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Pollution i

  1. 1. UNIT-V<br />ENVIRONMENTAL <br />ISSUES & POLLUTION<br />Presented By-<br />Niteesh Mittal<br />
  2. 2. Other Environmental Issues<br />Conservation of resources<br />Energy Issue<br />Over population<br />Intensive farming and intensive agriculture<br />Land degradation<br />Environmental degradation<br />Ocean deoxygenation<br />Sustainable development<br />Environmental pollution<br />
  3. 3. Pollution<br />Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. <br />Pollution is the introduction of a waste into the atmosphere making it impossible for the life on earth possible to sustain<br />The dangerous effects of pollution are a result of undesirable changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, land and water.<br />The agents or substances that causes pollution are known as pollutants (biodegradable and non-biodegradable).<br />
  4. 4. Contributors of Pollution<br /><ul><li>Chemical and Nuclear Plants
  5. 5. Industrial factories
  6. 6. Oil refineries
  7. 7. Human sewage
  8. 8. Oil and antifreeze leaking </li></ul> from cars<br /><ul><li>Mining
  9. 9. Over covered Landfills
  10. 10. Deforestation
  11. 11. Construction Debris
  12. 12. High population density</li></li></ul><li>Major forms of Pollution<br />Air Pollution<br />Water Pollution<br />Noise Pollution<br />Soil Pollution<br />Light Pollution<br />Radioactive Pollution<br />Thermal Pollution<br />Visual Pollution<br />Littering<br />
  13. 13. Today’s Scenario<br />Each One Grow One<br />Future Scenario<br />Each One Carry One<br />
  14. 14. Air Pollution<br />Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.<br />
  15. 15. Sources & Effects of Air Pollution<br /><ul><li>Tobacco smoke: heart atacks and cancer
  16. 16. Decomposing garbage and open sewers: breeding ground for flies, mosquitoes, germs and other haarmul bactereia.
  17. 17. Piosonous gases: respiratory diseases
  18. 18. Acid rain
  19. 19. Mining activities: lung and respiratory diseases
  20. 20. Carbon monoxide and lead: effects brain and organs like kidney
  21. 21. Ozone depletion effect: skin cancer and effects plant life
  22. 22. Burning fuel and oil rigs: cancer
  23. 23. Green house effect: global warming, melt polar ice and submerge coastal areas
  24. 24. Automobile exhaust: harmful to human health
  25. 25. Asthma, Asbestosis are also effects of air pollution</li></li></ul><li>Air Pollution Control<br />Planting trees<br />Checking automobile emission<br />Treatment of air pollution in industries<br />Pollution Control Devices<br />Electrostatic precipitator<br />Wet Scrubber<br />Cyclone separator<br />Bag House<br />
  26. 26. Water Pollution<br />Water pollution is the contaminationofwater bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.<br />Sources of Water Pollution<br /><ul><li>Point Source: due to a single, well identified starting place like oil spill, drain, etc
  27. 27. Non-point Source: if pollution comes from many sources which cannot be identified such as acid rain, farmer’s field.</li></li></ul><li>Contributors & causes of Water Pollution<br />Agriculture waste water <br />Factories/Industrial processes<br />Natural factors effects ground water<br />Oil spills<br />Refineries<br />Mining<br />Trash on common roads/ground<br />Silt from constuction sites<br />
  28. 28. Effects <br />Water pollution has damaged the food chain<br />Contaminated drinking water causes cholera, typhoid, poor blood pressure, vomiting, and damage to nervous system<br />Pollution in water alter overall chemistry of water, causing a lot of changes in temperature which adversely effects the marine life and destroys it. <br />
  29. 29. Control<br />Imposing laws to combat water pollution<br />Care of existing trees and planting new ones to promote penetration of water into soil<br />Supplementary nutrients in agriculture<br />Domestic sewage<br />Being conscious over selves and educating younger ones<br />Waste water treatment<br />
  30. 30. Noise Pollution<br />Noise is any undesirable sound.<br />Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.<br />
  31. 31. Effects<br />Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature.The unwanted sound is called noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects<br />An impact of noise on animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction<br />
  32. 32. Control<br />Source Control: Include source modification such as acoustic treatment to machine surfaces, design changes, limiting the operational timings<br />Transmission Path Intervention: Containing the sources inside a sound insulating enclosure, construction of noise barrier<br />Receptor Control: protection on receiver’s side.<br />
  33. 33. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT<br />Solid Waste can be defined as-’Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, semi solid, liquid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations.’<br />Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials.<br />
  34. 34. Elements of Waste Management<br />Generation Rate: Used to evaluate reuse, recycle feasibility, processing and disposal requirements.<br />On site handling, storage and processing: Onsite preparation of waste for reuse, recycle, etc.<br />Collection: Physical gathering of waste.<br />Transfer and transport: Bulk transport to a processing, recovery or disposal facility.<br />Processing and recovery: recovery of waste as raw material or energy or preparation of waste for disposal.<br />Disposal: Ultimate fate of non-reusable and non-recyclable waste.<br />
  35. 35. Methods of Disposal<br />Recycling :<br /> Recycling refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty containers.<br />Recycling is processing used materials <br />(waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emission.<br />
  36. 36. II. Landfill :<br />A landfill site (also known as dump or rubbish dump), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Gases are produced in landfills due to the anaerobic digestion by microbes on any organic matter. This gas can be collected and flared off or used to generate electricity in a gas fired power plant.<br />Landfill in Poland<br />
  37. 37. II. Incineration:<br />Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat and reduces the volume of solid waste to 20-30 percent. Incineration significantly reduces the necessary volume for disposal<br />incineration plant in Vienna<br />
  38. 38. Land Pollution<br />Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors.<br />
  39. 39. Causes :<br /><ul><li>Haphazard use of fertilizers
  40. 40. Use of pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides
  41. 41. Damping of solid waste
  42. 42. Deforestation
  43. 43. Mining</li></ul>Effects of soil pollutants:<br /><ul><li>Synthetic fertilizer: destroys the microbial plant life in soil, effecting nitrogen fixation
  44. 44. Pesticides: take many years to degrade and remains as toxic in soil, also enter marine environment
  45. 45. Industrial effluents: increase toxicity level in the soil
  46. 46. Urban waste: garbage, hospital waste, plastic bags</li></li></ul><li>Waste Water Treatment<br />Natural Water when comes in contact with foreign matters during either industrial process or domestic use, becomes polluted and is termed as waste water. <br />The removal of excessively accumulated matters from the waste water is known as treatment.<br />Domestic <br />Waste water<br />Industrial<br />Organic (diaries, distilleries, paper manufacturing units, oil refineries)<br />Pollutants <br />Inorganic (Cement, steel, alkali manufacturing units)<br />
  47. 47. Types of Waste water treatment<br />Chemical Treatment<br />Primary Treatment<br />Secondary Treatment<br />Tertiary Treatment<br />Biological Treatment<br />
  48. 48. Chemical Treatment<br />Primary Treatment:It involves screening out of large objects like cans, rags, sticks, plastic packets etc. carried in the sewage stream. Suspended matter are allowed to settle in the primary sedimentation tank. Some chemicals like alum and lime are often added to Industrial waste for coagulation. The sedimented water is further led to another joining chamber for secondary treatment.<br />Secondary Treatment:The whole contents are thoroughly aerated in order to bring down the BOD(bio-chemical oxygen demand) load from 400ppm to 30ppm and then finally to 0ppm.<br />Tertiary Treatment:It involves the treatment of water containing phosphate and nitrogen. It includes processes like:<br /><ul><li>Coagulation
  49. 49. Filtration
  50. 50. Membrane separation process, etc</li></li></ul><li>Industrial Pollution<br />Industries generate a lot of wastes which spoil our ecosystem. <br />Industries causes all types of pollution like soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, etc.<br />Industrial pollution control mainly includes steps to reduce present and future air pollution control, product or waste heat recovery by:<br />
  51. 51. Adhering to the government regulations.<br />Creating green zones in factories.<br />Identify and select right type device or system, it could be a stand alone or fully engineered complete packaged for pollution control.<br />The best method for any type of waste treatment is to recycle or to recover the pollutants from the waste. It ensures conservation of environmental resources, reduces the cost of production, creates opportunity for employment, besides considerable eliminating the load of pollution.<br />
  52. 52. Chemical Pollution<br />Chemical Pollution is caused due to contamination of the environment due to chemicals byproduct. <br />It may originate from industrial areas as well as from anywhere where there are people.<br />Its major effect is on marine or soil composition.<br />Various chemical waste are:<br />Industrial Chemical waste<br />Oil<br />Sewage disposal in water<br />
  53. 53. Government Initiatives for Environment<br />The government is not just the protector of the environment but also has a major responsibility for sustaining environmental conscience.<br />In India, the Ministry of Environment and Forest is the main nodal agency for generating environmental consciousness and making and implementing schemes for environmental protection.<br />The government’s policy focuses to check land and water degradation through waste land management and restoration of river water quality programs.<br />The policy also focuses to provide for conservation of natural resources by declaration of reserved forests, biosphere reserve and protection of endangered species.<br />It also makes laws and acts for environment protection and strictly implementing them.<br />
  55. 55. THANK YOU<br />