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Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome
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Chapter 10: The Art of Ancient Rome

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  • 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 10From Seven Hills to Three Continents: The Art of Ancient Rome 1
  • 2. The Roman World 2
  • 3. Goals• Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to the expanse of the Roman Empire.• Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.• Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.• Understand what Roman portraiture says about Roman society.• Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.• Examine changes in Roman art and architecture as a result of expansion of the Roman Empire and the incorporation of the conquered cultures. 3
  • 4. THE MIGHTY EMPIRE OF ROMEAt its greatest extent, the Roman Empire stretched from Mesopotamia in the east toSpain in the west, and from North Africa in the south to Britain in the north. The RomanEmpire was a "multicultural" entity.Roman Art and the Modern World: Roman art and architecture has influenced theModern World. A major Roman building innovation was concrete construction.From Village to World Capital: The village founded by Romulus on April 21, 753 B.C.grew over a period of 900 years to become the capital of the greatest empire the world hadever known. 4
  • 5. 10.1 The Republic (509-27 B.C.)• Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to the expanse of the Roman Empire.• Discuss Roman architectural contributions, particularly concrete and the rounded arch.• Examine the ways in which Roman art is different from the classical art of the Greeks. 5
  • 6. The RepublicKings, Senators, and Consuls: A Republic was established following theexpulsion of the Etruscan kings in 509 B.C. Power was vested mainly in a senateand in two elected consuls.The Craze for Greek Art: During the Republic, the Romans developed a specialinterest in and taste for Greek art. 6
  • 7. Roman Architectural Innovations• Examine the contributions of the Romans in architecture. Consider structural elements as well as materials. 7
  • 8. Roman ArchitectureA Harbor Gods Eclectic Temple: Roman Temple architecture shows a blending of Etruscan and Greek features,and emphasizes the front of the building.10-1 Temple of "Fortuna Virilis" (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 B.C.Title: Forum Boarium - Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunus)Description: flank, cella wall with five engaged columns 8
  • 9. Temple of “the Sibyl”A Round Temple on a Cliff: The form of the Temple of "the Sibyl" is derived from the Greek round or tholos temple type.10-2 Temple of "the Sibyl" or of "Vesta," Tivoli, Italy, early first century B.C. 9
  • 10. Sanctuary of Fortuna PrimigeniaConcrete Transforms a Hillside: The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Palestrina is an impressive example ofconcrete construction on a massive scale.10-3 Reconstruction drawing of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late second centuryB.C.Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste Praeneste. Base of Temple of Fortuna 1by Erik Olson (model) 10
  • 11. Sculpture and Republican Verism• Examine the early funerary sculpture of the Roman culture.• Understand the form and purpose of Roman portraiture. 11
  • 12. Sculpture The Social Context of Portraits: Roman Republican sculpture is noted for its patrician portraits employing a verism derived from the patrician cult of ancestors and the practice of making likenesses of the deceased from wax death-masks. In the funerary relief, figures are shown bust-length (cut off at the base of the chest) in the Etruscan tradition.Figure 10-4 Reconstruction drawing of theSanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina,Italy, late second century BCE.10-4 Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome (?),Italy, ca. 30 B.C. Marble, approx. 2 11/2" high Courtesy ofMuseum of Fine Arts, Boston, Archibald Cary Coolidge Fund. 12
  • 13. Funerary Procession10-5 Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century B.C. Limestone, approx.2 2" high. Museo Nazionale dAbruzzo, LAquila. 13
  • 14. Head of a Roman patrician10-6 Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 B.C. Marble, approx. 14" high.Museo Torlonia, Rome. 14
  • 15. Portrait of a Roman generalAn Old Mans Head on a Young Mans Body: It was also the practice in sculpture during theRepublican period to place portrait heads on youthful, heroic bodies.10-7 Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 B.C.Marble, approx. 6 2" high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. The surviving portraits of prominent Roman Republican figures appear to be literal reproductions of individual faces. Although their style derives to some degree form Hellenistic and Etruscan, and perhaps even Ptolemaic Egyptian, portraits, Republican portraits are one way the patrician class celebrated its elevated position in society. These patricians did not ask sculptors to make them appear nobler than they were. Instead, they requested brutally realistic images of distinctive features. 15
  • 16. Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Breaks the Rules: The portrait of Julius Caesar appears on a silver denarius Inscribed with his newly acquired title, dictator perpetuus. 10-8 Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar, 44 B.C. Silver, diameter approx. 3/4". American Numismatic Society, New York. 16
  • 17. 10.2 The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.) • Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture. • Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life. • Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant. • Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting. • Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops. 17
  • 18. POMPEII AND THE CITIES OF VESUVIUSPOMPEII AND THE CITIES OF VESUVIUSBuried by a Volcano: Pompeii was destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79.Oscans, Samnites, and Romans: Pompeii was first settled by the Oscans and later by the Samnites.Sulla founded a new Roman colony on the site in 80 B.C.An Archeological Park: So much of the city has been preserved that it has been called a "living cityOf the dead." 18
  • 19. Roman Architecture in Pompeii• Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life.• Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant. 19
  • 20. POMPEII AND THE CITIES OF VESUVIUSBuried by a Volcano:Pompeii was destroyed in the sudden eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. Many prosperous towns were buried in asingle day. When researchers first explored the buried cities in the 18t city, the ruins had been undisturbed fornearly 1,700 years.Oscans, Samnites, and Romans:Pompeii was first settled by the Oscans and later by the Samnites. Sulla founded a new Roman colony on thesite in 80 BCE.An archeological park:So much of the city has been preserved that it has been called a "living city of the dead."ArchitectureThe Heart of Pompeii:The typical Roman town was planned originally with a centrally located public square or civic center (forum)located at the intersection of the main north-south street, the cardo, and the main east-west street, thedecumanus. 20
  • 21. ArchitectureThe Heart of Pompeii: The typical Roman town was planned originally with a centrally located public square orcivic center (forum) located at the intersection of the main north-south street, the cardo, and the main east-weststreet, the decumanus.10-9 Aerial view of the forum, Pompeii, Italy, second century B.C. and later. 21
  • 22. Plan of the forum of Pompeii10-10 Plan of the forum of Pompeii,Italy, second century B.C. and later. 22
  • 23. Aerial View of the amphitheater in PompeiiGladiators and wild animals:Shortly after the Romans took control of Pompeii, two of the towns wealthiest officials used their own funds toerect a large ampitheater at the southeastern end of town. It is the earliest such structure known and could easilyseat 20,000 spectators.A painting on the wall of a Pompeian house records a brawl between the Pompeians and their neighbors, theNucerians, during a gladiator contest. The fighting left many seriously wounded and led to the closing of theamphitheater for a decade. 10-11: Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE. 23
  • 24. Atrium of the House of the VettiiFor Patricians and Ex-Slaves: A domus, or single-family house, had a plain exterior; the focus wason the interior spaces. The parts of the house are fauces, atrium, impluvium, cubicula, tablinum,triclinium, and peristyle. The House of the Vetti had a large peristyle, but no tablinum. 10-13 Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, rebuilt A.D. 62–79 24
  • 25. Roman Wall Painting• Examine and compare the four styles of Roman wall painting. 25
  • 26. PaintingPainted Walls Everywhere: A large number of paintings decorating interior walls indicate both theprosperity and the tastes of the inhabitants of Pompeii. Many paintings have been removed from wallsand placed in the Naples Archeological MuseumThe First Style and Greek Mural Painting: The First Style imitates marble panels using paintedstucco relief. The wall is divided into three parts, with a dado at the bottom, a middle section (with thelarge, imitation marble panels), and an upper part of the wall with a cornice, a frieze, and anothercornice. Each panel is outlined with stucco. The cornices are also modeled in stucco. 26
  • 27. Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater10-12 Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca.A.D. 60–79. Approx. 5 7" X 6 1". Museo Nazionale, Naples. 27
  • 28. First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite HouseThe First Style and Greek Mural Painting: The First Style imitates marble panels using paintedstucco relief. The wall is divided into three parts, with a dado at the bottom, a middle section (with thelarge, imitation marble panels), and an upper part of the wall with a cornice, a frieze, and anothercornice. Each panel is outlined with stucco. The cornices are also modeled in stucco.10-14 First Style wall paintingin the fauces of the Samnite House,Herculaneum, Italy, late second century B.C. 28
  • 29. Dionysiac Mystery Frieze, Second StyleThe Second Style and the Triumph of Illusionism: The Second Style shows imaginary threedimensional worlds. The illusion is that the wall surface has receded.Dionysiac Mysteries at a Pompeian Villa: An example of Second Style painting is found in theVilla of the Mysteries, where rites associated with the Dionysiac Mysteries are celebrated in acontinuous frieze running round all four walls of the room. The life-size figures appear as if on ashallow ledge against a backdrop of painted panels.10-15 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wallpaintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries,Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 B.C. Frieze approx. 5 4" high. 29
  • 30. Second Style wall paintingsPerspective Painting in Antiquity: The Second Style painting in Cubiculum M of the Villa ofPublius Fannius Synistor shows "picture-window" vistas with illusionistic architecture on side andback walls. Sacred precincts with images of Diana-Lucina (goddess of the moon) and Hecate (ruler ofthe night), each flanked by picturesque architectural vistas, appear near the rooms entrance. Thebuildings are piled one above the other and painted in pastel colors. The vistas of colonnades andtemples appear on the rear wall.10-16 Second Style wall paintings(general view and detail of tholos)in Cubiculum M of the Villa ofPublius Fannius Synistor,Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 B.C.Approx. 8 9" high.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 30
  • 31. GardenscapeAn Empresss Painted Garden: The Second Style wall painting from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta,shows a continuous illusionistic gardenscape on all four walls.10-17 Gardenscape, Second Style wall paintingfrom the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy,ca. 30–20 B.C. Approx. 6 7" high.Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome. 31
  • 32. Third Style wall paintingThe Third Style: Elegance and Fantasy: The Third Style shows delicate linear fantasies againstmonochrome backgrounds. Cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus is decorated withelegantly attenuated architectural forms that frame small, floating landscapes. The painting from theVatican Virgil shows framed panels with atmospheric landscapes.10-18 Detail of a Third Style wall paintingfrom Cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus,Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 B.C. Approx. 7 8" high.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 32
  • 33. The old farmer of Corycus10-19 The old farmer of Corycus, folio 7 verso from the Vatican Vergil, ca. A.D. 400–420.Tempera on parchment, approx. 121/2" X 12". Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome. 33
  • 34. Fourth StyleNero and the Fourth Style: The Fourth Style includes illusionistic elements and framed panelsagainst a monochrome (white) background. The paintings in the Domus Aurea, supervised by thecourt painter Fabullus, show thin, delicate architectural frameworks in the upper section of the wall.The daintiness of the design is emphasized by the creamy white background. These paintings becamethe source for the "grotesque" style that emerged in the Renaissance10-20 Fourth Style wall paintingsin the Domus Aurea of Nero,Rome, Italy, A.D. 64–68. 34
  • 35. Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion RoomOn the Eve of the Eruption: In Fourth Style wall paintings, the lower zone (dado) has geometric panels. The middle section has larger panels with architectural views in perspective. Monochrome panels are decorated with delicate floral borders with figures of maenads and satyrs floating in the center. Figurative panels with mythological scenes, and elaborate architectural scenes in perspective appear at frieze level.10-21 Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room(Triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii,Pompeii, Italy ca. A.D. 70–79. 35
  • 36. Neptune and Amphitrite Wall MosaicGreek Myths on Roman Walls: The panel of Neptune and Amphitrite is framed by a scalloped pattern of sea shells. Different hues of blue set the main tone. The figures of Neptune and Amphitrite stand in a pentagonal panel of gold tesserae under a shell-like canopy. Neptune stands with a blue cloak draped over his left shoulder and right arm holding a golden trident; he has a tanned and youthful body but white hair and beard. His pose is inspired by Greek statues of Poseidon. Amphitrite, his consort, leans on a pillar. She raises her blue cloak with her right hand while holding a scepter in her left hand. Her pose imitates a Greek statue of Venus.10-22 Neptune and Amphitrite,wall mosaic in the summertriclinium of the House of Neptuneand Amphitrite, Herculaneum,Italy, ca. A.D. 62–79. 36
  • 37. Pretentious Private PortraitsPretentious Private Portraits: The house in which the portrait of a husband and wife wasfound was first thought to have been owned by Paquius Proculus, a baker. Later (in 1926) theowner was identified as Terentius Neus, a lawyer.10-23 Portrait of a husband and wife,wall painting from House VII,2,6,Pompeii, Italy, ca.A.D. 70–79. Approx. 23" X 201/2".Museo Nazionale, Naples. 37
  • 38. Painting the InanimatePainting the Inanimate: Still life with peaches shows illusionistic effects of light and shadow.10-24 Still life with peaches,detail of a Fourth Style wall painting from Herculaneum,Italy, ca. A.D. 62–79. Approx. 14" X 131/2".Museo Nazionale, Naples. 38
  • 39. Pax Romana and Augustus• Understand the nature of sculpture in the Roman Empire under Augustus. 39
  • 40. THE EARLY EMPIREAntony and Cleopatra Vanquished: In 31 B.C., Octavian defeated Mark Antony in the Battle ofActium and became the undisputed master of the Roman world as the emperor Augustus. The battlesignaled the end of the absorption of the Hellenistic kingdoms into the Roman empire. The oldRoman Republic ended in 27 B.C. when the Senate conferred on Octavian the title of Augustus.The Pax Romana: The peace and prosperity Augustus brought to the Mediterranean world andwhich prevailed for two centuries is known as the Pax Romana. During this time a number of publicworks were commissioned throughout the empire. Augustus and the Julio-Claudians (27 B.C.–A.D.68). 40
  • 41. Portrait of Augustus as generalThe Son of a God Rules Rome: The youthful portrait of Augustus is idealized in the Greekmanner.10-25 Portrait of Augustus as general,from Primaporta, Italy,copy of a bronze original of ca.20 B.C. Marble, 6 8" high.Vatican Museums, Rome. 41
  • 42. Portrait bust of LiviaA Never-Aging Empress: The idealized portrait of Livia is derived from images of Classical Greekgoddesses.10-26 Portrait bust of Livia, from Faiyum, Egypt,early first century A.D. Marble, approx. 131/2" high.Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. 42
  • 43. Ara Pacis Augustae The Augustan Peace Commemorated: The Ara Pacis Augustae celebrates the establishment of Peace by Augustus. The processions carved in relief on the north and south sides depict a specific event.  10-27 Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 B.C. (view from the southwest). 43
  • 44. Female personification10-28 Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east façade of the Ara Pacis, Rome, Italy,13–9 B.C. Marble, approx. 5 3" high. 44
  • 45. Procession of the imperial family10-29 Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis, Rome, Italy, 13–9 B.C. Marble, approx. 5 3" high. 45
  • 46. Maison CarréeRome Transformed into a Marble City: Augustus boasted that he had found Rome a city of brickand transformed it into a city of marble.An Augustan Temple Inspires Thomas Jefferson: The classicizing style of the so-called MaisonCarrée was admired by Thomas Jefferson, who used it as the model for his design of the State Capitolin Richmond, Virginia. 10-30 Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. A.D. 1–10. 46
  • 47. Pont-du-GardThe Fruits of the Pax Romana: The three-story aqueduct-bridge known today as the Pont-duGard demonstrates the skill of Romes engineers. 10-31 Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 B.C. 47
  • 48. Porta MaggioreClaudian Rustication: Constructed at a point where two of Romes water lines and two major roadsconverged, the Porta Maggiore is an outstanding example of the Roman rusticated masonry style. 10-32 Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 50. 48
  • 49. Neros Architectural Revolution: Neros Domus Aurea was richly decorated with marble paneling, painted and gilded stucco, and frescoes. The design of the octagonal hall shows an inventive new approach to concrete architecture.Figure 10-33 SEVERUS and CELER, plan (above) andsection (below) of the octagonal hall of the DomusAurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE. 49
  • 50. The Flavians (A.D. 69-96)The suicide of Nero in A.D. 68 brought an end to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Following a period ofcivil strife, Vespasian emerged as the new emperor. Vespasian, whose family name was Flavius, wassucceeded by his Titus. After Tituss death in A.D. 81, Vespasians second son, Domitian, becameemperor.A Triumph of Roman Engineering: The Colosseum was built using concrete. The oval seating areais supported by a complex system of concrete barrel vaults. The exterior, made of travertine, is dividedinto four bands. The large arched openings that pierce the lower three are framed by engaged columnswith Tuscan Doric capitals at the bottom, then Ionic capitals, and Corinthian capitals on the thirdlevel. The huge amphitheater in Rome known as the Colosseum was begun by Vespasian andcompleted by Titus in A.D. 80. 10-34 Aerial view of the Colosseum, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 70–80. 50
  • 51. Portrait of VespasianVespasian and the Revival of Verism: The simple tastes of Vespasian are apparent in his portrait,which perhaps deliberately resuscitates the veristic tradition of the Republic. 10-35 Portrait of Vespasian, from Ostia, Italy, ca. A.D. 69–79. Marble, approx. 16" high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome. 51
  • 52. An Elegant Flavian WomanAn Elegant Flavian Woman: A portrait bust of a young woman is notable for its elegance anddelicacy and for the virtuoso rendering of the differing textures of hair and flesh. 10-36 Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 90. Marble, approx. 2 1" high. Museo Capitolino, Rome. 52
  • 53. Arch of TitusA New Arch for a New God: Erected after Tituss death by Domitian, the single arched opening isframed by engaged columns with Composite capitals. The spandrels contain reliefs of winged femaleVictory figures. 10-37 Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after A.D. 81. 53
  • 54. The Spoils of JerusalemThe Spoils of Jerusalem: Two large, deeply carved relief panels on the inside of the passagewayshow the triumphal parade of Titus down the Sacred Way after his return from the conquest of Judaeaat the end of the Jewish Wars in A.D. 70. 10-38 Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after A.D. 81. Marble, approx. 7 10" high. 54
  • 55. Triumph of Titus10-39 Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after A.D. 81. Marble, approx. 7 10" high. 55
  • 56. Plan of TimgadFigure 10-40 Plan of Timgad(Thamugadi), Algeria, founded 100 CE. 56
  • 57. 10.3 High Empire ( 96 – 192 A.D.)• Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.• Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon.• Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it developed in the high Empire in Rome and in the colonies.• Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting.  57
  • 58. Art under Trajan in Spain, Africa, Italy• Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.• Examine artistic development and formal changes, especially issues of space and narration in the Column of Trajan. 58
  • 59. Architecture of the High Empire• Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon.• Explore the luxuries of Hadrian! 59
  • 60. High EmpireThe Roman Empire at Its Peak: Under Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonines in the second centuryA.D., the Roman Empire reached its greatest geographic extent and the height of its power.Trajan (A.D. 98–117)The First Spanish Emperor: Under Trajan, the first non-Italian to become emperor, Romeexpanded its rule even further abroad. Trajan instituted a number of social programs to secure thewelfare of the Roman people.A New Colony in Africa: A new colony for army veterans, founded by Trajan in A.D. 100 at Timgadin North Africa, follows a plan that resembles a Roman military encampment. 10-40 Plan of Timgad, Thamugadi (Algeria), founded A.D. 100. 60
  • 61. Forum of TrajanRomes Greatest Forum: The huge Forum of Trajan in Rome includes a triumphal arch, acolonnaded open square, a basilica, a temple, two libraries, and a giant commemorative column with atomb at its base. 10-41 Apollodorus of Damascus , Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated A.D. 112, model. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. 61
  • 62. Column of TrajanThe Column and Tomb of Trajan: The colossal freestanding column is decorated with acontinuous spiral narrative frieze depicting Trajans two successful campaigns against the Dacians. 10-42 Column of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated A.D. 112. 62
  • 63. Markets of TrajanShopping in Imperial Rome: The Markets of Trajan, built as a multilevel complex on the slope ofthe Quirinal hill, house both shops and administrative offices.10-43 Apollodorus of Damascus , Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 100–112, reconstruction drawing. 63
  • 64. Interior of the great hall of the Markets of Trajan10-44 Interior of the great hall of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 100–112. 64
  • 65. Arch of TrajanThe Triumphal Arch as Billboard: Relief panels illustrating Trajans achievements cover bothfaçades of the Arch of Trajan at Benevento. 10-45 Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. A.D. 114–118. 65
  • 66. Funerary relief of a circus officialRaces in the Circus Maximus: Employing the technique of continuous narration, a relief shows chariotracing in the refurbished Circus Maximus in Rome. 10-46 Funerary relief of a circus official, from Ostia, Italy, ca. A.D. 110–130. Marble, approx. 1 8" high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 66
  • 67. Hadrian (A.D. 117–138) A Greek Beard for a Roman Emperor: An idealized portrait of a bearded Hadrian was modeled on statues of mature Greek men. 10-47 Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, from Tel Shalem, Israel, ca. A.D. 130–138. Bronze, approx. 2 11" high. Israel Museum, Jerusalem.10-47 Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, from Tel Shalem, Israel, ca. A.D. 130–138. Bronze, approx. 2 11" high. Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 67
  • 68. The Pantheon, Temple for All Gods: The Pantheon, a huge temple dedicated to all the gods, is oneof the best-preserved buildings of antiquity. The cylindrical drum enclosing the interior space istopped by a concrete hemispherical dome pierced in the center by an oculus. 10-48 Pantheon, exterior view, Rome, Italy, A.D. 118–125. 68
  • 69. PantheonFigure 10-49 Longitudinal and lateral sections of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. 69
  • 70. Interior of the Pantheon10-50 Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, A.D. 118–125. 70
  • 71. Hadrians VillaA Well-Traveled Emperors Retreat: Hadrians villa at Tivoli includes a pool and an artificial grotto,called the Canopus and Serapeum, which commemorated the emperors trip to Egypt. The Canopus,however, is lined with marble copies of Greek statues and has an arcuated Corinthian colonnade atone end. 10-51 Canopus and Serapeum, Hadrians Villa, Tivoli, Italy, ca. A.D. 130–138. 71
  • 72. TreasuryA Baroque Tomb in a Jordanian Mountain: The so-called "Treasury" at Petra is cut into the livingrock face of the cliff. The design of the two-story façade utilizes a Greek architectural vocabulary, butthe elements have been articulated in a "baroque" manner that ignores Classical rules. 10-52 Al-Khazneh ("Treasury"), Petra, Jordan, second century A.D. 72
  • 73. OstiaThe Crowded Life of the City: Insulae are multi-story apartment blocks with exposed brick façadesin which shops occupied the ground floor and families lived in apartments on the upper floors. 10-53 Model of an insula, Ostia, Italy, second century A.D. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. 73
  • 74. Insula of the Painted VaultsPainted Vaults and Mosaic Pavements: Some of the finer apartments had mosaic floors andpainted walls and ceilings. 10-54 Ceiling and wall paintings in Room IV of the Insula of the Painted Vaults, Ostia, Italy, Early third century A.D. 74
  • 75. Neptune and creatures of the sea10-55 Neptune and creatures of the sea, floor mosaic in the Baths of Neptune, Ostia, Italy, ca. A.D. 140. 75
  • 76. Funerary reliefsTombs of Working Men and Women: Communal tombs at Ostia in the second century A.D. wereusually constructed of brick-faced concrete with façades that resembled those of the insulae. Manywere adorned with small, painted terracotta plaques that recorded the activities of middle-classmerchants and professional people. 10-56 Funerary reliefs of a vegetable vendor (left) and a midwife (right), from Ostia, Italy, second half of second century A.D. Painted terracotta, approx. 1 5" and 11" high respectively. Museo Ostiense, Ostia. 76
  • 77. The Antonines (A.D. 138–192) Succession by Adoption: In A.D. 138, Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius, whom he required at the same time to adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. On Hadrians death, Antoninus Pius became emperor. When he died 23 years later, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus became Romes first co emperors. Classical and Non-Classical Art in Antonine Rome: On one side of the pedestal of the column of Antoninus Pius is a Classical relief illustrating the apotheosis of Antoninus and his wife Faustina the Elder. On two other sides are identical representations of the decursio, in which the stocky figures signal a break with Classical convention.10-57 Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 161. Marble, approx. 8 11/2" high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 77
  • 78. Column of Antoninus Pius10-58 Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 161. Marble, approx. 8 11/2" high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 78
  • 79. Equestrian statue of Marcus AureliusDisquieting Antonine Portraits: The larger-than-life-size, gilded-bronze equestrian statue of MarcusAurelius shows the emperor weary and thoughtful. 10-59 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 175. Bronze, approx. 11 6" high. Campidoglio, Rome. 79
  • 80. Portrait of Marcus Aurelius10-60 Portrait of Marcus Aurelius, detail of a relief from a lost arch, Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 175–180. Marble, approx. life size. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. 80
  • 81. Cremation Gives Way to Burial: In the second century A.D., Romans began to favor burial overcremation, which in turn led to a demand for sarcophagi.Orestes on Roman Sarcophagi: The story of the Greek tragic hero Orestes carved in relief in acontinuous-narrative composition decorates one side of a Western type sarcophagus.10-61 Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, from Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 140–150. Marble, 2 71/2" high. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland. 81
  • 82. Asiatic sarcophagus with kline portrait of a womanA Mortal Venuss Coffin: All four sides of an Eastern type sarcophagus are carved with images ofGreek gods and heroes in architectural frames, while on the lid is carved a portrait of the deceasedwoman reclined on a bed in the tradition of Etruscan sarcophagi.10-62 Asiatic sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman, from Melfi, Italy, ca. A.D. 165–170.Marble, approx. 5 7" high. Museo Nazionale del Melfese, Melfi. 10-62 Asiatic sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman, from Melfi, Italy, ca. A.D. 165–170. Marble, approx. 5 7" high. Museo Nazionale del Melfese, Melfi. 82
  • 83. Mummy portrait of a manMummy Portraits in Roman Egypt: In Roman Egypt the traditional stylized portrait mask buriedwith the dead in mummy cases was replaced with realistic portraits painted in encaustic on wood. 10-63 Mummy portrait of a man, from Faiyum, Italy, ca. A.D. 160–170. Encaustic on wood, approx. 14" high. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, Charles Clifton Fund. 83
  • 84. Late Roman Sculpture and Painting• Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it developed in the High Empire in Rome and in the colonies.• Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting.  84
  • 85. 10.4 Late Empire (192-337 A.D.)• Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art and architecture in the Late Empire period.• Relate aspects of Roman culture and their influence in todays life.• Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire.• Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine.• Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds.  85
  • 86. THE LATE EMPIRE A Civilization in Transition: At the end of the 2nd century A.D. the power of Rome was beginning to decline. The Severans (A.D. 193–235) An African Rules the Empire: The African-born emperor Septimius Severus, his wife, Julia Domna, and their two sons, Caracalla and Geta, appear in a tondo portrait from Egypt painted in tempera. The head of Geta was later erased by Caracalla.10-64 Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt, ca. A.D. 200. Tempera on wood, approx. 14" diameter. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 86
  • 87. A Portrait A Portrait of a Ruthless Emperor: A marble head shows the ruthless character and suspicious nature of Caracalla.10-65 Portrait of Caracalla, ca. A.D. 211–217. Marble, approx. 14" high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 87
  • 88. Chariot procession of Septimius SeverusThe NonClassical Style Takes Root: A relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus in Lepcis Magnashows non-Classical elements such as front-facing and floating figures. 10-66 Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, A.D. 203. Marble, approx. 5 6" high. Castle museum, Tripoli. 88
  • 89. Plan of the central section of the Baths of CaracallaA Gigantic Roman Health Spa: The huge Baths of Caracalla in Rome were built with brick-facedconcrete. The symmetrical design includes a circular domed caldarium, a groin-vaulted frigidarium, and atepidarium. Also part of the complex were lecture halls, libraries, colonnaded exercise courts, and alarge swimming pool.3-D Model of Caracalla 10-67 Plan of the central section of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, A.D. 212–216. The bathing, swimming, and exercise areas were surrounded by landscaped gardens, lecture halls, and other rooms, all enclosed within a great concrete perimeter wall. 89
  • 90. The Soldier Emperors (A.D. 235–284):Murder and Civil War: During the turbulent third century A.D., many emperors ruled only brieflybefore being murdered.Soul Portraits of Soldier Emperors: Portraits of the soldier emperors in the third century A.D. arenotable for their emotional content and for their technical virtuosity. The nude, larger-than-life-sizebronze portrait of the short-lived emperor Trebonianus shows him with a small head and a thickwrestlers body. 10-69 Portrait bust of Trajan Decius, A.D. 249–251. Marble, approx. 31" high. Museo Capitolino, Rome. 90
  • 91. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus10-70 Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, A.D. 251–253. Bronze, approx. 7 11“ high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund. 91
  • 92. Battle of Romans and barbariansBarbarians and Philosophers: The front of the Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus shows a chaotic battlescene filled with writhing and highly emotive figures. The piled-up figures are spread evenly across theentire relief with no illusion of space behind them. The sarcophagus of a philosopher shows a Romanphilosopher seated on a throne flanked by two standing women in a frontal composition. 10-71 Battle of Romans and barbarians (Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus), from Rome, Italy, ca. A.D. 250–260. Marble, approx. 5 high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome. 92
  • 93. Sarcophagus of a philosopher10-72 Sarcophagus of a philosopher, ca. A.D. 270-280. Marble, approx. 4 11" high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 93
  • 94. Pantheon A Critique of the Pantheon: The Temple of Venus at Baalbek ignores Classical traditions of design in its insertion of an arch into the pediment of the gabled columnar façade and in the introduction of scalloped edges around the circular domed cella.Figure 10-73 Plan and reconstruction drawing of the Temple of Venus,Baalbek, Lebanon, third century CE. 94
  • 95. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284–306) Power Shared and Order Restored: Diocletian established the tetrarchy and adopted for himself the title of Augustus of the East. He ruled the East together with a Caesar of the East. The other two tetrarchs ruled as the Augustus and the Caesar of the West. Individuality Lost: The tetrarchs are shown in two pairs of porphyry portraits without any individuality.10-74 Portraits of the four tetrarchs, ca. A.D. 305. Porphyry, approx. 4 3" high. Saint Marks, Venice. 95
  • 96. Palace of Diocletian A Fortified Palace for a Retired Emperor: Diocletians walled palace at Split was laid out like a Roman castrum. A colonnaded court leads to the entrance to the imperial residence, which has a temple-like façade with an arch inserted into the pediment.10-75 Model of the Palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia, ca. A.D. 300–305. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. 96
  • 97. Changes in the Late Empire• Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art and architecture in the Late Empire period.• Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire. 97
  • 98. From Constantine to the Modern World• Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine.• Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds. 98
  • 99. Constantine (A.D. 306–337)Constantine and the Rise of Christianity: Following the defeat of Maxentius at the battle at the Milvian Bridge,Constantine ended the persecution of Christians. In 325, at the Council of Nicaea, Christianity became the officialreligion of the Roman Empire.A New Arch with Old Reliefs: The Arch of Constantine utilized refashioned reliefs from earlier monuments. Theshallow Constantinian reliefs show poorly modeled undistinguished figures that are squat in proportion and havemechanical gestures and repeated stances. 10-76 Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, A.D. 312–315 (south side). 99
  • 100. Arch of Constantine10-77: Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312-31:5 CE. Marble, approx. 3 4" high. Late Empire 100
  • 101. Portrait of Constantine10-78: Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315-33:0 CE. Marble, approx. 8 6" high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. Late Empire 101
  • 102. Basilica Nova10-79: Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Italy, ca. 306-31:2 CE. Late Empire 102
  • 103. Aula Palatina10-80: Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (exterior) 103
  • 104. Aula Palatina10-81: Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (interior) 104
  • 105. Coins with portraits of Constantine10-82: Coins with portraits of Constantine. Nummus (left), 307 CE. Billon, diameter approx. 1". American Numismatic Society, New York. Medallion (right), ca. 315 CE .Silver. Staatliche Münzsammlung, Munich. Late Empire 105
  • 106. Discussion Questions What are some of the unique elements of Roman art and architecture that distinguish it from Greek and other art of the same time period? In what ways does Roman art and architecture incorporate the arts of conquered peoples from England to Egypt? What does the presence of veristic portrait art of the Romans say about Roman culture? Why does the art under Constantine begin to move away from the verism of the High Empire? 106

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