Coastalurbanvulnerability Land pressureLocationInfrastructure incapacityClimatesensitivityUnpreparednessEconomic growthPopulationgrowthUrbanizationInformalsettlementsHigh PriorityLow Priorityto threat Infrequencyof hazardousevents•Existing developments•unawareness•Lack of clear policies•Lack of policyimplementation•Limited knowledge &study of climatechange impacts.•High cost of hazardmapping•Limited resources•Allocation ofresourcesPoorgovernanceSITE: Level of stake(--) (+)DISTANCEfromphenomenaCLOSEFARRISK MATRIX:
AIM & OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES:To study and understand various causes and consequences of floodson urban developments.Study existing regulations and plans for flood risk mitigation incoastal regionsStudy various aspects contributing to flood risk resiliency in urbanareasStudy different methods and approaches for resiliency evaluationApply CDRI to Kochi and propose an adaptive flood riskmanagement strategyAIM: To plan for resilient developments in coastal urban areathrough flood risk management approachGOAL: Sustainable development of coastal urban areas
SCOPE & LIMITATIONSScope:•A city level study is intended to analyze the individual resiliency ofthe wards.•A comparative analysis with another coastal city is intended.•The study does not include the study of future climate inducedchanges on the coastal area under consideration.Limitation:•Data accuracy and quality.•To support the city level study, survey of city officials is intended.Questionnaires to be filled by civic officials and their understandingof questionnaire is important for accurate analysis.•The results that will be presented in this work will not be absolutevalues but will be broad policy guidance and scope of improvementsin the respective sector of flood disaster related problems.
METHODOLOGYResilientdevelopmentthrough FloodriskmanagementStudy the causes andconsequences of floodson urban developmentsStudy regulations andplans for coastal areas.Study aspects of floodresiliency andapproaches andmethods of resiliencyevaluationApply CDRI to Kochi& Propose an adaptiveflood risk managementstrategyOBJECTIVESAIM123 4•Overview of floodLit.Review-1Lit.Rev-2,DataCollection-1•NDM guidelines•Kerala SDMpolicy,2010,Cochin disastermanagement studies,2005•CRZ & Kerala state•Resiliency assessment using5 capital approachDataCollection-2Questionnaire filling by localauthorities.Field studyComparative ward resiliencyassessmentDataAnalysis&proposalSelection ofappropriatemethod foranalysis.Identifyflaws ofexisting setupUnderstandingtherelationship offloods andurbandevelopmentsPrepare aproposalRESULTSEndResult5•Study role of governance,communities urban servicesand policies in resiliencybuilding
LITERATURE REVIEWTERMS: FLOODS,flood (vulnerability, exposure, susceptibility and risk)Disaster management and floods.Resiliency concept in Disaster management.CRZ policy.
TERMS&CONCEPTS:Source: Components of disaster risk.GTZ, Eschborn 2001.
FLOOD RISK:The measure of expected losses (death, injuries, property, livelihoods, economicactivity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions betweennatural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions occurring in a givenarea over specific time period. (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOOD VULNERABILITY:The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to theimpact of hazards. (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD HAZARD:A potentially damaging flood event that may cause loss of life or injury,property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Hazardsmay be characterised by their location, intensity, frequency and probability ofoccurrence (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD DISASTERS:A damaging flood hazard that adversely affects human populations and theenvironment beyond the capacity of the community to cope using its ownresources. (UNISDR, 2004).
Incremental impacts on urbansystems:BUILT ENVIRONMENT:•Stress on building foundations•Road washouts•Stress on storm-water and sewagesystems•Stress on water treatment systems•Disruption to shipping and ports•Increased energy demands•Increased road surface damage•Increased demand for waterImpacts on urban residents:Causes &Consequences offloods on urbandevelopments
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT:The systematic process of using administrative decisions, organisations,operational skills and capacities to implement policies, as well as the strategiesand coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts ofnatural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. Thiscomprises all forms of activities, including structural and non-structural measuresto avoid or limit the adverse effects of a hazard (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT:The management of floodplains through a systematic process requiring riskassessment, strategic planning, development of risk reduction measures andimplementing activities. The process involves multiple stakeholder and sectorcooperation, with the aim to reduce flood risks in a sustainable manner.
What is resiliency?Resilience is the ability to grow and thrive in the face of challenges and bounceback from adversity. It is built through a set of core competencies that enable mentaltoughness, optimal performance, strong leadership, and goal achievement.`
POLICY: COASTAL REGULATION ZONECentral Government declared “the coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries,creeks, rivers and backwaters which are influenced by tidal action (in thelandward side) up to 500 metres from the High Tide Line (HTL) and theland between the Low Tide Line (LTL) and the HTL as Coastal RegulationZone.”200m 300mCOASTLINELTL HTLProhibitionRestriction &RegulationTowards land
Prohibited activities: Restricted activities:•Setting up of new industries•Manufacture, handling orstorage of hazardoussubstances.•Expansion of fish processingunits•Dumping or filing of city wastefor land filling•Land reclamation, land filling•Construction activities inecologically sensitive areas.•Mining•Clearance shall be given for any activitywithin the Coastal Regulation Zone only if itrequires water front and foreshorefacilities.•Construction activities related to Defencerequirements for which foreshore facilitiesare essential.•Operational constructions for ports andharbours and light houses requiring waterfrontage;•Thermal power plants•All other activities with investmentexceeding rupees five crores.
Classification of the CRZ – For the purpose of conserving and protecting thecoastal areas and marine waters, the CRZ area shall be classified as follows,(i) CRZ-I,–A. The areas that are ecologically sensitive and the geomorphologic features whichplay a role in the maintaining the integrity of the coast,B. The area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line;(ii) CRZ-II,-The areas that have been developed upto or close to the shoreline.iii) CRZ-III,-Areas that are relatively undisturbed and those do not belong to either CRZ-I or IIwhich include coastal zone in the rural areas.(iv)CRZ-IV,-The water area from the Low Tide Line to twelve nautical miles on the seaward side;
(v) Areas requiring special consideration for the purpose of protecting the criticalcoastal environment and difficulties faced by local communities,-A. (i) CRZ area falling within municipal limits of Greater Mumbai;(ii) the CRZ areas of Kerala including the backwaters and backwater islands;(iii) CRZ areas of Goa.B. Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) such as Sunder bans region ofWest Bengal and other ecologically sensitive areas identified as underEnvironment (Protection) Act, 1986 and managed with the involvement of coastalcommunities including fisher folk.ISSUES:State wise costal assessment and policy modifications.Clarity in the interpretation of clauses and terms.A clear time frame for implementation.Participation of the users in the decisions related to the use and management ofthe coast and its resources.
Rapid urbanisation requires the integration of flood risk managementinto regular urban planning and governance.Designs for flood management must be able to cope with a changingand uncertain future.An integrated strategy requires the use of both structural and non-structural measures and good metrics for “ getting the balance right”.It is impossible to eliminate entirely the risk from flooding.Many flood management measures have co-benefits over and abovetheir flood management role.Plan to recover quickly after flooding and use the recovery to buildcapacity.INFERENCES:
References:•UNDP,adpc,2005,”Integrated flood risk management in Asia”•Abhas K Jha ,Robin Bloch,Jessica Lamond,2011,”Cities and Flooding -A Guide toIntegrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century”•Nicholls, R.J. Hanson, S. Herweijer, C, Patmore,OECD,2005,” Ranking of theworlds cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future “•Rajib Shaw and IEDM team, "Climate disaster resilience: focus on coastal urbancities in Asia “