi- sions, including FCC Wireless Do- fer. Don’t risk being a guinea pig for zation). mains, the DMA’s Do Not Email list, some fly-by-night company. and your own unsubscribe list. They should also discuss other optional InsIsT on 100% suppressions that may be legally re- seLeCTIng A Vendor oPTed-In dATA quired for your industry, such as the Ever heard the expression “a penny Utah and Michigan Child Protec- wise and pound foolish?” The least A high-quality, trustworthy vendor tion Acts. Bottom line, your vendor expensive solution is not always the should be able to promise you 100% should be as vigilant with your data as best solution. If you do opt for a opt-in (volunteered) email addresses it is with its own. low-cost provider, be sure you know (with detailed opt-in info, including exactly how that vendor is provid- source information and date & time InsIsT on 100% ing you quality service and results stamp).  Your vendor should be able to tell you exactly where their data guArAnTeed for that bargain-basement price. A poorly-performed email append can came from. deLIVerAbLe resuLTs bring down your entire email program Any emails you pay for should be On a related note, insist that your and the few pennies you saved per deliverable. Period. Not only that, vendor send a permission message to address will pale in comparison to the but they should also be the preferred their email address matches to con- revenues lost and damaged reputa- email addresses of your specific do- firm deliverability and provide your tion you’ll incur by picking up invalid nors and/or advocates. If they bounce donors and advocates with an op- email addresses and spamtraps. (within a reasonable post-append portunity to opt out before results are As for ECOA services, check to make grace period)—and 1%-3% of results returned to you. Most vendors’ opt-in sure your provider operates a website typically do—your vendor should databases have bounce rates of 30% where these old and new email ad- credit your account immediately. to 50% or more. We’ve seen some dress updates are collected. Again, Don’t settle for a credit towards a fu- as high as 80%. Without the added in purchasing any email address ture project that you might never want screen of a permission message, you services, let “buyer beware” be your to do with this vendor. or your ESP risk experiencing these mantra as there are many companies same high bounce rates when messag- offering ECOA and other opt-in email database services that are doing ing raw results. Doing so could result PAy ATTenTIon To The in your being blocked or blacklisted IMPorTAnCe oF your something altogether different behind by the ISPs: not pretty... the curtain. oPTed-ouT eMAIL resuLTs APPendIng And eCoA InsIsT on LIsT As previously mentioned, part of your email append process and Email besT PrACTICes CLeAnIng And Change of Address service should include permission messaging, where 34
  • 35. the newly-appended email addresses value — what kinds of informa- When you first start messaging your of your donors and advocates are pre- tion, offers, and/or ideas you will appended email addresses, you sented the opportunity to opt out of an be sending them, and how often should expect a few bounces due to email relationship with your organiza- • Explain that the cost savings for unpaid accounts, full mailboxes, and tion. Respect and protect their priva- you translates into more monies everyday Internet issues. A handful cy rights as well as your organization’s available for those that truly need of complaints are also not unusual reputation by ensuring your deliver- help  as you are messaging recipients at able email results file is accompanied • Re-engage your constituents with an email address they didn’t directly by a list of any recipients who opted value added text and any new of- provide to you. You can prepare for out. And honor those unsubscribes! ferings (e.g. newsletters, company this in advance by alerting your mem- highlights, online opportunities to ber response department and putting sendIng PersonALIzed contribute or engage, etc.) extra effort into crafting your welcome • Don’t just begin by asking them message. eMAIL MessAges To to make a contribution; build your househoLd APPend online relationship first like you If you decide to pursue an Email Ap- resuLTs would build any relationship pend or Email Change of Address ser- vice, play by the rules. Be sure to pay A marketer’s nightmare is a personal- A Word To The WIse serious attention to planning, pricing, ized email flub (e.g. sending bill_kip- and process. When performed in an an email with the Don’t expect your appended emails to ethical, conservative, and conscien- salutation “Dear Beth”). Not only immediately start performing as well tious manner, Email Change of Ad- might it give poor Bill an identity as those in your house file. Have real- dress and Email Appending services crisis, but it probably completely istic expectations. Marketing studies can provide you with guaranteed alienates you from any future email have shown that it takes anywhere deliverable email addresses for up to relationship with that household. Be from 7-10 impressions to get someone 15-25% or more of your donor/advo- careful. If your email appends are the to notice. Email is no different than cate base on your first project. The result of a household match, skip the any other marketing medium. Eventu- potential gains in revenue growth, personalization. On the other hand, ally, these emails will perform as well market penetration, and deeper rela- if your emails are a result of an indi- as those on your house list. tionships with your constituents are vidual append, go for it. yours for the taking … and yours for Excerpt from: The Convio On- the losing. Just make sure to tread segMenTIng neW dATA line Marketing Nonprofit Bench- carefully and work with a partner that mark Index™ Study shares a similar philosophy! FroM your house LIsT “In a world of increasing email Just because you now have the email spam, geographical mobility, and In addition to servicing Fortune 1000 addresses of your donors and/or ad- job hopping, the rate of attrition for clients, Rita is responsible for managing most nonprofits’ email files will likely the Nonprofit Group at FreshAddress, Inc. vocates doesn’t necessarily mean She is an active member of the DMA Non- they’re ready to donate or sign that increase unless they continue to en- profit Federation (including a seat on the petition!  Yes, they are familiar with gage with their constituents and pro- Membership Committee), a contributor to your organization, but they didn’t ask actively provide ways for constituents the DMA Nonprofit Federation Journal, you directly to solicit them via email.  to update their email addresses and author of industry white papers, and a So, how do you handle these newly- communication preferences.” frequent participant at national Nonprofit appended and/or updated email ad- Technology Network events as well as a dresses? participant and speaker at local and DMA Like fish in the refrigerator…some Nonprofit Federation conferences. Rita’s things begin to spoil after time: previous experience includes national • Send an unobtrusive “welcome Be ready to message your new and sales with the Art Institutes and American message” to your newly appended updated email addresses as quickly Showcase as well as corporate marketing email addresses that introduces as your vendor provides them to you. and sales with The Chocolate Dipper/Bos- them to this new mode of commu- With an approximately 20-30% at- ton. She earned her BS in Art Education nication with you and explains its trition rate each year…be cautious. from SUNY Buffalo. 35
  • 36. TWeeTIng bAsICs for a successful fundraising campaign Renee Alexander Hamilton, Marketing and Social Media Strategist for Operation Smile I n May of 2009, an incredible intersection of compassionate people, Twitter Key Influencers and creativity came together to launch a campaign for Operation Smile called 140 Smiles. Since launching this campaign that continues through October 2009, I have often been asked to give advice on raising funds via Twitter. My answer is always the same; let’s chat about the nature of the Twitter beast first, then you’ll have the tools you need to identify a campaign that could work for your organization. I was named Operation Smile’s Social Media Strategist in February 2009, having previously served as Donor Relations Supervisor and been really passionate about donor service. I saw social media as a channel to listen to, respond to and inspire our donors and future supporters. Together with our marketing and web team, we decided early on that Twitter was a great channel to pursue and in doing so learned a few basic lessons I will share here. esson Listen Up! L 1 Listen to the various channels; follow conversation threads or mentions about your organization or key topics. Tip: you can go to right now, enter your organization name or keyword and see what folks on Twitter are saying about you! This attentive listening will help inform how you use the medium; for instance it can be a great customer service tool as you respond to any concerns or issues expressed. You can follow similar organizations to see what information they are sharing and determine if you want to go that route or create your own format. What you will most likely find by listening is that anything goes! Tip: When you start talking rather than just listening, BE AUTHENTIC; don’t use a sales voice, PR voice or Development voice! Use the voice of 36
  • 37. a friend sharing information that is everyone in the Twitterverse” etc. mention you on Entertainment To- interesting, valuable or entertaining. and don’t forget to re-tweet. Twitter night and has intrinsic value. You That is the best (and only) way people is about community, reciprocity and will be able to slowly build a rapport will really start to follow you, respect conversation; the more you talk, the with these Key Influencers and then you and Re-Tweet you! more people will listen! mobilize them around social media campaigns when you launch them. To esson Do not re-invent esson Shift your find out who’s hot on Twitter, check L L out these sites:, www. 2 the wheel! 4 ROI, The first thing I did Paradigm as Social Media Strategist was to identify the nonprofit superstars Social Media is not about the fast Social Media is who have their finger on the pulse of applications, practices and tips. buck, but the long term donor value and brand loyalty. Here are some not about the For me this was Beth Kanter, Wendy Harmon of the Red Cross, Carrie fields to add to your spreadsheet that will help you gauge Twitter success. fast buck, but Lewis of the Humane Society and # of Followers: Do not be fooled, just Holly Ross of NTEN. By following these few social media experts I was like anything else you want quality the long term not quantity. It doesn’t matter that sure to get the latest information and tools and understand tactics that you have 4000 followers if 3000 of them are spam or spammers. Do not donor value and were working or not working for other organizations. There is an incredibly be lured into the “Get 1000 followers overnight” gimmick. brand loyalty. helpful community of NPTech folks and lots of free resources. I would #of Re-Tweets: A Re-Tweet is the encourage you to check out www. Note: There are a ton of new applica- highest Twitter honor; it means, a complete wiki with tions for Twitter every week. I per- someone liked your post enough to tool kits, slide decks and step by step sonally use Tweetdeck for searching, re-broadcast it to their followers. Not instructions to help you form and tweeting and tracking. HooteSuite only does this help your Twitter rank- manage your Social Media Strategy. is also a stellar all purpose tool for ing, but it helps spread your message managing your Twitter usage as is esson Jump In! and acquire more followers. Tools that help you calculate Re-tweets Co-Tweet. The trick is to find the ap- plication that is most intuitive for you. L 3 and Twitter ranking include: www. All of these services have great sup- Once you have listened,,, twit- port staff that will help make sure you and culled resources & are getting the most out of the tools. from the experts it’s And the beauty is, all you need to do time to jump in. With Twitter there # of Click Throughs: This is right out is Tweet your question and most likely should be no fear. As long as you of traditional marketing. How many you will be tweeted back quickly… are speaking in an authentic voice people clicked your links from Twit- Twitter is an awesome customer ser- you can’t go wrong. It may take some ter. You can track your click throughs vice channel! time to adjust to the short message with URL Shorteners like, format and determine what works, & The site will what generates Re-Tweets and also allow you to track click throughs. Launching a Twitter based sparks interest, so just play around with content. You don’t have to # of Key Influencers: We note when fundraising campaign: worry about being overly structured Key Influencers (i.e. Twitter power As I said in the beginning, we and on-message. In fact a few users) mention us or ReTweet for us. launched a great campaign in May generic messages are great “How is This is akin to getting a celebrity to via Twitter with a goal of raising 140 37
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  • 39. Smiles/$33,600 (in honor of the 140 you grow a Social Media Strategy. incredible webinars, resources and characters allowed in Twitter). This The best advice I can possibly give to trainings each month to keep you up campaign came about as a result of you is to have fun and make sure you to date at whatever level of expertise listening to supporters on Twitter smile while you tweet! you are. and identifying Key Influencers. @ @nonprofitorgs – The nonprofit Adventuregirl, a suggested Twitter Twitter account of Diosa “Power User” who now has over be flexible, Communications that only follows 850,000 followers, tweeted about nonprofits and posts information Operation Smile. By monitoring Tweets through Tweetdeck, we caught be real, pay for the industry as well as tweeting about what organizations are doing on the tweet, responded and through that correspondence had the opportunity attention to the Twitter @DannyBrown – Danny Brown, to launch a campaign in tandem with TWTRCON, the first Twitter for medium, and a social media PR and marketing professional offering a great network business conference. be fearless. and resources on the intersection of the tech world and marketing/PR We worked with Common Knowledge, @bBravo - Britt Bravo is a blogger, a nonprofit marketing firm on a strate- Here is a Top 10 list of nonprofit folks podcaster, nonprofit consultant and gy and mini-site making the campaign to follow to get you started: dogooder. Britt offers fun and easy- a live case study. We held a launch to-understand tips as well a wealth of party, engaged key influencers that @Kanter - Beth Kanter is the helpful links that include technical would be present at the conference preeminent expert and aggregator tools as well as marketing and and tweeted non-stop to the general of resources and organizations campaign strategy resources Twitter community. Now a few months successfully navigating the social @Philanthropy - The official after our initial launch we have raised media waters Twitter account for the Chronicle of enough funds for 48 surgeries and @Wharmon - Wendy Harmon of Philanthropy counting. As this live case study cam- the American Red Cross. After @Mashable - Not nonprofit specific, paign rolls on, we continue to have Hurricane Katrina, Wendy was but the pivotal Twitter blog with all opportunities to alter and reinvigorate the first nonprofiter thrust into the of the latest news and resources- a the campaign in an effort to reach Twitterverse in response to tweets MUST follow! our goal. Recently the 140 Smiles about the devastation and needs. campaign was selected as the official She is creating an incredible social Renee Alexander Hamilton is the Market- charity for the San Francisco Twesti- media hand-book as a resource to all ing and Social Media Strategist for Op- val, a hugely successful annual chari- nonprofits. eration Smile, an international children’s ty Tweet-Up. Our hope is through this @afine - Allison Fine, author of medical charity. In her role as Social Me- dia Strategist, Renee is dedicated to using final push we will meet our financial Momentum, keynote speaker and Social Media for donor engagement and goal. In addition to raising funds, we social media guide for nonprofits relationship building. Operation Smile’s have also created invaluable connec- offering great perspective and adventurous social media plan includes tions with brands for potential Cause resources for nonprofits of all sizes innovative ways to integrate event based Related Marketing, entertainment en- @katyaN4G - Katya Andreson, a fundraising and promotions with the lat- tities and the tech community. blogger, writer, nonprofit marketer, est social media tools. Renee encourages Robin Hood Marketing author, people getting into emerging media to The key take-aways from 140 Smiles Network for Good COO and an embrace social media as tools to comple- and our first real quarter of Social Me- incredible resource for all things ment a new consumer centric paradigm in dia Strategy is to be flexible, be real, marketing public relations and marketing. She is on a personal mission to shift the thinking of pay attention to the medium (the more @Ntenhross - Holly Ross of NTEN those responsible for branding from one you look and listen/the more opportu- (Non-Profit Technology Network). If way messaging to two way conversations nities you will find) and to be fearless. you are not yet a member and you are with donors and consumers using these Use the resources that are in great diving into the social media world, I new technology tools. abundance to get you started and help highly recommend joining. They offer 39
  • 40. the Power of Direct PRESRT STD Relevance. Responsibility. Results. U.S. POSTAGE PAID PERMIT NO. 47 WALDORF, MD 1615 L Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, dC 20036