Early History <ul><li>Earliest forms of birth control date back to 1850 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Early forms of birth control during the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal for use in early 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>Government though it caused adultery and promiscuity which was against the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Re-legalized in 1918 because or WWII soldiers and STDs </li></ul>
Beginning of Debate <ul><li>Religious debate- The Church and the State were one. Therefore, laws were based on the Bible and it spoke of procreation, not prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Government debate- Birth Control effects families and the economy. It also leads to teens having sex and married couples engaging in adultery </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist Debate- A woman has the right to choose if and when she wants to have a child. Men also should be able to dictate when they wish to make children. </li></ul>
Birth Control Changes <ul><li>Evolution of birth control- The first forms of birth control were only for STD’s. Now they have various from condoms to pills and implants. 1844-1873 The U.S. contraceptive industry flourishes. In addition to condoms, there's widespread sale and use of intrauterine devices or IUDs, douching syringes, vaginal sponges, diaphragms and cervical caps </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Rights- As feminism rose, so did the chance to give women choices of how they wanted to use birth control. They were not dictated by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural changes- Different cultures have different beliefs when it comes to birth control. While America is democratic, other countries do not have the same views. </li></ul>
Government and Birth Control <ul><li>1873 The U.S. Congress passes the Comstock laws. Written by dry goods merchant and anti-obscenity crusader Anthony Comstock, the law makes all forms of contraception illegal. The contraceptive industry continues to flourish -- but the devices are now sold to promote "feminine hygiene." </li></ul>
Important Dates 1921 In the 1920s, the U.S. birth rate drops by half. Condom reliability is still terrible by modern standards, but people achieved effective birth control by combining condoms, the rhythm method, male withdrawal, diaphragms, and/or intrauterine devices. 1960 The Searle drug company receives FDA approval for Enovid - the first birth control pill. "The Pill" revolutionizes contraception. It's 100% effective -- but has terrible side effects, including life-threatening blood clots. Eventually it's realized that the dose is 10 times too high. 1965 The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down the Comstock laws that banned contraception. 1976 A T-shaped IUD is approved by the FDA, and other designs follow. These devices are inserted by doctors and provide birth control for up to 10 years. They fall out of favor after one - the Dalkon Shield - is found to cause pelvic inflammatory disease in some women. 1980s The modern, low-dose, two- and three-phase birth control pills become available.
Important Dates <ul><li>1992 The FDA approves the first hormone shot to prevent pregnancy for several months at a time -- Depo Provera. </li></ul><ul><li>1998 The first emergency contraception is approved by the FDA. Women can take Preven pills up to 72 hours after sex to prevent pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>2000-2002 Four new birth control products are approved by the FDA - the first in a decade. Ortho Evra, a birth control "patch," slowly releases hormones through the skin, freeing women from a daily pill. NuvaRing, a small, flexible ring as big as a silver dollar, is inserted into the vagina and releases hormones for three weeks. Lunelle is a monthly hormone injection. Mirena is an IUD effective for 5 years; it also causes lighter periods for most women. </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The first continuous birth control pill, which women take every day to suppress their periods and provide birth control, was approved in September. Seasonale schedules four menstrual periods a year. Researchers are working on other pills that would schedule one menstrual period a year </li></ul>
Title X <ul><li>1970 law that provides family planning for nearly 5 million women every year at more than 4,600 health centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents about a million unintended pregnancies annually, of which about half would likely end in abortion. </li></ul>
Sources <ul><li>"Benefits of Birth Control Pills." UWSP University Health Service, Aug. 2000. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.http://wellness.uwsp.edu/medinfo/handouts/Benefits%20of%20Birth%20Control%20Pills.pdf. DayBreaking, ‘Choice’” </li></ul><ul><li>Carr, Bernadean. "Birth Control." Catholic Answers . Catholic.com, 10 08 2004. Web. 26 Apr </li></ul><ul><li>DeNoon, Daniel. Birth Control Timeline . April 19, 2011. http://www.medicinenet.com </li></ul><ul><li>Espey E, “Contraception: What Every Internist Should Know.” Med Clin North Am –September 2008; 92(5): 1037-58, ix-x. MEDLINE. </li></ul><ul><li>Lara-Torre E, “Update in adolescent contraception.” Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am – March 2009; 36(1): 119-28. MEDLINE. </li></ul><ul><li>2011. <http://www.catholic.com/library/Birth_Control.asp>. </li></ul>