Workers participation management in abroad- Remya nair
The style of management of government in different countries can also be anywhere on the scale, from fully authoritarian at one end of the scale to fully participative (policy decided by the people) at the other end. Under participative, government and democracy the government and leadership put into effect the wishes of the people, the policy decided by delegates directly appointed by and directly responsible and accountable to the people.
Works committees & Joint consultation started in 1945 under legal sanctions prescribing that all non-state organization must have works committees. These bodies perform advisory & administrative functions by offering valuable suggestions on increasing production,fixing prices etc…
Australian Representative Employee Participation has been historically focused on Trade unionism. Non union forms of employee representation are less institutionalized then in other industrialized countries & no legislation exists for work councils. Employee share ownership (ESO) schemes was operated in Australia since at least the 1950s, despite only having been specially targeted in federal legislation since 1974. There is no mandated form for ESO schemes in Australia. On the whole, Australia is not far away from the United States as regards the right to strike. However, in Australia strikes are illegal since arbitration is compulsory. This places Australia close to the USA but also closer to the authoritarian style of management.
In UK the term works council does not have the same specific meaning as in other countries: in the UK it covers a wide range of committees at workplace level, possibly involving only trade unionists, joint committees of unionists and managers, and non-union committees of managers and employee representatives. Agreements between management and unions became enforceable at law which meant damages could be claimed, it being possible to prosecute unofficial strike leaders. Before the Act, there was no legal limitation to the right to strike but ownership was private so that the UK occupied roughly first position.
In a widely sense, the term may be applied to all forms of workers involvement in managerial decision-taking at any level that fall short of outright workers control. Consultation is a process of discussion and debate between unions and employers, or between employers and employees, usually distinguished from collective bargaining and negotiation. It does not imply a process of bargaining, compromise and joint agreement but is rather a means through which employers seek views before deciding on action.
Japan is a democratic country. Life is in many ways restrained, stylised and formal. Strikes are legal and the workforce does strike. Japan is fairly authoritarian in its style of management. There is little or no power sharing. People have the right to strike but striking is limited by the Japanese equivalent of the Western fear of the sack, by pressure to conform. In Japan represetative participation for employees was based largely on the presence of enterprise unions, the dominant form of unionism after World War II. Management councils, or joint consultation committees, include management and employee
collective bargaining mostly takes place at enterprise level, industrial relations within an enterprise being the most important part of the Japanese industrial relations system. There is no doubt that collective bargaining is a very important form of worker participation in the companys decision- making process. There are many statutory provisions requiring the employer to acquire the consent of the employees representatives.
Any Chinese institution down to a primary school or small factory had been run by a revolutionary committee consisting of veteran administrators, representatives of the younger staff and often military men as well. But during the previous few years they had been used to challenge the parallel party committees. The lives of all citizens are in the hands of the state and it seems that the Chinese worker lives all his life inside his commune and that the quality of life - how well he is treated - depends largely on the leadership of the commune.
Authority is clearly centered at the top and strikes are illegal. The right to strike is not recognized in the Soviet Union. It appears that co-operation with management is enforced and that the collective contract between the administration and the workers does not necessarily offer real job security. Rewards include prizes such as public commendation, certificates of merit, bonuses or gifts of value. The workers right to participate in the management of the enterprise (plant, establishment) directly or through their representative bodies.Restructuring‟ covers a multitude of different forms of re-organizing the activities of the enterprise, many of which have serious
Main forms of workers participation are the following: a) Taking account by the employer of the opinion of the workers representative body in cases specifically envisaged in the LC or collective agreements; b) Employers consultations with the workers representatives on the matters concerning the adoption of the local normative legal acts;c) participation of the workers representatives in collective bargaining;d) other forms provided for by the LC, collective agreements or enterprise level regulations
The United States is a democratic country and it is more difficult to determine to what extent authority is centred at the top and to what extent it is balanced by the authority of the working population exercising their power through the withdrawal of their labour A workplace program often referred to synonymously with quality of working life, quality circles, and labour- management participation teams, which seeks to improve organizational performance through increased involvement of employees in organizational decisions. In the US tradition, collective bargaining represents an effective form of “representative participation”.
In the USA there is no legislation providing for works council-type structures or board-level employee representation. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), passed to assure every working man or woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions, employers are legally obligated to provide employees with a safe and healthy environment. In the USA there is no legislation requiring employers to inform, consult, or negotiate with employees over restructuring, with the exception of the stipulation in the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN Act, 1988) that larger companies must give 60 days notice of plant closures or mass redundancies.
The works constitution forms the basis for the institution of employee representation bodies within establishments, and their rights and obligations. As the form of institutionalized representation of interests for employees within an establishment, the works council is an organ of the works constitution. The concept of co-determination refers to two distinct levels and forms of employee participation: co- determination at establishment level by the works council and co-determination above establishment level, on the supervisory board of companies, which is the main subject of this entry. Staff council is the equivalent in the public sector of the works council in the private sector.
A term referring to the participation of the employees of a company in its‟ equity capital or profits. Employees frequently acquire shares in equity capital by way of investment made possible by capital-forming payments or profit-sharing schemes. West Germany has had worker participation in the coal and steel industries since 1951. The extent of representation was 50:50 but apparently in larger companies the shareholders had two-thirds and workers one-third of the votes on these policy-making (that is supervisory) boards. The system has worked well and helped to maintain good industrial relations in this key area.
In 1982 Tisco celebrated the first silver jubilee of workers participation scheme. Right from its inspection,TISCO finally believed in achieving success through employee involvement & participation in organisational work. To regulate employer-employee relations,two forums are consistently put to use.ie,wage related issues through collective bargaining issues forums & safety. Since 1957,wpm at TISCO has been functioning at two levels.- One to discuss production & productivity issues.- Other to discuss safety & welfare matters.
The concept of codetermination in Germany in its formal sense,had its origin as early as in 1835 when prof.Van Mohl,National Economist,advocated for the association of workers representatives in industry as their spokesmen. Voluntary works council were setup in Germany in four printing works way in 1850. In 1933,Hitler banned all trade organisations & replaced them with „Workers Front‟. The present system of co-determination had its real origin when the trade union was revived after second world war. The trade union demand for parity co-determination led to the passing of co-determination act of 1951. In april 1976,all the parties concerne came to an agreement & a new law was passed extending co-determination to all industries. The law came into force in 1976.
Now co-determination has taken deep roots in the former federal republic of Germany. Under German law,eacch company has a two tier board system-supervisory board & management board.1. General meeting2. Supervisory board3. Board of management4. Works‟s council
The workers self management in Yugoslavia dates back to 1949 when president Marshal Tito dissented from the Russian authority. He emphasised the need for development of a distinctively Yugoslavian system with a complete departure from that of the bureacratic Russian system of state ownership. In fact,the system of social ownership in Yugoslavia differs from most othe socialists society as a whole the management of an enterprise is delegated by society to the workers collective-those people who work in it & create social wealth.
The main aim of Yugoslavia self management is defined in premable of the constitution as the “Liberation of work”. The major institutions under Yugoslavians model are:1. Workers Council2. The Management Board3. The Director4. The Peoples Committee
In Australia:• representative employee participation (REP)• Joint consultative committees (JCCs).• National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC).In Belgium:• Works council system is highly developed in Belgium by law.In Finland:• Cooperation within Undertakings Act (1978),• the Act on Personnel Funds (1989) and• the Act on the Representation of the Personnel in the Administration of Enterprises (1990).