Change management and projects
It has long been suggested within the project manage-
ment literature that projects and programs are a way of
organizing change within organizations . However, while
signiﬁcant research has been conducted in both the change
management and project management literatures, there has
been little engagement between the two. To make a start in
ﬁlling that gap, we plan a special issue of the International
Journal of Project Management on Change Management
and Projects. This will be linked to the international project
management conference, happy projects on the topic ‘‘Pro-
jects and Change (again)” sponsored by the Projektman-
agement Group of the Vienna University of Economics
and Business Administration held in Vienna in June 2009.
1. Change management
Social systems, such as teams, organizations, and socie-
ties, change . Permanent organizations, such as compa-
nies and proﬁt centres, as well as temporary
organizations, such as projects and programs, can all be
subjected to change.
Levy and Merry  oﬀer a development model for orga-
nizations which diﬀerentiates between ‘‘ﬁrst order change”
and ‘‘second order change”. The ﬁrst order change leads to
a quantitative, content-related and gradual change, the sec-
ond order change, however, is qualitative and sudden. It
leads to a new identity of the considered organization. Sec-
ond order changes, which are required because of a discon-
tinuous development of the organization, can be
diﬀerentiated in ‘‘Radical New-Positioning” and ‘‘Trans-
forming” according to the demand for and the potential
to change (see Fig. 1).
Discontinuities comprise crisis and chances of organiza-
tions. Crises can result from a basic shift of the market or
from a necessary recall campaign of a faulty product.
Chances can arise from entering into a strategic alliance,
from a merger with another company or as a result of
the accessibility of new technologies .
2. Designing of the change process by projects
Many organizations apply projects for organizing
change. Projects can provide an impetus to overcome resis-
tance, allowing the change to build up a momentum and
they can be used to pilot the change .
Diﬀerent change management models describe diﬀerent
phases of a change process (for example see [6,7]). The dif-
ferentiation of the change types allows the design of speciﬁc
change processes and relating selected phases to projects or
programs . Fig. 2 is based on the change process devel-
oped by Heitger and Doujak  and relates diﬀerent phases
to possible organization forms.
While the project management practitioner community
suggests that projects and programs are applied for manag-
ing change in organizations , the research community
has been slow to respond. Research has been published
in the project management literature (for example see
[10–12]) but to date there has been very little interaction be-
tween the project management and change management
communities, and very little recognition in the change man-
agement community of the value of project and program
management in implementing change. We propose this spe-
cial issue of the International Journal of Project Manage-
ment to stimulate further debate on the role of project
management in implementing change. The special issue will
be linked to the annual international project management
conference in Austria.
3. The conference, happy projects ‘09: projects and change
The conference will be held on 4th and 5th of June 2009
in Vienna, Austria. It is one of a series of conferences
stretching back 25 years. It is hosted by the Projektman-
agement Group of the Vienna University of Economics
and Business Administration, and is organized by Roland
Gareis Consulting. The topic for 2009 is ‘‘Projects and
Change (again)”, as organizations not only change once
but must change again and again.
4. Call for papers
We seek for papers that focus on second order change
and especially discuss the relationship between change
management and project management. Papers may include
topics such as
0263-7863/$34.00 Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
International Journal of Project Management 26 (2008) 771–772
Relationship between change management and project
and program management.
Projects and programs for the design of the change
Project and program management for diﬀerent change
types and change processes.
Relationships between roles in the change process and
project and program roles.
Relationships between interventions in the change pro-
cess and in projects and programs.
Individual and organizational change management com-
petences in project-oriented companies.
HR and change management in the project-oriented
The papers will go through a double blind reviewing
process. Following the schedule is outlined.
As a ﬁrst step we welcome abstracts (800-1000 words) by
1st March 2009.
Authors will be notiﬁed by 30th March 2009.
The Conference happy projects ’09: Projects and Change
(again) takes place 4th and 5th June 2009.
Full papers are to be submitted by 10th June 2009.
Papers are ﬁnally selected for the special issue by 30th
Authors return revised papers by 30th August 2009.
The papers are published in the IJPM special issue in
If you wish to submit an abstract please send it to Mar-
tina.Huemann@wu-wien.ac.at. We are looking forward to
reading your work and meeting you at the happy projects
’09 conference: projects change (again) in Vienna.
 Turner JR, Grude KV, Turloway L, editors. The project manager as
change agent. London: McGraw-Hill; 1996.
 Luhmann N. Social system. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press;
 Levy A, Merry U. Organizational transformation: approaches,
strategies, and theories. New York: Praeger Publisher; 1986.
 Gareis R. Change-management and projekte. In: Wald A, editor.
Advanced project management. Berlin: Lit Verlag; 2008.
 Turner JR, Mu¨ller R. On the nature of the project as a temporary
organization. Int J Project Manage 2003;21:1–8.
 Kotter JP. Leading change. Why transformation eﬀorts fail. Harvard
Bus Rev 1995;52(2):106–14.
 Heitger B, Doujak A. Harte Schnitte, neues Wachstum. Die Logik der
Gefu¨hle und die Macht der Zahlen im Changemanagement. Vienna:
 Gareis R. Happy projects. Vienna: Manz; 2006.
 Oﬃce of Government Commerce, Managing Successful Programmes,
second ed. London: The Stationery Oﬃce; 2007.
 Pellegrinelli S, Partington D, Hemingway C, Mohdzain Z, Shah M.
The importance of context in programme management: an empirical
review of programme practices. Int J Project Manage 2007;25:41–55.
 Lehtonen P, Martinsuo M. Change program initiation: deﬁning and
the program-organization boundary. Int J Project Manage
 Johansson S, Lo¨fstro¨m M, Ohlsson O¨ . Separation or integration? A
dilemma when organizing development projects. Int J Project Manage
Martina Huemann *
Franz-Klein Gasse 1,
Tel.: +43 1 4277 29406
E-mail addresses: Roland.Gareis@wu-wien.ac.at
Martina.Huemann@wu-wien.ac.at (M. Huemann)
Potential for change
Fig. 1. Change types after Gareis.
vision, a plan
Conception Pilot Implementation
Fig. 2. Design of the change process ‘‘Transforming”.
772 Guest editorial / International Journal of Project Management 26 (2008) 771–772