Religion and the Civic Core            in the Netherlands                       René Bekkers              Center for Phila...
• Religious people do more of the total  giving and volunteering in the United  States, Canada, the Netherlands and  Fland...
Religion in the Netherlands                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011           ...
Giving in the Netherlands                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011             ...
• Civic participation tends to be  concentrated among a small group that  does most of the giving and volunteering.• Reed ...
• You can think of giving and volunteering  as a natural phenomenon with a certain  level of concentration.               ...
Like firebugs.                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                        ...
• Firebugs tend to cling together.• In my own front garden I find them  especially on dry and sunny places.• Churches are ...
This is not what the bugs do.                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011         ...
They concentrate -                     UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                  ...
Into a core.                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                          ...
So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity  associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in religion that...
Popular dichotomies• Conviction and community (Wuthnow,  1991)• Intrinsic religious motivation (Cnaan et  al., 1993) vs. a...
Volunteering and Giving• Volunteering and charitable giving are two  types of contributions to society• They are both indi...
UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                                                       15...
• In this formulation, religion is viewed as  an external force that influences people.• From religious communities, peopl...
So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity  associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in religion that...
So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity  associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in people that m...
A stone in the pond…• Going back to the firebugs, I wonder why  bugs like sunny rocks.• Why do donors and volunteers love ...
Endogeneity• Religion is increasingly a matter of choice.• People with personalities and value  systems that conflict with...
-                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                                     ...
UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                                                       22...
Back on track: so what?• This talk is mainly about how the  concentration of giving and volunteering  among religious grou...
Not…• …if those who are ‘left behind’ in churches  become more active citizens.   this would lead to a higher level of  c...
The data• All the ‘Giving in the Netherlands’ survey  data that we have gathered biennially  since 1997. Total n=9,696.• T...
Total giving by religion                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011              ...
Religious giving                    UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                     ...
Secular giving by religion                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011            ...
Top quintile, 2009                     UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                  ...
Doing their share?                     UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                  ...
Growing inequality in secular          giving over time                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and Socia...
Volunteer hours top quintile                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011          ...
Increasing concentration                   Proportion of volunteers by total giving quintile                             U...
Amounts donated by non-                volunteers                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecem...
Amounts donated by volunteers                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011         ...
Household giving: no-yes  Catholic                                                              1.403***                  ...
Amount donated in €  Catholic                                                               -109***                       ...
Volunteering: no-yes  Catholic                                                               1.142**                      ...
Amount donated in € (logs, donors only) Catholic                                                  -.063                   ...
Secular amount donated in € (logs, donors only) Catholic                                                  -.063           ...
Additional results• Concentration of giving among the elderly  is due to their stronger religiosity.• No significant chang...
Additional results• Similar denominational differences in  helping behavior as in volunteering.• Helping is positively rel...
Conclusions• The civic core is increasingly religious.• The civic core is becoming less highly  educated.• The civic core ...
Concentrating from                     UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                  ...
To this core.                   UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011                         ...
A grim future?• How can we create new forms of cohesion  in society that bring people together?• Creating opportunities to...
Something else                                                                      -                         UCSIA Worksh...
Contact• ‘Giving in the Netherlands’, Center for  Philanthropic Studies, Faculty of Social  Sciences, VU University Amster...
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Religion and the Civic Core in the Netherlands

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The civic core is the part of the population that is responsible for a disproportionately large part
of civic participation. This paper shows how the level of activity and the composition of the civic
core have changed in the Netherlands between 1997 and 2009 using data from the Giving in the
Netherlands Survey. The results show that - despite ongoing secularization - the civic core in the
Netherlands is increasingly religious. At the same time, the prevalence of higher educated
individuals in the civic core has diminished. Engagement in charitable giving is increasingly
related to engagement in volunteering. In sum, the increasing concentration of activity in the
civic core is especially visible among religious persons and volunteers.

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Religion and the Civic Core in the Netherlands

  1. 1. Religion and the Civic Core in the Netherlands René Bekkers Center for Philanthropic Studies VU University Amsterdam UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 1 Capital
  2. 2. • Religious people do more of the total giving and volunteering in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands and Flanders. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 2 Capital
  3. 3. Religion in the Netherlands UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 3 Capital
  4. 4. Giving in the Netherlands UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 4 Capital
  5. 5. • Civic participation tends to be concentrated among a small group that does most of the giving and volunteering.• Reed & Selbee (2001, NVSQ) call this group the ‘civic core’. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 5 Capital
  6. 6. • You can think of giving and volunteering as a natural phenomenon with a certain level of concentration. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 6 Capital
  7. 7. Like firebugs. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 7 Capital
  8. 8. • Firebugs tend to cling together.• In my own front garden I find them especially on dry and sunny places.• Churches are like the sunny rocks in my garden – a fertile environment for donors and volunteers. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 8 Capital
  9. 9. This is not what the bugs do. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 9 Capital
  10. 10. They concentrate - UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 10 Capital
  11. 11. Into a core. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 11 Capital
  12. 12. So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in religion that makes people care about society as a whole? UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 12 Capital
  13. 13. Popular dichotomies• Conviction and community (Wuthnow, 1991)• Intrinsic religious motivation (Cnaan et al., 1993) vs. associational ties (Jackson et al, 1995)• Norms and networks (Ruiter & De Graaf, 2006) UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 13 Capital
  14. 14. Volunteering and Giving• Volunteering and charitable giving are two types of contributions to society• They are both indicators of social capital, governed by similar principles• With Pamala Wiepking I recently summarized the literature on charitable giving in a review article for Voluntary Sector Review (November 2011 issue). UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 14 Capital
  15. 15. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 15 Capital
  16. 16. • In this formulation, religion is viewed as an external force that influences people.• From religious communities, people ‘get’ their networks and convictions.• Religious beliefs and prosocial values may vary from person to person. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 16 Capital
  17. 17. So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in religion that makes people care about society as a whole? UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 17 Capital
  18. 18. So, why?• Why is religious affiliation and activity associated with giving and volunteering?• What is it in people that makes them care about religion and society as a whole? UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 18 Capital
  19. 19. A stone in the pond…• Going back to the firebugs, I wonder why bugs like sunny rocks.• Why do donors and volunteers love going to church?• Church attendance involves exposure to requests for contributions.• For those who dislike contributing and/or being asked to do so, the church is not a fun place to be. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 19 Capital
  20. 20. Endogeneity• Religion is increasingly a matter of choice.• People with personalities and value systems that conflict with the church in which they were ‘born’ will leave.• Social influence in religious communities is also to some extent the influence group members allow. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 20 Capital
  21. 21. - UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 21 Capital
  22. 22. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 22 Capital
  23. 23. Back on track: so what?• This talk is mainly about how the concentration of giving and volunteering among religious groups in the Netherlands has changed over time.• This is important because religion disappears from Dutch society.• Will giving and volunteering decline along with secularization? UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 23 Capital
  24. 24. Not…• …if those who are ‘left behind’ in churches become more active citizens.  this would lead to a higher level of concentration of giving and volunteering among the religious.• …if another factor gains importance, such as education – but I am saving that for another occasion. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 24 Capital
  25. 25. The data• All the ‘Giving in the Netherlands’ survey data that we have gathered biennially since 1997. Total n=9,696.• The data are treated as separate cross- sections and then pooled into one file.• Amounts are adjusted for inflation. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 25 Capital
  26. 26. Total giving by religion UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 26 Capital
  27. 27. Religious giving UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 27 Capital
  28. 28. Secular giving by religion UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 28 Capital
  29. 29. Top quintile, 2009 UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 29 Capital
  30. 30. Doing their share? UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 30 Capital
  31. 31. Growing inequality in secular giving over time UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 31 Capital
  32. 32. Volunteer hours top quintile UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 32 Capital
  33. 33. Increasing concentration Proportion of volunteers by total giving quintile UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 33 Capital
  34. 34. Amounts donated by non- volunteers UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 34 Capital
  35. 35. Amounts donated by volunteers UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 35 Capital
  36. 36. Household giving: no-yes Catholic 1.403*** 1.438*** Protestant 1.757*** 1.751*** Survey wave 1.116*** Catholic * wave 1.038*** Protestant * wave 0.985 Secondary education 1.166*** 1.191*** Tertiary education 1.618*** 1.673*** Secondary * wave 0.915*** Tertiary * wave 0.916*** Church attendance (4 categories) 1.180*** 1.182*** Attendance * wave 0.997 n 9,696 9,696 Odds ratios in logistic egression of household giving, also including age (model 1) and age * wave (model 2), UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 36 Capital
  37. 37. Amount donated in € Catholic -109*** -111*** Protestant 216*** 215*** Survey wave 14*** Catholic * wave 7*** Protestant * wave 3 Secondary education 51*** 71*** Tertiary education 160*** 185*** Secondary * wave -17*** Tertiary * wave -21*** Church attendance (4 categories) 125*** 124*** Attendance * wave 2*** n 7,857 7,857 Odds ratios in logistic egression of household giving, also including age (model 1) and age * wave (model 2), UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 37 Capital
  38. 38. Volunteering: no-yes Catholic 1.142** 1.146** Protestant 1.723*** 1.709*** Survey wave 1.045*** Catholic * wave 0.999 Protestant * wave 1.025 Secondary education 1.190*** 1.245*** Tertiary education 1.613*** 1.695*** Secondary * wave 0.958*** Tertiary * wave 0.963*** Church attendance (4 categories) 1.333*** 1.326*** Attendance * wave 1.017*** n 9,030 9,030 Odds ratios in logistic egression of household giving, also including age (model 1) and age * wave (model 2), UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 38 Capital
  39. 39. Amount donated in € (logs, donors only) Catholic -.063 -.097 -.098 Protestant .841*** .744*** .688*** Survey wave .111*** .106*** .085*** Secondary education .707*** .585*** .554*** Tertiary education 1.393*** 1.278*** 1.237*** Volunteering .389*** .235*** .159 Volunteering * wave .067*** .059*** .046*** Social responsibility .384*** .357*** Altruistic values .628*** .582*** Asked to volunteer .108* .058 Number of solicitations .214*** .161*** Requests * wave .015* n 5,983 5,983 5,983 Odds ratios in OLS regressions of log of total amount donated, also including age , age * wave, education * wave, religion * wave UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 39 Capital
  40. 40. Secular amount donated in € (logs, donors only) Catholic -.063 -.259*** -.296*** Protestant .283*** .098 -.064 Survey wave -.026*** .114*** .085*** Secondary education -.025 .585*** .522*** Tertiary education .554*** 1.278*** 1.304*** Volunteering .375*** .132 Volunteering * wave .054** .031 Social responsibility .357*** Altruistic values .643*** Asked to volunteer .057 Number of solicitations .165*** Requests * wave .018** n 5,983 5,983 5,983 Odds ratios in OLS regressions of log of total amount donated, also including age , age * wave, education * wave, religion * wave UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 40 Capital
  41. 41. Additional results• Concentration of giving among the elderly is due to their stronger religiosity.• No significant changes in relationships with hours volunteered among volunteers.• No changes in relationships of prosocial values with giving. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 41 Capital
  42. 42. Additional results• Similar denominational differences in helping behavior as in volunteering.• Helping is positively related to volunteering, both secular and religious.• The relationship between secular volunteering and church attendance has become stronger over time. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 42 Capital
  43. 43. Conclusions• The civic core is increasingly religious.• The civic core is becoming less highly educated.• The civic core becomes increasingly concentrated: volunteering and giving increasingly go together. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 43 Capital
  44. 44. Concentrating from UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 44 Capital
  45. 45. To this core. UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 45 Capital
  46. 46. A grim future?• How can we create new forms of cohesion in society that bring people together?• Creating opportunities to contribute time and money in groups with positive norms: sunny rocks UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 46 Capital
  47. 47. Something else - UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 47 Capital
  48. 48. Contact• ‘Giving in the Netherlands’, Center for Philanthropic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, VU University Amsterdam: www.geveninnederland.nl• René Bekkers, r.bekkers@vu.nl• Blog: renebekkers.wordpress.com• Twitter: @renebekkers UCSIA Workshop Volunteering, Religion, and SocialDecember 8, 2011 48 Capital

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