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Construction and Architecture Magazine 09 jan feb 2011


Structural wonders of the world.

Structural wonders of the world.

Published in Business , Technology
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  • 1. World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Symbolising past, present and future Designed by Gensler architects, Shanghai division of the tower into nine vertical zones will supply Tower will be symbolic of a nation whose the lifeblood of the building’s heating,cooling, water, and power throughout with less energy and at lower cost. future is filled with limitless opportunities. S hanghai Tower has emerged as one of East Asia’s leading financial centers. It will be the second tallest building in the world when it opens in 2014.Designed by a team of Gensler architects to embody Shanghai’s rich culture, the 632-meter-high mixed-use building will complete the city’s super-high-rise precinct. It is the most forward-looking of the three towers symbolizing Shanghai’s past, present, and future. Gensler’s vision for Shanghai Tower has taken tangibleform after completion of the immense foundation. Soil conditions in Shanghai—a clay-based mixture typical of a river delta— meant supporting the tower on 831 reinforced concrete bore piles sunk deep into the ground. The tower’s scale and complexity have created so many“firsts” for China’s construction industry that more than100 expert panels have been established to analyzeevery aspect of the design. Workers are busy building forms for the concrete core and erecting the gigantic composite supercolumns—measuring 5 x 4 m. At the base and reinforced with steel plates that weigh 145 metric tonnes each—that will provide structural support for the tower. To carry the load of the transparent glass skin, Gensler designed an innovative curtainwall that is suspended from the mechanical floors abovand stabilised by a system of hoop rings and struts. And the strategic 020 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine From the ground to the top Workers positioned rebar and poured the mat foundation in March 2010. The structural core takes shape as construction moves ahead with technical complexities of the tower’s structure, glass enclosure, and mechanical systems are skillfully managed. Soil conditions in Shanghai—a clay-based mixture typical of a river delta—meant supporting the tower on 831 reinforced concrete bore piles sunk deep into the ground. For three days, a small army of workers assembled to complete the marathon, 60-hour continuous concrete pour. When the job was finished, more than 61,000 cubic meters of concrete had been used to create the six-meter-thick mat foundation. The tower’s scale and complexity have created so many ‘firsts’ for China’s construction industry that more than 100 expert panels have been established to analyse every aspect of the design. Workers are busy building forms for the concrete core and erecting the gigantic composite super columns— measuring 5 x 4 m at the base and reinforced with steel plates that weigh 145 metric tonnes each— that will provide structural support
  • 2. Cover Story The highlight: Shanghai Tower completes Asia’s first super-high-rise precinct, the centerpiece of the city’s international financial district. The three mixed-use towers are interconnected, served by Shanghai Metro, and accessible from across the city. The Lujiazui zone in Shanghai has gone from farmland to financial center in two decades, resulting in a skyline and architectural landscape that need a unifying landmark. With a rounded triangular footprint derived both from the bend in the nearby Huangpu River and from its relationship to the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai Tower will stand as a beacon and a signature icon for the city of Shanghai. At the same time, it completes the precinct’s harmonious trio of buildings and giving the precinct its defining silhouette in the sky. The spiraling form of the tower rotates as it rises, signifying the emergence of China as a global financial power. Innovation takes the prize: To refine the tower’s shape, Gensler’s team used a series of wind tunnel tests to simulate the region’s greatest natural force, the typhoon. Results produced a structure and shape that reduce wind loads by 24 percent—ultimately yielding a savings of $58 million in construction costs. A simple structure, public spaces within the double façade, and sky gardens based on Shanghai’s traditional open courtyards will make Shanghai Tower an unrivaled asset for the Lujiazui district. Three important design strategies were assimilate-the asymmetry of the tower’s form, its tapering profile, and rounded corner that would allow the building to withstand typhoon wind forces common to Shanghai. Using wind tunnel tests, Gensler and structural engineer Thornton Tomasetti refined the tower’s form, ultimately reducing building wind loads by 24 percent. The result is a simpler and lighter structure with unprecedented transparency and a 32 percent reduction of costly materials. Light reflectance off the curtain wall was modeled using Ecotect software, which showed that the ‘staggered’ curtain-wall design was much more desirable. This series of drawings illustrates the layering of structure, composite floors, inner skin, and exterior curtain wall. The simplified mega-frame proved to be an economical approach to construction. Two curtain-wall schemes— ‘staggered’ and ‘smooth’—were studied extensively. The tests revealed that a staggered skin made of glass panels set vertically was far superior to a smooth skin of angled glass, which would reflect much more light onto neighboring buildings. The simplicity of Shanghai Tower’s structure is a response to many challenges: a windy climate, an active earthquake zone, and clay based soils. The heart of the structural system is a concrete core. The core acts in concert with an outrigger and super column system, with double-belt trusses that support the base of each vertical neighborhood. This makes for an easier and faster construction process—a significant cost savings for the client. The outer curtain-wall design incorporates metal shelves at each floor level, producing the preferred staggered configuration. The landscaped sky lobbies will be social and retail hubs for each neighborhood within the building. Landscaped atriums are located at regular intervals throughout the building. Many options were studied, but wind tunnel tests pinpointed a 120degree rotation as optimal for minimizing wind loads. The innovative design incorporates two independent curtain walls—the outer skin is camshaped in plan, the inner one is circular. The space between them forms atriums that will house landscaped public gardens at regular intervals throughout the building. These sky gardens will improve air quality, create visual connections between the city and the tower’s interiors, and provide a place where building users can interact and mingle. Gensler’s design team anticipated that three important design strategies—the asymmetry of the tower’s form, its tapering profile, and rounded corners—would allow the building to withstand typhoon wind forces common to Shanghai. World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders for the tower. To carry the load of the transparent glass skin, Gensler designed an innovative curtain wall that is suspended from the mechanical floors above and stabilised by a system of hoop rings and struts. And the strategic division of the tower into nine vertical zones will supply the lifeblood of the building’s heating, cooling, water, and power throughout with less energy and at lower cost. Cover Story Construction And Architecture Magazine » January – February 2011 » 021 Floor space: The entire tower will have an insideoutside transparency and is the only super-high-rise building wrapped in public spaces and sky gardens. Each neighborhood is dedicated to a primary use, but is enriched by complementary amenities and services. The upper floors will house hotels, cultural venues, and an observation deck. Central floors will house office space. A six-story retail podium concentrates shopping and dining near the base. And the ground floor will serve as an ‘urban market,’ connecting people to each other, to nearby services, and to Shanghai’s Metro. This conceptual image shows how the innovative hub and- spoke supports for the outer curtain wall create courtyards that serve each of the vertical zones. Office levels will be served by a separate lobby that streamlines pedestrian circulation into the building and allows quick access to elevators. Shanghai Tower’s six-level retail podium that resonate with traditional Chinese culture will be the ultimate destination for shopping and large-scale gatherings. The glazed west end of the podium and the rooftop terrace signal the location of the conference center that adjoins the retail floors. Clad in luminous cast-glass tiles, the distinctive podium offers a luxury retail and leisure experience that incorporates a mix of premium brands, one-of-a-kind specialty retailers, and high-concept dining. Strategically placed entrances from the tower, street, and underground transit station funnel pedestrians into active public spaces connected by a network of concourses, escalators, stairs, and balconies. The retail complex is comprised of two distinct zones— two levels below grade and four above— whose clarity of organisation makes for easy navigation. Most people will enter from the subway into a lower-level concourse that functions like a marketplace. Slicing through both zones is a five-story atrium with an expansive glass façade that opens toward the city, filling the shops with natural light, enhancing the visibility of luxury tenants, and establishing an important connection between inside and out. Sustainable tower: Wind tunnel testing of the tapered, asymmetrical tower focused on defining the optimal shape of the exterior skin and showed that reducing wind load makes for a lighter, more efficient structure that conserves natural resources. A central aspect of the design is the transparent, second skin that wraps the entire building. The ventilated atriums it encloses conserve energy by modulating the temperature within the void. The space acts as a buffer between inside and outside, warming up the cool outside air in winter and dissipating heat from the building interior in the summer. Mechanical equipment is spaced strategically in each zone of the building to provide optimal flexibility, reduce operating costs, and conserve 022 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine energy. The tower’s topmost levels will house rows of vertically aligned wind turbines and a spiraling parapet that is integral to a rainwater collection system.The foundation of this approach is state-of-the-art water resource management practices and high-efficiency building systems. A full 33 percent of the site is green space, with landscaping that breathes fresh air into the city and shades paved areas that radiate heat. Locally sourced materials with high-recycled content are being used when available. And the building’s heating and cooling systems will tap the power of geothermal technology to deliver energy from fluids maintained at the earth’s constant temperature. Shanghai Tower’s sustainable strategies will reduce the building’s carbon footprint by 34 000 metric tonnes per year. Project details Location : Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone, Pudong district, Shanghai, China Design Architect : Gensler Local Design Institute : Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tongji University Owner, Developer, Contractor: Shanghai Tower Construction & Development CoLtd Structural Engineer : Thornton Tomasetti MEP Engineer : Cosentini Associates Landscape Architect : SWA Area : 30,370 sq mt Height : 36.9 mt Tower height : 632 mt Stories : 121 occupied floors Area : 380,000 sq mt above grade 141,000 sq mt below grade Stories : 5 stories above grade Area : 46,000 sq mt Program:Office, luxury hotel, entertainment, retail, and cultural venues, podium Total floor area in sq met: 521k Weight of in metric tonnes : 1 200 Number of structural piles in entire project : 2,000 Number of elevator : 106.
  • 3. Cover Story Cover Story Project: MOMEMA Client: Dubai Properties, Dubai UAE Key dates: Expected completion: 2011 Building surface: 41,200 m2 Building site: 25,000 m² Architectural firm: UN Studio A reflection of sea elements MOMEMA, designed world renowned architecture firm UN Studio first part of a new cultural hub in Dubai will brings together elements of the sea and Dubai's tradition of seafaring. M OMEMA Dubai recognises the opportunity to create an entirely new type of museum, which consists of a vibrant urban centre, where professionals, collectors and public meet each other. Set to be a community-building institution within the city, and offer to both visitors and residents a continuously changing palette of experiences and events. The building is positioned to take full advantage of the prominent location in the Culture Village. With its Dhow-like prow rising up, the building offers panoramic views to the surroundings, and vice versa.’ ‘Inside, the design of this new museum stimulates contemplation, but by other means than enforcing a restricted optical field. There are no abrupt transitions. The space (the time) you have left behind is undividedly part of the space you are in now, is part of your ecological field, is still perceptible, still surrounding you; the art contained in those spaces follows this principle. Formats, mediums, and times can be effortlessly arranged together and rearranged. There are never too many people; this museum thrives on audiences, vernissages, and spectacle. The museum will cover an area of 25,000 sq m and is expected to be completed in January 2011. 024 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine The new cultural hub will be located on 40 mn sq ft of land in the historic district of Jadaf. In addition to the Museum of Middle East Modern Art, this landmark project will include an amphitheatre for live performances and international cultural festivals, an exhibition hall and smaller museums displaying local and international art, as well as a shipyard for traditional dhow builders. It will also include residential, commercial and retail zones. It will also hold a variety of spaces to exhibit arts and cultural exhibitions, art galleries, leasable workshop spaces, auditorium, and amphitheatre for live performances and international festivals. In addition, offers a boutique hotel with 60 keys and a boutique retail promenade on the active Culture Village waterfront, as well as a high end signature restaurant on the top level, with 360 degree views of Dubai Creek. World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Project details developed the idea of the UK Pavilion exploring the relationship between nature and cities. London is the greenest city of its size in the world; the UK pioneered the world’s first ever public park and the world’s first major botanical institution, the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The process From here came, Heatherwick’s idea of involving Kew Gardens’ Millennium Seed bank whose mission is to collect the seeds of 25percent of the world’s plant species by 2020. The design process evolved to produce two interlinked and experiential elements: An architecturally iconic Seed Cathedral, and a multi-layered landscape treatment of the 6,000m2 site. The Seed Cathedral sits in the Iluminated by sunlight The UK Pavilion, Seed Cathedral expresses British creativity and environmental setting an early benchmark for a country’s portrayal of innovation and progress. T he UK Pavilion has been designed by Heatherwick Studio led by the internationally acclaimed Thomas Heatherwick. The initial design strategy for the UK Pavilion established three aims to meet the FCO’s key expectation that the pavilion should become one of the five most popular attractions. The first aim was to design a pavilion whose architecture was a direct manifestation of what it was exhibiting. The second idea was to ensure a significant area of open public space around it so visitors could relax and choose either to enter the pavilion building, or see it clearly from a calm, non-queuing vantage point. And thirdly, it would be unique among the hundreds of other pavilions. meaningfully with the theme, Better City, Better Life, and stand out from the anticipated trend for technology driven pavilions, filled with audiovisual content on screens, projections and speakers. In collaboration with a wider project team, the studio Idea and conception: Heatherwick Studio sought an approach that would engage 026 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine centre of the UK Pavilion’s site, 20 m in height, formed from 60,000 slender transparent fiber optic rods, each 7.5 metres long and each encasing one or more seeds at its tip. During the day, they draw daylight inwards to illuminate the interior. At night, light sources inside each rod allow the whole structure to glow. As the wind moves past, the building and its optic ‘hairs’ gently move to create a dynamic effect.Heatherwick
  • 4. previously experimented with texture and architecture at a much smaller scale with his Sitooterie projects. Inside the darkened inner sanctum of the Seed Cathedral, the tips of the fibre optic filaments form an apparently hovering galaxy of slim vitrines containing a vast array of embedded seeds. The seeds have been sourced from China's Kunming Institute of Botany, a partner in Kew Royal Botanic Gardens’ Millennium Seed Bank Project. Visitors will pass through this tranquil, contemplative space, surrounded by the tens of thousands of points of light illuminating the seeds. These fiber optic filaments are particularly responsive to external light conditions so that the unseen movement of clouds above the Seed Cathedral are experienced internally as a fluctuating luminosity. The studio's intention is to create an atmosphere of reverence around this formidable collection of the world’s botanical resources; a moment of personal introspection in a powerful silent space. The formations: The Seed Cathedral is made from a steel and timber composite structure pierced by 60,000 fibre optic filaments, 20mm square in section, which pass through aluminum sleeves. Cover Story The holes in the one metre thick wood diaphragm structure forming the visitor space inside the Seed Cathedral were drilled with great geometric accuracy to ensure precise placement of the aluminum sleeves through which the optic fibre filaments are inserted. This was achieved using 3D computer modeling data, fed into a computer controlled milling machine. This accuracy ensures that the Seed Cathedral’s fibre optic array creates an apparent halo around the high structure, with the fiber optic filaments rippling and changing texture and reflectivity in the gentlest wind. The wavering external surfaces of the Seed Cathedral form a delicate connection between the ground and the sky. Among the Expo’s sea of hard surfaces, the Seed Cathedral’s surrounding landscape is conceived to act as a continuation of the building’s texture. A special artificial grass surface has been uniquely developed to act as a welcoming and restful public space. Beneath the Seed Cathedral and the landscaped surface area is a canopied and naturally ventilated entrance and exit sequence for the Seed Cathedral. This circulation zone, running along three edges of the site, contains a narrative of three innovative environmental installations designed by London-based design studio, Troika. They are: Green City, Open City, and Living City. Creative reasons: The creation of the extraordinary and complex Seed Cathedral structure and the landscape architecture was achieved through close collaboration between construction managers Mace, lead engineers Adams Kara Taylor, services engineers Atelier Ten and highly skilled Chinese engineers and contractors. In order to reduce unnecessary transportation, 75 percent of the materials for the UK Pavilion have been sourced from within a radius of 300km around Shanghai. It is also the British government’s intention that most of the materials of the UK Pavilion will be reused or recycled. 028 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Project details FACT SHEET – UK PAVILION, Location: Shanghai, China Public Opening: 1st May 2010 Site area: 6,000m2 Seed Cathedral dimensions: 25m x 25m x 20m Seed Cathedral floor area: 105m2 Optic fibres: 60,588 Optic fibres length: 7.5m Seeds in Seed Cathedral: 2,17,300 Landscape area: 4,490 m2 Public park area: 2,405 m2 Accommodation area: 1525 m2 Exhibition area: 1,280 m2 Lead Designer: Heatherwick Studio Project team: Thomas Heatherwick, Katerina Dionysopoulou, Robert Wilson, Peter Ayres,Stuart Wood, Ingrid Hu, Jaroslav Hulin, Chiara Ferrari and Ramona Becker Main Client: Foreign & Commonwealth Office Project Manager: Mace Group Structural Engineer: Adams Kara Taylor Environmental Engineer: Atelier Ten Fire & Risk engineering: Safe Consulting Executive Architect: Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tongji University Supporting Architects: RHWL Quantity Surveyor Davis Langdon & Seah Walkway Exhibition Design: Troika Content Advisory Team: Mark Jones, John Sorrell, David AdjayeContent Advisor Philip Dodd. World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Making of the greatest expression of architecture Foster + Partners to remodel the Camp Nou Stadium, home of FC Barcelona C amp Nou (Catalan for ‘new field’, often reversed in English to become Nou Camp) is a football (soccer) stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. With a capacity of 98,787 - making it is the largest stadium in Europe. The stadium is the home ground of FC Barcelona. Its official name was Estadi del FC Barcelona (translates as FC Barcelona Stadium) until 2000, when the club membership vote to change the official name to the popular nick name Camp Nou. History: Barcelona had outgrown their old stadium, Camp de Les Corts which held 60,000 supporters and the Camp Nou, built between 1954 and 1957, was designed by architects Francesc Mitjans- 030 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Miró, Lorenzo García Barbon and Josep Soteras Mauri. The capacity has varied between 93,053 at its opening to 1,20,000 for the 1982 FIFA World Cup before the outlawing of standing sections at the stadium brought the capacity to below 99,000 in the late 1990s. Camp Nou in the future: The aim of the project is to turn the stadium into an integrated and highly visible urban environment. Whilst not aiming for a substantial increase in seating capacity, proposals must accommodate a minimum of 50 percent of seats to be under cover. Reconstruction plans are being considered; addition of a few stands and restrooms. There will be about 120,000 seats. FC Barcelona’s Camp Nou Stadium, one of the world’s greatest football venues, is to be extensively remodeled. Following an international competition, Foster + Partners have been selected as the architects for this renewal of the stadium, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year.
  • 5. Cover Story Partners and project architect said, “We are extremely excited to have won this design competition. In its 50th year this is a fantastic opportunity to give a timely regeneration to the Camp Nou. The design respects the characteristic asymmetric seating bowl and as well as embodying the club colours in its form, the remodelled stadium that incorporate the latest construction technology so that the stadium can remain in use by the club throughout the works. The stadium, already the largest in Europe, will be enlarged to accommodate over 1,06,000 fans, together with extensive new facilities including hospitality and public areas. A new roof will also be created to shelter the fans. The stadium will be enclosed by a brightly coloured mosaic outer skin that wraps around the building and continues over a new roof. The multicoloured enclosure comprises overlapping translucent tiles in the club colours. The myriad of tiles can be seen as symbolising the loyalty and devotion of FC Barcelona’s fans worldwide. On match nights, the stadium will glow, providing a new architectural icon for the city. In the same way that FC Barcelona is ‘more than a club’, the new Camp Nou will be much more than a stadium. Lord Foster, Chairman and Founder of Foster + Partners said: ‘It is an enormous honour to have been selected to remodel Camp Nou Stadium for FC Barcelona, such an important symbol for the Barca fans and the Catalan people. Football is a powerful and democratic force that brings together all social classes in celebration, therefore a stadium, perhaps more than other type of building is a truly democratic space, the design of a stadium is the greatest expression of an architecture that goes beyond aesthetics to have a social agenda. In this sense I believe that there is a wonderful connection between football and architecture.’Mouzhan Majidi Chief Executive of Foster + 032 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Project details Project: New Camp Nou Stadium for FC Barcelona Client: FC Barcelona Architect: Foster + Partners Collaborating Sports: Architect (Competition) AFL Original Stadium Architects: Francesc Mijtans-Miro, Garcia Barbon and Soteras Mauri Inaugurated: 24 September 1957 Projected Stadium Footprint: 52,000 m² Projected Floor Area (gross): 180,000 m² Approximate Budget: Euro 250 million Projected Capacity: Increased from 98,000 to 106,000 seats (Largest stadium in Europe) Seating Bowl: Existing seating bowl retained with upper tier expanded to accommodate extra seating capacity. Asymmetric upper tier of stadium to be retained. Presidential box retained on west side. World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story A tribute to the icon Walt Disney Concert Hall by Frank Gehry is a tribute to the Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city. A tribute to Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city the Frank Gehrydesigned building opened on October 23, 2003. Both the architecture by Frank Gehry and the acoustics of the concert hall (designed by Yasuhisa Toyota) were praised in contrast to its predecessor, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. The Walt Disney Concert Hall in Downtown Los Angeles, California is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves (among other purposes) as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale. 2003, the project had cost an estimated $274 million; including the parking garage which had solely cost $110 million.The walls and ceiling of the hall are finished with Douglas-fir while the floor is finished with oak. The Hall’s reverberation time is approximately2.2 seconds unoccupied and 2.0 seconds occupied. The structural facts The project was launched and completed 1991. Construction of the underground parking garage began in 1992 and was completed in 1996. Plans were revised, and in a cost saving move the originally designed stone exterior was replaced with a less costly metal skin. Upon completion in 034 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Reflection problems After the construction, modifications were made to the Founders Room exterior; while most of the building's exterior was designed with stainless steel given a matte finish, the Founders Room and Children's Amphitheater were designed with highly polished mirror-like panels. The reflective qualities of the surface were amplified by the concave sections of the Founders Room walls. Some
  • 6. Cover Story residents of the neighboring condominiums suffered glare caused by sunlight that was reflected off these surfaces and concentrated in a manner similar to a parabolic mirror. The resulting heat made some rooms of nearby condominiums unbearably warm, caused the air-conditioning costs of these residents to skyrocket and created hot spots on adjacent sidewalks of as much as 60 °C (140°F). After complaints from neighboring buildings and residents, the owners asked Gehry Partners to come up with a solution. Their response was a computer analysis of the building's surfaces identifying the offending panels. In 2005 these were dulled by lightly sanding the panels to eliminate unwanted glare.The design of the hall included a large concert organ, completed in 2004, which was used in a special concert for the July 2004 National Convention of the American Guild of Organists. The making The organ's facade was designed by architect Frank Gehry in consultation with organ consultant and sound designer Manuel Rosales. Gehry wanted a distinctive, unique design for the organ. He would submit design concepts to Rosales, who would then provide feedback. Project details Project: Walt Disney Concert Hall Location: 111 South Grand Avenue Los Angeles, California, U.S. Type: Concert hall Built: 1999–2003 Opened: October 23, 2003 Construction cost: $240 million Capacity: 2,265 036 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine The organ was built by the German organ builder, Caspar Glatter-Götz, under the tonal direction and voicing of Manuel Rosales. It has an attached console built into the base of the instrument from which the pipes of the Positive, Great, and Swell manuals are playable by direct mechanical, or ‘tracker’ key action, with the rest playing by electric key action; this console somewhat resembles North-German Baroque organs, and has a closedcircuit television monitor set into the music desk. It is also equipped with a detached, movable console, which can be moved about as easily as a grand piano, and plugged in at any of four positions on the stage, this console has terraced, curved ‘amphitheatre’-style stop-jambs resembling those of French Romantic organs, and is built with a low profile, with the music desk entirely above the top of the console, for the sake of clear sight lines to the conductor. From the detached console, all ranks play by electric key and stop action.In all, there are 72 stops, 109 ranks, and 6,125 pipes; pipes range in size from a few centimeters/inches to the longest being 9.75m (32 feet) (which has a frequency of 16 hertz). World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story A symbolic interpretation of a natural landscape The Library Spain – Medellin, Colombia, a structure is a perfect example of geography as an element of hierarchy and architecture as the epitome of favoring that ‘new natural contract’ tuned with a landscape and in a natural order. M edellín the city is located in the north of Los Andes mountain ridge. It is one of the most topographically broken places of Colombia and one of the most visited and touristic points in the city. The image is precisely what the project aims at as it intends to integrate itself into the landscape and become an interpretation of it. The project is noticeable from a big part of the city, allowing it to redefine itself as the symbol of a new Medellin, as a way of making people feel identified and receiving the building as their own. More than a building, it proposes the construction of an operative geography that belongs to the valley like a mechanism of organisation of the programme and the zone, showing the unknown directions of the irregular mountain contours, not like a metaphor, but like an organization of the form in the place, a folded building cut like the mountains. A landscape building that redefines the folded mountain structure in form and space, nullifying the idea of the landscape like a background and encouraging the ambiguity building-landscape. Planning and the process of construction The proposal was to fragment the structure in three groups: The library, 038 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine the rooms, and the auditorium; then join them with a bottom platform that allows flexibility and autonomy, improving the people’s participation considering each volume operates independently. The project is organised in two structures: the first one is the building – landscape (rocks) and the second one is a platform that integrates and transforms the cover into a square that looks into the valley; this way, the building is empowered as a meeting place, multiplying the connections and letting it develop as a reference point. The building as icon The project is organised under two structures: the first, by buildings and landscape (rocks) and the second by a platform that integrates them and transforms it into a deck-plaza that functions as an outlook towards the valley. The place is made by small brick houses, product of auto construction; and residue of green areas as a result of the impossibility of construction on it. The sector consists of small brick houses caused by self construction and waste of green areas, resulting from the inability to build on steeps slopes, this organization produces a uniform texture
  • 7. Cover Story of the city with no visible hierarchy. This is why the proposed building seeks to stand out as a building-landscape icon, constructing the site and maintaining the tension, the geography as an element of hierarchy and the architecture as a texture. Additionally to make an icon building, the first premise was to develop a construction that, through its interior design, could descon textualise the individual from the poverty that is experienced in the outside creating a warm atmosphere based on natural light, allowing a great ambient of study and lecture. Topography and geography: It develops a landscape related to geography and urban topography inserted for organisational rules to develop projects that favors a ‘new natural contract’. It folds, map and tears; Features general building construction: The project is a double-support structure: the first consists of an articulated metal membrane that supports and arms the exterior skin panels; the second is a particular portal concrete frame structure that makes up the internal volume, dilated from the outer skin, to allow entry of light from above. The platform consists of a mixed structure of steel columns and concrete plates, the materials used were black slate, stained glass and various wood veneers and stone floors. A regulated temperature mechanism was designed, a ‘thermosyphon’, through the creation of a system of air circulation upstream (negative pressure) removing excess of heat and allowing the optimisation of solar energy. Project details operations that build architecturelandscape at the same time, reformulating relations between depth and figure, an approximation in the search of alternative ideas capable of favoring that ‘new natural contract’ tuned with a landscape and a natural order. The proposal is related to the image and identify of the city, through architectural-landscape, part of its landscape inspires the building to be interpreted as a new topography. A landscape building that redefines the folded structure of the mountain as form and space, eliminating the idea of landscape as a background and enhancing the building ambiguitylandscape. 040 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Project: España Library Built up area: 3,727 m2 Public Space area: 14,265 m2 M2 Constructed cost: US 1,027 m2 Project Area: 2,960 m2 Chief Architect: Giancarlo Mazzanti Architectural firm: Giancarlo Mazzanti & ARCHITECTS Location: Santo Domingo, Colombia Project Year: 2005 Construction Year: 2007 Constructed Area: 5500 sq m Concrete Structure: Sergio Tobón Steel Structure: Alberto Ashner Structural Engineer: Sergio Tobon, Alberto Aschner Photographs: Sergio Gómez World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Terminal 3 of Indira Gandhi International Airport will become the world’s third largest passenger terminal in terms of size being given to greener and more ecofriendly materials. French company Saint-Gobain Gyproc has built the prefabricated walls and false ceilings around the terminal. The project has forced supplier’s local vendors to raise the bar when it comes to the quality of their products. For all the companies involved, the work Saint Gobain Gyproc has done in the terminal has become a showcase for their other clients. The terminal may be turning the corner on solving one of India’s most intractable problems: a notoriously poor infrastructure. On completion Terminal 3 of Indira Gandhi International Airport will become the world’s third largest passenger terminal in terms of size. The terminal which will be An eco-friendly attempt to create futuristic airport M ade of glass and steel, the swanky new Terminal 3 at Delhi's International Airport has presented huge business opportunities for a whole range of companies. It is certainly bigger than anything India has ever seen and has more than double the airport's passenger capacity. The Terminal 3 is a joint venture consortium led by GMR with a 54 percent stake, the Airports Authority of India has a 26percent stake, Fraport holds 10percent and Malaysia Airport owns the remaining 10 percent of the shares. A multinational team of almost 30,000 workers have been involved in the construction of the building. The terminal building is larger than the new terminals of Mumbai, Hyderabad and Bangalore combined. It has eight levels; with a built-up area of 5.5 mn sq ft and an apron area of 6.3 million sq ft. The common check-in concourse has 168 check-in counters and 98 immigration counters for international passengers. The terminal also has 78 aero bridges and a 100-room transit hotel. It is seen as a symbol of new India setting an example for publicprivate partnerships. The construction The terminal is encased in sheets of glass etched with images of Indian dancers and has been designed by London architects HOK International. Passengers will experience a terminal that maximizes the use of natural light, giving a feeling of openness. The important highlight of this airport has set new standards in the construction business in the country with importance 042 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine completed in a record time of 37 months represents India’s transformation from an important regional country to an international destination for commerce and travel. incorporates "natural" features and "warm" tone extensively to balance the sterile feel of glass and steel. The roof has been designed to allow natural light to enter the building. Materials used: • Building: 600,000 cubic meters of concrete, equivalent to 240 Olympic size swimming pools, and 200,000 tonnes of reinforced steel • Roof: 18,000 tonnes of structural steel • Floor: 110,000 sq m of granite imported from Bahrain • Windows: 95,000 sq m of glass wall curtain, equivalent to 13 football fields • Curtains: 100,000 sq m imported from China • Runway: material used sufficient to build a 70km long, eight-lane highway
  • 8. Cover Story Recreating an home atmosphere establishment voluntarily understanding their physically weakened state. A sort of assembled structure, the same as a toy which a child might build and, thus, have employed materials with different shapes: zinc for the ‘bubble’, wood for the accommodation, water green steel for the consultations. Each element in this ‘large toy-building’ presents its own form/matter vocabulary. Located at the eastern end of this complex, the building resembles the stern of the ship. Its curved shape is designed to be a gentle transition forming a link with the straight lines of the existing buildings. The zinc shell built over a laminated and glued timber frame forms the building's protective visual membrane which provides protection from the inside to the outside and from the outside to the inside. The two wings are covered with weatherboarding, used here as a symbol of warmth to recreate an atmosphere of home. Project specification Vauclaire Hospital Centre, France is project where each element in this ‘large toy-building’ presents its own form/matter vocabulary. T he project involves the construction of a 20-bed admission unit for ‘Les Deux Vallées’ psychiatric sector in MontponMénestérol is a relaxing and entertaining architecture where the architects have tied to create a stress free admission. Residents enter this 044 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Architects: Blandine Rougon-Sarlin and Christophe Damian, DESA architects Architecture Firm: Arodie Damian Architectures,an agency based in Paris, Lyons and Bordeaux. Location: France Operation: Construction of a 20-bed admission unit for voluntary commitment and medical management centre for the “Les Deux Vallées” psychiatric sector. Main contractor: Arodie Damian Architectures, Coteba (Mérignac) Project Manager: Vauclaire Hospital Centre Surface areas: 1 491 m² (net area) Total cost: 2 M excl. VAT Main materials: Zinc, wood paneling, pre-lacquered sheet metal brise soleil, thermolacquered galvanized steel mashrabiya, metal paneling Photo credits: Dominique Constantin World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Culture in its most pervasive and innovative form T o create spaces for the unexpected, spaces to inspire us, spaces where the collective and individual can coexist, to inspire experimentation, invention, heterogeneity and freedom is to liberate culture, describes Edgar Gonzalez, Brisac Gonzalez on this structural innovation. In collaboration with Oslo studio Space Group an international architectural practice the idea is to give this building’s permeated façade with glimpses of the interior spaces with an auditorium that will feature undulating walls. The merger of activities in the Kristiansund Opera and culture house represents culture at its most radical and innovative form. Two existing buildings sit on the proposed site will be fully refurbished and incorporated into the new proposal. Kristiansund, Norway Opera and Cultural centre will provide 046 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine The London based architectural firm Brisac Gonzalez makers of the opera and cultural centre in Kristiansund, Norway are all set to provide interiors that will create spaces for the unexpected, where collective and individuals can coexist. glimpses of the interior spaces to create spaces for the unexpected, spaces where the collective and individual can coexist, to inspire experimentation, invention, heterogeneity and freedom is to liberate culture. Architectural structure: A ribbon-like glazed walkway, which will also serve as an exhibition gallery, will connect the existing building on one side to the main foyer of the new building. The building will house a 600 seat auditorium, library, education centre, symphony rehearsals, ballet centre, youth centre and restaurants. A consortium comprising Oslo based Space Group and Brisac Gonzalez has won joint first winner in a shortlisted competition for the design of the new opera and culture in Kristiansund, Norway. The 1,500 m2 projects consist a 600 seat auditorium, library, symphony rehearsals, ballet centre, restaurants, youth centre and education centre. The new opera and culture house amalgamates opera, library, school, cultural facilities, and youth center.
  • 9. Cover Story The site and the making: There are already two significant buildings on the site – a 19th century school building and an early 20th century Folkets Hus (People’s House). To engulf them by a third larger building would diminish their integrity. The design strategy is to create a porous cultural compound of three very different free standing buildings that are autonomous yet connected. The two existing buildings will be fully refurbished and filled with a host of new activities. A ribbon-like glass bridge that doubles as exhibition gallery connects the library in the Folkets Hus to the main foyer of the new building. An underground passage will link it to the stage level of the new auditorium. The hall: The objective for the auditorium is simple: allow for the greatest number of guests to be as close as possible to the stage. From the stage, the performers will see an ocean of people, wall-to-wall. The multi-purpose hall, driven by the demand for flexibility, is often the victim to the paradoxes of Own gateway to the world bigsmall, invisible-exposed, functional-beautiful. The design of this hall is one were flexibility exists without succumbing to the generic. On the top floor of the new building restaurant, the orchestra rehearsal room can be combined to create a very large room. An expansive exterior terrace adds greater flexibility in a setting where different scenarios, be they planned, impromptu, or incidental can occur. 048 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Facade: The façade of the new building is curtain-like, selectively revealing the activities within. From the exterior, the perception is of a soft dress, covered in small reflective sequins, shimmering, constantly changing, and flowing. From the inside, the lighting varies from translucent to transparent, providing an even light throughout the building. Project details Name of project: Opera and Culture House Client: Kristiansund Kommune, Norway Cultural Foundation Location: Kristiansund, Norway Surface area: 5 000 m² Cost: $100.0 million approx Area: 500,000 sq ft Height: 100 ft Length: 500 ft Width: 360 ft Design Period: 2010 Architect: Brisac Gonzalez Acoustics: Norconsult as / Akustikon Theatre Consultant: Ducks Sceno Michel Cova, Frans Swarte, Alina Delgadillo, Analyse Duperrier Landscape: Sundt & Thomassen Logistics: Atkins Visualisations: Luxigon Designer: Alex Protasevich, Architect Architectural Style: Modern World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Passenger Terminal Complex, Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok, Thailand is a perfect amalgamation of innovation and integrated architecture, structural and environmental design. T he passenger terminal complex at Suvarnabhumi Airport resulted from an International Competition and established the basis of collaboration between Werner Sobek, Matthias Schuler and Helmut Jahn. The challenge was great and unusual. The task of creating a new gateway to Thailand in a tropical climate necessitated a different approach to architecture and engineering. Through the integration of the disciplines the complex problem resulted in a sophisticated, intelligent yet simple solution. After 11 years of planning and construction the Terminal was opened passenger traffic in late 2006. Architecture and engineering: The design took into consideration Murphy/Jahn’s experience with airport terminal design, starting in the 1950’s. Those buildings included O’Hare International Airport in Chicago and particularly the New United Airlines Terminal of the mid 1980’s and the near completed renovation of Terminals 3 for American Airlines and Terminals 2, 050 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine the work in the commercial zone of the New Munich Airport which included the Kempinski Hotel, the Munich Airport Center and infrastructure, parking and landscaped areas and the new Terminal 2 at the Airport in Cologne/Bonn. It also responded to the challenge that airports today are a new building type. They have become a strange combination of transportation center and ‘mall’. They constitute cities outside cities and give the first and last impression of a city, region or country. They are places to meet for people of all facets of life. Architecturally important seem is the openness and comprehension and experience of the open spaces, the gesture of the roof and spaces as memorable images and the way the blurring of the boundaries between public and private space make an airport terminal a model of a ‘MiniCity’. Like in a city the experience leads through squares, streets and rooms for transportation, commerce and private uses. In the design and execution of Suvarnabhumi Airport, innovative and integrated architectural, structural and environmental design were used, new materials and systems of advanced technology were developed and unusual construction processes
  • 10. Cover Story process we refer to as Archi-Neering: the architect thinks about the technical consequences of the forms he designs and the engineers consider the aesthetic results of their concepts and decisions. In a building with such advanced technical concept and construct it is important to establish a connection to local cultural tradition and art. This is done through the shaded gardens flanking the terminal, which represent Thai landscape in cities and in the country, a jungle garden between the terminal and concourse, traditional artistic patterns and colors on glazed surfaces and floors and Thai artifacts placed at the airside centers and concourses. required to meet the design goals. The results are advanced long span, lightweight steel structures, exposed pre-cast concrete structures, clear or low E-coated glass, a three layer translucent membrane, integrated cooling, using water as a low energy carrier and the thermal mass of concrete and a displacement ventilation system with minimal airchanges. Those components and parts serve in their total composition and in use more than in their conventional roles. They maximise daylight and comfort, yet minimise the use of energy with significant life cycle cost savings. The installed cooling power is reduced close to 50 percent compared to a conventional system. The three layer translucent membrane was developed to mediate between the exterior and interior conditions, dealing with heat and noise transmission, while still allowing for natural daylight within the building. The result is a building flooded with controlled daylight in a tropical climate. Architect and engineers speak here the same language, a 052 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Project details Architect : Murphy/Jahn Associate Architect / Engineer: ACT Consultants Project Management: TAMS Consultants / Earth Tech Structural Concept / Concourse Superstructure/ Facades: Werner Sobek Ingenieure Climate and Environmental Concept: Transsolar Energietechnik Main Terminal Superstructure: Martin/Martin Structural Concrete: John A. Martin & Associates Mechanical / Electrical / Plumbing: Flack + Kurtz Lighting Art : Yann Kersalé BNP Associates, Inc.: Baggage Consultant General Contractor: ITO Joint Venture World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story Naturally different railway station metrostation nesselande Rotterdam is a subway station that provides visibility and offers the traveller a sense of safety as well as a better access to daylight under the railway viaduct. I magine, you arrive at the station and the doors of your train are just about to close. The train has left without; you have missed your train. Left behind on the platform boredom is hitting you, a strong relation to time is part of waiting. Your trip is interrupted; the continuity of travelling is gone. While waiting you become aware of your surroundings, experiencing the station as a place. The station, designed by architect Hans Moor, was opened on August 29, 2005, as part of the one-station extension of the East-West Line or Caland Line from its previous terminus De Tochten. Unlike the section between Capelsebrug and De Tochten, this section does not use overhead wires to provide traction power, but uses a third rail instead. The station consists of one island platform between two tracks. This experience of an interruption plays an important role in the design for the new metro station. The experience is transformed into different qualities of waiting places, the station is surrounded by a green park with water, a bridge etc and gives a splendid view to the surroundings including Lake Zevenhuizen. A special quality of voids are enclosed by the platform, which provides visibility and offers the traveller a sense of safety as well as a better access to daylight under the railway viaduct. The station has three glass coverings with added louverboards for protection against wind and rain. Each covering distinguishes itself in relation to the others and are simultaneously interrupted by small waiting places, they manifest themselves between these coverings. In the development transparency is guaranteed without damaging the degree of presence; light construction of steel and glass is used in contrast to heavy concrete for pillars and viaduct. The concept: The concept of the metro station was developed by means of two 054 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine characteristics of travelling. Firstly travelling is concerning speed and continuity, stations are places for connection and different types of transport come together. The most of old the underground railway stations lijken have stocked each other, since the Beneluxlijn particular and other gone. For every station of the underground railway line the plan has been taken another architect at approached. Thus the stations got several qualities concerning the specific locations. That treatment seems has pleased municipality work Rotterdam and the RET well and for the future underground railway station Nesselande a question was thereby written out for young architects. Bridge building: The bridges form the connection with the different traffic flows of the area and had to be suitable for pedestrians, cyclists and cars. The architects thought of giving a different meaning to the bridge with a possibility to apply artificial lighting. The design doesn’t light the bridge with street lamps and lights as the bridge transforms and is lit ‘from within’. Space is created with the help from technology with the lighting depending on each other and form an open structure. The configuration of light sources, ranging from small to large, indicates the track the car is following. ‘Artificial lighting’ was given and the driver the sense that the bridge isn't just a connecting piece, but also a space in the darkness. By moving forward, the driver finds himself in a track of light; he is surrounded by a configuration of artificial lighting. The bridge is concrete and dispersed with glass ‘dots' special units, designed by a glass- and light supplier, have glass at the top and the bottom, so day light can enter the space under the bridge. The influence of artificial lighting is present on a bridge in many ways that light LED lighting is indicative lighting, which means it is sufficient in comparison with general lighting principles.
  • 11. Cover Story between Cheng De Road and Wen Lin Road. This linkage space is the center access to the grand foyer and all three theaters. On the south side the Grand Plaza transitions into a garden that gently slopes up towards Jiantan road to allow for shops and restaurants to be placed underneath and accessible from street level. Both the garden and the Grand Plaza provide a large outdoor space for the thousands of pedestrians that visit this area. It is lined with shops and restaurants at the ground level and covered by a large roof of the theater above. The shops and restaurants are located along Wen Lin Road and Jian Expression of richness and diversity The proposal for this mixed use office building in Downey, California creates a world-class landmark building aiming to enhance the cities vision as the premier quality city. T he project is characterised by its response to the urban setting in particular to Firestone Boulevard, its vision for a unique office work environment within a highly sustainable building design, and by its formal and structural elegance. The three level mixed use building includes a café and retail space at the ground floor and two levels of open office spaces above. The office spaces are configured around a center atrium space that opens up to Firestone Boulevard creating the main entrance for the building. The ephemeral quality of the building envelope is realised through a high tech fabric enclosure system that utilises multiple layers of fabrics with different degrees of transparencies/ opacities. This envelope is able to adjust to the different exterior light conditions and provide consistent natural daylight levels throughout the office spaces. While the more delicate fabric encloses for the upper two office levels, the restaurant and retail spaces on the ground floor open up to the street with a glass envelope. Landscape elements create a green barrier between the outdoor seating area of the café and Firestone BLVD. Urban Concept: The proposal for the Performing Arts Center in Taipei creates a world-class institution which is characterised by both its response to its urban and cultural environment, and by its formal and structural elegance. The project embraces the concept of a Grand Plaza as being a center hub between the Shilin night market and the TRTS Jiantan station. This is achieved by lifting the multiform theater off the ground and creating a covered outdoor linkage space 056 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Tan Road and together with the Grand plaza and the garden space embrace Taipei's lively streetscape by creating a continuous experience from the busy streets of the Shilin night market to the Performing Arts Center and the train station. Design Concept - The proposal for the Taipei Performing Arts Center is intended to become an important landmark building in the region that expresses the richness and diversity of performing arts and creates a destination point for the area. For the development of the design we used a unique process using actual sounds as a basis. The morphology and shape of the building was designed using sound-waves that were analysed and transformed into three dimensional vectors. These vectors became the formal and structural World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders Cover Story framework for the design of the exterior envelope. The building materializes with a metal and glass enclosure that reveals its activities in a variety of scales and angles to the city. Organizational Concept- Front of House - The three theaters is grouped around a center foyer accessible from the Grand Plaza. The Grand Theater and the Playhouse are located to the north while the Multiform Theater is lifted off the ground and connected to the foyer on the south side. The concept for the front of house was to create a spectacular center lobby space enclosed with glass and a Grand Stair case that connects to the main foyer of each theater. This creates a visual relationship between all three theaters and the foyers around a center space. Its' dynamic shape and glass facades is to encourage the people of Taipei to explore the building and embrace it as an exciting artistic showplace for the public. Each theater has a single control point at the main foyer level and individual circulation from there to the upper gallery levels. This allows for the general public to experience this space without necessarily accessing the theaters. The ticketing, coat check and general information for all three theaters is located on the ground level. Theater Concept - The concept for the theaters was to design a flexible world class performance space that allows for a variety of different performance genres and is especially tailored to the needs of the Taiwanese interdisciplinary performing arts scene. The Grand Theater seats 1,500 people with a main floor and three balcony levels. It can easily be configured to support performances that range from opera, ballet and orchestra performances to multidisciplinary performances including drama, dance, multimedia performances, drum -percussions, Zen meditation, martial arts, etc. The 800 seat Playhouse is designed as a proscenium theater with two balcony levels. However the orchestra pit was designed to support different performance styles. The Multiform Theater has a total of 800 seats with TAIPEI PERFORMING ARTS CENTER Taipei, Taiwan Client: Taipei City Government, Department for cultural affairs Program: Performing arts centerOpera house, Playhouse, Multiform Theater Size: 40,000 sqm Budget: 130 Million USD Completion Date: UnbuiltCompetition 2008 Material: Steel, metal, glass Interiors: Wood, concrete, glass Architect: B+U, llp, Herwig Baumgartner, principal, Scott Uriu, principal Team: Paul Macherey, Justin Oh, Phillip Ramirez, Art Zargaryan, Daniel Saltee, Yaohua Wang Engineer: Structural Engineer: ARUP Mechanical engineer: ARUP Associate architect: S.C.S & Associates Theater Consultant: Theatre projects consultant Acoustician: Nagata Acoustics two balcony levels and maximum flexibility in regards to stage and seating layout and is designed to allow for a variety of configurations including center stage, thrust stage and front stage configurations. Back of House -The back of house is organized most efficiently and designed as a state of the art venue that fulfills all the requirements of the various forms of contemporary 058 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine performing arts and complies with the needs of Taiwan's diverse performance culture. Back of house areas for the Grand Theater and the Playhouse are located to the north across Bailing High School and with direct and easy access to all stages. Each theater has a separate backstage access from Cheng De Road and Ji Ho Road. Both theaters share the loading dock while individual scenery assembly spaces and large orchestra rehearsal are located with direct adjacency to the stage. The majority of the rehearsal and dressing rooms are in close proximity of the stage to allow for easy and convenient access. The administration offices, conference rooms and the library are located directly above the back stage and are overlooking Bailing High School. The back of house for the Multiform Theater is located on level 5&6 on the south side and adjacent and below the Theater. The back of house area is connected to the underground loading dock with a large freight elevator. The Multiform Theater has a separate back stage access from the Grand Plaza. Access and Parking- The main pedestrian access for all three theaters is through the Grand Foyer accessible from either Wen Lin Road or Cheng De road. In order to handle the increased volume of pedestrian traffic from the train station to the grand theater we are proposing a new under path crossing Wen Lin Road. All visitor, VIP and staff parking for the project are underground with access from Cheng De Road. The drop off zones for taxi and busses are located adjacent to the Grand Plaza . There are two separate loading docks. One loading dock to the north adjacent to Bailing Senior High School, with access from Cheng De road. This loading dock allows for unloading on stage level for both of these theaters. The second loading dock is underground with access from Cheng De Road. It services the Multiform Theater with a large freight elevator as well as the shops and restaurants above.
  • 12. Cover Story Cover Story Maintaining relationship with the eco-system US Census Bureau Headquarters, Suitland, Maryland designed a very large corporate campus with minimal impact exploring an architectural expression that celebrates and heightens its relationship to the landscape. T he US Census Bureau Headquarters, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, has achieved LEED Gold Certification from the US Green Building Council. The 1.5 million-sq ft building’s perceived and actual impact on the site is reduced by limiting the office program to eight stories and integrating the architecture into the landscape. Carved FSC-certified white oak covers the outward-facing sides of the building, which forms a brise-soleil that reduces solar heat gain and creates dappled patterns of shade and warm light inside the office. Underneath the ‘wood veil,’ green tinted precast spandrels match the cast of the landscape and are fully glazed to maximize daylight. Located in the Suitland Federal Center near downtown Washington DC, the building received maximum points in the Innovation in Design category and high points in the Sustainable Sites category. Gary Haney, AIA, SOM’s Design Partner for the Census Bureau project said,“All credit should be given to the GSA and Census Bureau for allowing to pursue a design that is not only innovative but points toward a future direction in which architecture can be truly useful in building sustainable cultures and economies. The structure: The design blurs the distinction between the building and landscape by camouflaging the structure and its scales. Two separate buildings grow from 060 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine one single mass, cleaved apart to create a central garden that integrates the building with its landscape, while maintaining one cohesive vision. Large windows protrude from or are recessed into the building, creating office lounges, conference rooms, and informal meeting areas. The adjacent parking garages are sheathed in a green, wire armature for ivy. This ivy veil comprises a ‘skin’ of leaves that filter light, increase oxygen content within the garages, and allow for natural ventilation. The designers incorporated water reclamation, recycled building materials, minimal energy consumption and natural day lighting into the building. The building’s shape, massing, and cladding create a new language for sustainable architecture.The Census Bureau complex is a study in how to design a very large corporate campus with minimal impact to its site through sustainable design, while exploring an architectural expression that celebrates and heightens its relationship to the landscape.GSA building receives maximum points for Innovation in Design category. The US Census Bureau Headquarters, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, has achieved LEED Gold Certification from the US Green Building Council. Located in the Suitland Federal Center near downtown World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders The building’s shape, massing, and cladding create a new language for sustainable architecture. About Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is one of the leading architecture, interior design, engineering, and urban-planning firms in the world, with a 75-year reputation for design excellence and a portfolio that includes some of the most important architectural accomplishments of the Washington DC, the building received maximum points in the Innovation in Design category and high points in the Sustainable Sites category. Gary Haney, AIA, SOM’s Design Partner for the Census Bureau project said, “All credit should be given to the GSA and Census Bureau for allowing us to pursue a design that is not only innovative but points towards a future direction in which architecture can be truly useful in building sustainable cultures and economies. The 1.5 mn-sq ft building’s perceived and actual impact on the site is reduced by limiting the office program to eight stories and integrating the architecture into the landscape. Carved FSC-certified white oak covers the outward-facing sides of the building, which forms a brise-soleil that reduces solar heat gain and creates dappled patterns of shade and warm light inside the office. Underneath the ‘wood veil,’ green tinted precast spandrels match the cast of the landscape and are fully glazed to maximize day light. The design blurs the distinction between the building and landscape by camouflaging the structure and its scales. Two separate buildings grow from one single mass, cleaved apart to create a central garden that integrates the building with its landscape, while maintaining one cohesive vision. Large windows protrude from or are recessed into the building, creating office lounges, conference rooms, and informal meeting areas. The adjacent parking garages are sheathed in a green, wire armature for ivy. This ivy veil comprises a ‘skin’ of leaves that filter light, increase oxygen content within the garages, and allow for natural ventilation. SOM The designers incorporated water reclamation, recycled building materials, minimal energy consumption and natural day lighting into the building. Project Facts Project: The US Census Bureau Headquarters Location: Suitland, Maryland, New York Architectural Firm: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) Completion Year: 2007Site Area: 30 acresProject Area: 1,508,013 ft2Building Height: 39 mNumber of Stories: 8 064 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine 20th and 21st centuries. Since its inception, SOM has been a leader in the research and development of specialized technologies, new processes and innovative ideas, many of which have had a palpable and lasting impact on the design profession and the physical environment. The firm’s longstanding leadership in design and building technology has been honored with more than 1,400 awards for quality, innovation, and management. The American Institute of Architects has recognized SOM twice with its highest honor, the Architecture Firm Award—in 1962 and again in 1996. The firm maintains offices in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., London, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Brussels, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.
  • 13. Cover Story Cover Story World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders A global marvel Ferrari World Abu Dhabi is the new development, housing the world’s largest indoor theme park, marks a very special place in the globally marvelous projects. The scheme is a celebration of an established design icon and the creation of a new architectural landmark. A thrilling brand experience, a multi-sensory celebration of a true design iconFerrari World Abu Dhabi is the latest architectural interpretation of classic Ferrari body shell and is a built expression of the passion and excitement of one of the world’s most emotive brands. The iconic landmark leisure destination reflects both the integrity of the Ferrari brand and the ambitions of Abu Dhabi Benoy designed Yas Island mega-scheme in Abu Dhabi, sits the world’s first Ferrari Theme Park – a thrilling brand experience like no other, a multi-sensory celebration of a design icon. The vision was to create a form that would be unmistakeably Ferrari, an expression of the passion and excitement of one of the world’s most emotive brands. Structurally speaking Externally the Ferrari World Abu Dhabi building expresses the language and values of the Ferrari brand itself. 066 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Benoy’s vision - to create a building that reflects Ferrari’s sinuous form, is directly inspired by the classic double curve side profile of the Ferrari GT chassis. The double curve was proportionately applied in elevation to set the structure’s length and height. This proportion gave rise to the dynamic scale of the building at 700 m from tip to tip of the tri-forms. The metal skin roof is highly insulated and the main façades utilise highly efficient glass to reduce thermal loads and glare. The roof houses no Ferrari World Abu Dhabi plant or equipment and provides the back drop to a huge Ferrari logo that will welcome all passengers flying into Abu Dhabi International Airport. Internally, a collection of over 20 high octane attractions provide excitement for the whole family. The focal attraction will be the 60 m high ‘G-Force Tower’ – one of the most intense ‘freefall’ experiences in the world. Several roller coasters continue the adrenalin raising theme, including the world’s fastest, reaching speeds in excess of 200kph. Architecturally… Ferrari World Abu Dhabi’s location, scale and purpose combine to present enormous architectural challenges. The building, that occupies a total area of 176,000m2, was conceived as a simple ‘ground hugging’ structure, a red sand dune. A three pointed star in plan, with extensive tri-form claws to embrace outdoor attractions, the silhouette was derived from the sinuous double curve of the classic Ferrari body shell. On the distinctive red, metal skin roof – and immediately visible to all those flying in to Abu Dhabi – sits the largest Ferrari logo in the world. This feature clearly demonstrates Benoy’s confidence in creating designer destinations and the company’s genuine understanding of the impact of fusing brand appeal with functional considerations. Key Facts • The 86,000 sqm enclosed area of Ferrari World Abu Dhabi can fit 7 football fields in'head to toe'. • The total roof area of 200,000 sqm uses enough aluminum to cover 16,750 Ferraris, or if you laid the roof flat you could place 20,100 Ferrari's side by side and end to end. • If Ferrari World Abu Dhabi was turned upright, it would be the tallest man made structure in the world at over 300 floors! • The Ferrari logo on the roof, the largest ever created, measures an incredible 65m in length and covers an area of 3,000 sqm which could fit at least 7 basketball courts. • The volume of concrete in Hoover Dam could fit inside Ferrari World Abu Dhabi. • 100,000 cubic meters of concrete were used to pour the slabs of Ferrari World Abu Dhabi, which is 10,000 cubic meters more than what was used for Wembley Stadium in London. • Ferrari World Abu Dhabi has the largest space frame structure ever built with a total of approximately 172,000 members and 43,100 nodes. • Ferrari World Abu Dhabi needed 12,370 tons of steel to create its structure; the Eiffel Tower only needed 7,000 tons. • The gross footprint area of the plaza level is equivalent to approximately 15 American Football fields. • The Empire State Building could be rebuilt in the same time it took to clad the 200,000 sqm of roof for Ferrari World Abu Dhabi; approximately 14 months. • Formula Rossa, the world's fastest roller coaster, has the same G force one would feel driving in an F1 car and braking at maximum speed. • Bell'Italia displays more than 40,000 hand-planted miniature trees. • Ferrari World Abu Dhabi includes 1,200 dining seats – enough to feed the entire park at full capacity in 3 hours. • Ferrari World Abu Dhabi will have for the first time under one roof Four Michelin star experienced Italian chefs. • There is a total of 663 jelly palms surrounding the two coasters. Each palm produces 4 pounds of fruit. • A football field needs 8,400 sqm of grass coverage; to cover the area around the roller coasters at Ferrari World Abu Dhabi, 4.5 times that amount was used approximately 39,000 sqm of ground cover. 068 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine
  • 14. Cover Story Cover Story A 'Zenith' of a structure Zenith Concert Hall in Limoges, France designed by Bernard Tschumi Architects, has something of the dynamic wrapping form created by the architect in the steel-and-concrete Rouen building. Z enith first facility of this type was designed by the French architects Chaix & Morel in the Parc de la Villette in Paris (1984), where Bernard Tschumi, AIA, designed the park's grounds and his signature red 'follies' (1983-98). Occupying a forested site just outside the city center, the Zénith has something of the dynamic wrapping form created by the architect in the steel-and-concrete Rouen building. The construction, environment and acoustics: The entrance hall is concentric in shape.The auditorium is situated in the heart of the forest and is clad entirely in wood, creating a landmark whose materials reflect its immediate surroundings. Its measurements and geometry are designed to ensure maximum comfort for both spectators and performers. In addition, wood would introduce certain warmth into the building, which includes a flexible hall intended to accommodate between 600 and 8,000 spectators. Two light building envelopes stand between the entrance to the Zenith and the forest surrounding it. Once in the atrium, visitors are able to feel the trees' presence through the translucent skin of the outer façade. Approaching the concert hall, the first thing visitors see before entering the darker, more intimate interior is the double envelope of the building, whose design alludes to the nearby forest opening. The double skin assembly is supported by a light, wooden frame structure, providing acoustic and thermal insulation for the concert hall. Inside the performance space, wood has been used on the walls and ceiling due to its warm acoustic properties. The reception hall is light and airy, in sharp contrast to the dark halls bathed in artificial light. The wood allows for excellent acoustics and adds a feeling of warmth. Together, the rows of seats, the partitions and the ceiling create a dynamic but welcoming atmosphere.Michel Desvignes, Tschumi used a layered gravel-and-earth system based on volcanic stone from the nearby Puy-de-Dôme region, which assures the necessary stability for parking while allowing grass to grow. For maximum technical reliability The intention with this project was to create a powerful regional emblem that would enjoy a local, national and international reputation and encourage the cultural and economic development of the city. Inside the entrance hall, a multiple wooden arch structure stabilises the high points of the curved facade.To ensure that the values for the load paths are accurate, the metallic external structure supported by the pillars has been designed using a 3D computerised model and an evaluation mock-up model. Computerised models were also crucial in establishing the geometry of both beams. The curvature of the beams creates a 'hull' effect that is visually very striking. 070 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine Name of project: Concert Hall in Limoges Location: City of Limoges, France Gross square footage: 110,000 sq. ft. Site area: 15 acres Total construction cost: $30.6 million Total Budget: 36.6 million USD Owner: City of Limoges, France Architect: Bernard Tschumi Architects, Site Architect: ArchitectAtelier Photo courtesy: Christian Richters Acoustics: Cial Landscape Architect: Michel Desvigne avec Sol Paysage Facade Advisor: Hugh Dutton Associates Financial Consultant: Bureau Michel Forgue Lot's builded SHON Surfaces: 2.1 acres, '8500 m2' Building Dimensions: 300 ft, "90 m diameter" Height: 72 ft, '22 m' Parking: 1500-vehicles-capacity parking surface 10 acres or 4ha Frame weight: 606 tonnes, "550 tonnes" Concrete: 14,400 sq ft, "4400 m3 Roof: 88 tonnes, "80 tonnes Polycarbonate envelope: 10,500 sq. ft. '3200 m2 Earth-stone Paving Material: 65,600 sq. ft. '20 000 m3 Structure: Concrete wall, metal, and wood frame Translucent envelope: Alveolar polycarbonate Inner envelope: Acoustic wood trestle Wooded seats: 4,500 seats made in 4 different stains Type of Wood: Douglas pine Floors: Concrete and self-glossed paving Stage Equipment: Catwalk and lift bridge built in the metal frame roof truss (diameter: 80 meters) External ground: Earth-stone mixed for grass and natural vegetation World Architectural Wonders World Architectural Wonders TAIPEI PERFORMING ARTS CENTER Taipei, Taiwan The strength in expressions Wei-Wu-Ying Metropolitan Park in Taiwan, a name that will soon be symbolized as a logistically planned modern cultural city with its advanced theatre designs and facility techniques.. T he Wei-Wu-Ying Metropolitan Park, the site of a former military complex, is the location for the new Wei-Wu-Ying Center for the Arts of Taiwan. The complex features a concert hall, an opera house, a theatre, a recital hall and a large outdoor seating area. Hosting a total of 6,000 seats and the most technologically advanced theatre facilities, the new cultural complex will draw world class performing artists and theatre companies. The surrounding 65 hectare park is an integral part of the design brief. Banyan trees: An important source of inspiration for Mecanoo’s building design were the existing centuries-old banyan trees on location. The banyan tree is one of the world’s largest trees. Mecanoo’s building complex is 225 m wide and 160 m deep. Because of the openings in the roof, the passageways and open spaces, an almost porous building is created in which interior and exterior blur. The partially grass and plant covered roof creates natural and efficient building cooling in the subtropical climate. The large roof also provides an informal public space where the city residents can stroll, practice Tai Chi, mediate or just relax. Inspired by ancient Greek theatre, outdoor seating space was 072 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine designed on the roof complex at the point where the roof dips to the ground. The surrounding park in turn becomes an informal stage. The park design is a logical continuation of the theater complex with its public open spaces and roofscape. Building and landscape merge naturally, forming a unified whole. Programme: Theatre complex of 141,000 m2 in the Wei-Wu-Ying Metropolitan Park with a total capacity of 6,000 seats: Concert Hall 2,000 seats, Opera House 2,250 seats, Playhouse 1,250 seats, Recital Hall 500 seats, public library of 800 m2, 1,000 m2 of rehearsal/education halls for music and dance, 2 conference halls with 100 and 200 seats and stage building workshops. Project details Design: 2007-2009 Execution: 2010-2013 Location: Taiwan Client: Preparatory Office of The Wei-Wu-Ying Center for the Arts of the Council for Cultural Affairs, Taiwan Architect: Mecanoo architecten, Delft, The Netherlands Local architect: Archasia Design Group, Taipei, Taiwan Structural engineer: Supertech, Taipei, Taiwan Mechanical engineer: Yuan Tai, Taipei, Taiwan Electrical engineer: Heng Kai, Taipei, Taiwan Acoustic consultant: Xu Acoustique, Paris, France Theatre consultant: Theateradvies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Yi Tai, Taipei, Taiwan Lighting consultant: CWI lighting, Taipei, Taiwan Organ consultant: Oliver Latry, Paris, France Roof and facade consultant: CDC, Taipei, Taiwan 3D advisor: Lead Dao, Taipei, Taiwan Awards: Chicago Athenaeum International Architecture Award, International Design Award 2009, Cityscape Architectural Award 2008
  • 15. Crushing and Screening Equipments Crushing and Screening Equipments SPECIAL FEATURE: Crushing and Screening Equipments Crushing and Screening Equipments SPECIAL FEATURE: the ground limit etc. He further states, “We are focused on that and tried to advise the construction companies how to make and design crushing system and what is the next. From 1998-2000 we had an opportunity to get more into technical details or technology of the crushers. With the encouragement from the construction and the infrastructure industry we first made vertical shaft impact crusher which was very essential for road construction to shape the material and bring to a specification at the most. This how we started from one equipment to the other, then the plants and more. From 2002 to 2007 tremendous demand was seen where we have supplied more than 300 plants all over India. Elborating on the hardships faced Mr Rao says, “The journey is not a white coloured job. You have to stand in the field; you have to understand Widening market horizon year after year Be firm, fair and honest.Remain customer focused and thrive to enhance customer satisfaction at all times is the mantra followed by the team NAWAEngineers. GN Rao, Managing Director, NAWAEngineers in his insightful interview with Remona Divekar on the company and this advancing industry. W ith a vision to engineer the future, NAWAEngineers has designed and supplied crushing equipment that offers a complete crushingscreening-conveying programme backed by uncompromising quality and expert service. GN Rao, MD, NAWAEngineers speaking on the company’s success explains, “From the time we began started in 1998 as a consulting engineering company we over the years now have developed world-class plants and equipment indigenously, surpassing customer expectations. With the background we have in this type of industry that is of crushing and screening at point of timew was neglected and was always looked down as a road side industry. Our commitment to customers and their faith in our expertise has motivated us to develop high product configurations with rock solid reliability.” The change began from: The road construction industry has brought in very stringent specifications what is aggregate specification, sizes, what is 078 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine what is happening, touch the material, and climb up, you have to see how the rationales are working, these things form the core elements of the job. But graduating steadily we made a mark amidst multinational companies like Metso, Sandvik and more so the feather in the cap came by receiving recognition by construction major like Jaiprakesh Associates who are our regular customers. Difficulties in setting up a crushing plant, setting the capacity or determining the capacity: Crushing means for example take granite since it is most difficult for a machine to crush a hard stone. There is a tremendous amount of physics and geometry involved in a crusher. When crushers or crushing equipments are made technology plays an important role. For example when you want to crush a hard stone like granite and quartzes that is where machines function you need to have the experience of the material; you need to have the experience of the mechanism, you need to have the successful efforts from the capital goods manufacturers. The economy has to bring in the stability in the prices. For individuals it is beyond certain limit. I cannot cut corners to make a bad product because the steel prices have gone up. So this is problem capital goods manufacturers’ face. New innovation in technology and trends Market requirement is the high capacity plants. We started with 100 -300 tonnes per hour. Earlier the road packages were Rs 100 crores to Rs 200 crore. Now it is Rs 1,000 crore to Rs 2,000 crore because the stages are increased and these are all BOT project and then you need to build them quickly because your revenue will come. These are for road. Everyone is looking at faster completion of projects. You need to squeeze the time; you need experience of the machinery to make the crushing successfully happen and this very much a neglected area. Quarry duty is always a toughest thing so eventually setting up a crushing plant is always difficult thing. It is also equally difficult to select a crusher and crushing system and design it. Demand drivers for newer technologies: Road construction and dam construction are highly mechanised. We have a lot of road making machinery and other things. We have concrete and batch mixing plants, we have so many other asphalt mixing plants and so many other rests are part of system. As far as the crushing industry is concerned the crushing manufacturers they have to set up their own plants which is basic raw material for all the infrastructure projects. Any construction project the basic raw material is the crusher stone or crusher sand. So these are the areas we have mostly focused and seen that machines is equipped to perform various applications and situations, various rock and that is what we have done over a period of time. Cope up with the changing clients’ preferences, fluctuating markets, and the increasing raw material rates: It is one of the problems in India. The problem is the raw material keep changing, unlike countries like China and Japan. We have a high inflationary rate in India so the inflationary rates are the product of so many factors. As a machine manufactures we have to keep a check on the steal cost, casting, forging, and these materials I would say are not in our hand. To control the cost we get back to the material management, we see, we keep our stocks less and we purchase at the right movement, we purchase in bulk and keep a stock and fine culmination of all these points but we don’t see any 080 » January – February 2011 » Construction And Architecture Magazine the raw material rates at a higher capacity. Higher capacity plants are the order of the day. For that we have several steps and we already taken the technology from the US and we have purchased the highest capacity crushers at the latest technology. Whatever we could design in-house and according to the time schedule we have designed the big jaw, cone crushers, and bigger vibrators. From 300-400 tonnes per hour we are geared to make up to 600 tonnes per hour.