Three Periods: Pre colonial Colonial Spanish American Colonization The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are from the Spanish, Japanese, Malay, Hindu, Chinese, and American cultures.
In this era, the most common built-house is the NIPA HUT (Bahay Kubo).Nipa huts were the native houses of theindigenous people of the Philippinesbefore the Spaniards arrived. They are stillused today, especially in rural areas. Asidefrom nipa huts, other small houses werebuilt on top of trees to prevent animal aswell as enemy attacks. So as the yearspassed by, there are many different styleof nipa hut that were made.
The nipa hut also known as bahay kubo, isan indigenous house used in the Philippines.The native house has traditionally beenconstructed with bamboo tied together andcovered with a thatched roofusing nipa/anahaw leaves. A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture asit represents the Filipino valueof BAYANIHAN, which refers to a spirit ofcommunal unity or effort to achieve aparticular objective
In this era, the nipa hut or Bahay Kubo gaveway to the BAHAY NA BATO (stone house)and became the typical house of nobleFilipinos. The Bahay na Bato followed the nipahuts arrangements such as open ventilationand elevated apartments. The most obviousdifference between the two houses would bethe materials that was used to build them. TheBahay na Bato was constructed out of brick andstone rather than the traditional bamboomaterials.
The Bahay Na Bato, the Colonian FilipinoHouse, is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanishand Chinese influences. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur,excellently preserved examples of the houses ofthe noble Filipinos can be admired. In Taal,Batangas, the main street is still ligned withexamples of the traditional Filipino homes.
Fort Santiago (Fuerza de Santiago) is a defensefortress built for Spanish conquistador, MiguelLópez de Legazpi. The fort is part of the structuresof the walled city of Intramuros, inManila, Philippines. The location of Fort Santiago was also once thesite of the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman,chieftain of Manila of pre-Spanish era. It wasdestroyed by the conquistadors upon arriving in1570, encountering several bloody battles withthe Muslims and native Tagalogs. The Spaniards destroyed the native settlementsand erected Fuerza de Santiago in 1571.
Intramuros, located along the southern bankof the Pasig River, was built by the Spaniardsin the 16th century and is the oldest district ofthe city of Manila. Its name, taken from theLatin, intra muros, literally "Within the walls",meaning within the wall enclosure of thecity/fortress, also describes its structure as it issurrounded by thick, high walls and moats.During the Spanish colonial period, Intramuroswas considered Manila itself.
Paco Park was once a cemetery during the Spanish period andwas constructed in the late 18th century and was used to intervictims of the cholera epidemic which ravaged Manila in 1822.The cemetery stopped interment and burial in 1912 (don’t knowwhy) and in 1966 it was converted into a national park.. Thisbeautiful chapel was built inside the walls of the Paco Park and itwas dedicated to St. Pancratius. The cemetery is circular in shape with an inner circular fortthat was the original cemetery and with the niches (three level ofbuilt-in-vaults) that were placed or located within the hollowwalls. Originally the niches cost Php 20 for a 3-year renewablelease (no one was allowed to own the niches). The remains of ournational hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, was interred here after hisexecution at Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park) on December 30, 1896.
This is a Roman Catholic church under theauspices of The Order of St. Augustine, locatedinside the historic walled cityof Intramuros in Manila. Completed by 1607, itis the oldest church still standing inthe Philippines. No other surviving building inthe Philippines has been claimed to pre-dateSan Agustin Church.
Cape Bojeador Lighthouse, also knownas Burgos Lighthouse, is a culturalheritage structure in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, that wasestablished during the Spanish Colonial period inthe Philippines. It was first lit on March 30, 1892and is set high on Vigia de Nagparitan Hilloverlooking the scenic Cape Bojeador whereearly galleons used to sail by. After over 100 years,it still functions as a welcoming beacon to theinternational ships that enter the PhilippineArchipelago from the north and guide them safelyaway from the rocky coast of the town.
During this period the Americansconstructed many Art Nouveaux buildings inManila. In 1902 Judge William Howard Taft decidedto make Manila a planned town. Mr. Burnham,who was hired by Taft had in mind a longwide, tree-lined boulevard along the bay,beginning at a park area dominated by amagnificent hotel. William E. Parsons was alsohired by Taft to design the Manila Hotel.
In 1911 the Army Corps of Engineers constructedthe Manila Army and Navy Club at the shore of ManilaBay bordering the Luneta Park.
In 1935,The ManilaMetropolitanTheater whichis an art decobuildingdesigned bythe Filipinoarchitect JuanM. Arellanowas built
In 1940the Manila Jai AlaiBuilding wasconstructed along Taftavenue, designed byarchitect WeltonBecket. It has beenbuilt in the PhilippineArt Deco style. Inaddition to the Jai Alaigame it included thefamous " Sky Lounge".Unfortunately,demolition began onJuly 15, 2000 on theorders of Mayor LitoAtienza. The buildingis now gone for ever.
During the advent and continuous growth ofPhilippine cinema in the early 90s, came with theestablishment of Philippine theaters in theMetropolitan Manila along with those in thePhilippine provinces during the said period.Regular live performances, film showings, andfestivals used to be held on the theaters that lead tosignificant improvements on Philippine cultureincluding film, and performing arts. A number ofPhilippine cinemas were built within the City ofManila in the 90s, and were designed byprominent architects and currently recognized asPhilippine National Artists, but are closed due topost-World War damages and to give way to thesedays city developments.
UAP or the United Architects of the Philippines isthe Official Voice for Architects throughout the country.The UAP was formed through the “unification” ofthree architectural organizations: the PhilippineInstitute of Architects, The League of PhilippineArchitects and the Association of PhilippineGovernment Architects. It became the BonafideProfessional Organization of Architects upon receivingAccreditation Number 001 from the ProfessionalRegulation Commission. Thus, UAP was the firstprofessional organization recognized by the Republic. With the passing of the new architecture law orRepublic Act No. 9266, UAP becomes the IAPOA orthe Integrated Accredited Professional Organization ofArchitects.
Juan NakpilPablo AntonioJuan M. ArellanoLeandro V. LocsinFrancisco ManosaCarlos A. Santos-ViolaJose de OcampoJuan Carlos Eugene Soler